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2008 2017
Created Date: 2015-03-19
Contributors: da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes, Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby, Karaoz, Ulas, et al.
Description: Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are organosedimentary assemblages comprised of microbes and minerals in topsoil of terrestrial environments. BSCs strongly impact soil quality in dryland ecosystems (e.g., soil structure and nutrient yields) due to pioneer species such as Microcoleus vaginatus; phototrophs that produce filaments that bind the soil together, and support an array of heterotrophic microorganisms. These microorganisms in turn contribute to soil stability and biogeochemistry of BSCs. Non-cyanobacterial populations of BSCs are less well known than cyanobacterial populations. Therefore, we attempted to isolate a broad range of numerically significant and phylogenetically representative BSC aerobic heterotrophs. Combining simple pre-treatments (hydration of ...

Created Date: 2014-09-29
Contributors: Wolter, Justin, Kotagama, Kasuen, Pierre-Bez, Alexandra C., et al.
Description: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene output at the post-transcriptional level by targeting degenerate elements primarily in 3′untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of mRNAs. Individual miRNAs can regulate networks of hundreds of genes, yet for the majority of miRNAs few, if any, targets are known. Misexpression of miRNAs is also a major contributor to cancer progression, thus there is a critical need to validate miRNA targets in high-throughput to understand miRNAs' contribution to tumorigenesis. Here we introduce a novel high-throughput assay to detect miRNA targets in 3′UTRs, called Luminescent Identification of Functional Elements in 3′UTRs (3′LIFE). We demonstrate the ...

Created Date: 2013-08-15
Contributors: Kryuchkov, Sergey, Suslov, Sergei, Vega-Guzman, Jose, et al.
Description: We describe a multi-parameter family of the minimum-uncertainty squeezed states for the harmonic oscillator in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. They are derived by the action of the corresponding maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard ground state solution. We show that the product of the variances attains the required minimum value 1/4 only at the instances that one variance is a minimum and the other is a maximum, when the squeezing of one of the variances occurs. The generalized coherent states are explicitly constructed and their Wigner function is studied. The overlap coefficients between the squeezed, or generalized harmonic, and the ...

Created Date: 2013-10-28
Contributors: Beggs, Donald, Arizona State University. Barrett, the Honors College
Description: The conscientious are morally conflicted when their moral dilemmas or incommensurabilities, real or apparent, have not been resolved. But such doublemindedness need not lead to ethical disintegration or moral insensitivity. For one may develop the moral virtue of doublemindedness, the settled power to deliberate and act well while morally conflicted. Such action will be accompanied by both moral loss (perhaps 'dirty hands') and ethical gain (salubrious agental stability). In explaining the virtue's moral psychology I show, among other things, its consistency with wholeheartedness and the unity of the virtues. To broaden its claim to recognition, I show the virtue's consistency ...

Created Date: 2013
Contributors: Lim, Merlyna, Arizona State University. Consortium for Science, Policy & Outcomes
Description: In July 2012, the Indonesian Minister of Communication and Information, Tifatul Sembiring, declared that the government had shut down one million websites in view of the Islamic holy month of Ramadhan. This was in addition to another one million sites the ministry claimed to have blocked back in February 2012. Minister Sembiring, a politician from the Islamic-based Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (Prosperous Justice Party, PKS), said that his staff would continue blocking access to online pornography beyond the holy month.

Created Date: 2013-09-18
Contributors: Prates, Ivan, Angilletta, Michael, Wilson, Robbie S., et al.
Description: The locomotor capacity of amphibians depends strongly on temperature and hydration. Understanding the potential interactions between these variables remains an important challenge because temperature and water availability covary strongly in natural environments. We explored the effects of temperature and hydration on the hopping speeds of Rhinella granulosa, a small toad from the semiarid Caatinga and the Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil. We asked whether thermal and hydric states interact to determine performance and whether toads from the Caatinga differ from their conspecifics from the Atlantic Forest. Both dehydration and cooling impaired hopping speed, but effects were independent of one another. ...

Created Date: 2013-08-30
Contributors: Bowens, Sean, Glatt, Daniel P., Pratt, Stephen, et al.
Description: Many ants rely on both visual cues and self-generated chemical signals for navigation, but their relative importance varies across species and context. We evaluated the roles of both modalities during colony emigration by Temnothorax rugatulus. Colonies were induced to move from an old nest in the center of an arena to a new nest at the arena edge. In the midst of the emigration the arena floor was rotated 60 degrees around the old nest entrance, thus displacing any substrate-bound odor cues while leaving visual cues unchanged. This manipulation had no effect on orientation, suggesting little influence of substrate cues ...

Created Date: 2015-08-01
Contributors: Smith, Heather, von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen, Arizona State University. School of Human Evolution and Social Change
Description: The reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in the primate fossil record is dependent upon a thorough understanding of the phylogenetic utility of craniodental characters. Here, we test three previously proposed hypotheses for the propensity of primate craniomandibular data to exhibit homoplasy, using a study design based on the relative congruence between cranial distance matrices and a consensus genetic distance matrix (“genetic congruence”) for papionin taxa: 1) matrices based on cranial regions subjected to less masticatory strain are more genetically congruent than high-strain cranial matrices; 2) matrices based on cranial regions developing earlier in ontogeny are more genetically congruent than matrices based ...

Created Date: 2013-09-09
Contributors: Shi, Jie, Thompson, Paul M., Gutman, Boris, et al.
Description: In this paper, we develop a new automated surface registration system based on surface conformal parameterization by holomorphic 1-forms, inverse consistent surface fluid registration, and multivariate tensor-based morphometty (mTBM). First, we conformally map a surface onto a planar rectangle space with holomorphic 1-forms. Second, we compute surface conformal representation by combining its local conformal factor and mean curvature and linearly scale the dynamic range of the conformal representation to form the feature image of the surface. Third, we align the feature image with a chosen template image via the fluid image registration algorithm, which has been extended into the curvilinear ...

Created Date: 2013-05-04
Contributors: Moeller, Karla, Butler, Michael, DeNardo, Dale, et al.
Description: Introduction: Immune function is a vital physiological process that is often suppressed during times of resource scarcity due to investments in other physiological systems. While energy is the typical currency that has been examined in such trade-offs, limitations of other resources may similarly lead to trade-offs that affect immune function. Specifically, water is a critical resource with profound implications for organismal ecology, yet its availability can fluctuate at local, regional, and even global levels. Despite this, the effect of osmotic state on immune function has received little attention. Results: Using agglutination and lysis assays as measures of an organism's plasma ...