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Date Range
2009 2016

A key factor in the effectiveness of the seasonal influenza vaccine is its immunological compatibility with the circulating viruses during the season. Here we propose a new bioinformatics approach for analysis of influenza viruses which could be used as an efficient tool for selection of vaccine viruses, assessment of the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines, and prediction of the epidemic/pandemic potential of novel influenza viruses.

Contributors
Veljkovic, Veljko, Paessler, Slobodan, Glisic, Sanja, et al.
Created Date
2015-12-22

We designed and evaluated an active sampling device, using as analytical targets a family of pesticides purported to contribute to honeybee colony collapse disorder. Simultaneous sampling of bulk water and pore water was accomplished using a low-flow, multi-channel pump to deliver water to an array of solid-phase extraction cartridges. Analytes were separated using either liquid or gas chromatography, and analysis was performed using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Achieved recoveries of fipronil and degradates in water spiked to nominal concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 10 ng/L ranged from 77 ± 12 to 110 ± 18%. Method detection limits (MDLs) were as ...

Contributors
Supowit, Samuel, Roll, Isaac, Dang, Viet D., et al.
Created Date
2016-02-24

Background Androgens bind to the androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cells and are essential survival factors for healthy prostate epithelium. Most untreated prostate cancers retain some dependence upon the AR and respond, at least transiently, to androgen ablation therapy. However, the relationship between endogenous androgen levels and cancer etiology is unclear. High levels of androgens have traditionally been viewed as driving abnormal proliferation leading to cancer, but it has also been suggested that low levels of androgen could induce selective pressure for abnormal cells. We formulate a mathematical model of androgen regulated prostate growth to study the effects of abnormal ...

Contributors
Eikenberry, Steffen, Nagy, John D., Kuang, Yang, et al.
Created Date
2010-04-20

Traditionally, hazardous chemicals have been regulated in the U.S. on a one-by-one basis, an approach that is slow, expensive and can be inefficient, as illustrated by a decades-long succession of replacing one type of organohalogen flame retardants (OHFRs) with another one, without addressing the root cause of toxicity and associated public health threats posed. The present article expounds on the need for efficient monitoring strategies and pragmatic steps in reducing environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts. A promising approach is to combine specific bioassays with state-of-the-art chemical screening to identify chemicals and chemical mixtures sharing specific modes of action ...

Contributors
Venkatesan, Arjunkrishna, Halden, Rolf, Arizona State University. Biodesign Institute. Center for Environmental Security, et al.
Created Date
2015-08-28

The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m(2)) of 41 +/- 6.1 kg/m(2)/y had water and energy demands of 20 +/- 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 +/- 11,000 kJ/kg/y (+/- standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 +/- 0.21 kg/m(2)/y of produce, with water and energy demands ...

Contributors
Barbosa, Guilherme Lages, Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida, Kublik, Natalya, et al.
Created Date
2015-06-01

Urbanization continues to be a transformative process globally, affecting ecosystem integrity and the health and well being of people around the world. Although cities tend to be centers for both the production and consumption of goods and services that degrade natural environments, there is also evidence that urban ecosystems can play a positive role in sustainability efforts. Despite the fact that most of the urbanization is now occurring in the developing countries of the Global South, much of what we know about urban ecosystems has been developed from studying cities in the United States and across Europe. We propose a ...

Contributors
McHale, Melissa R., Pickett, Steward T. A., Barbosa, Olga, et al.
Created Date
2015-05-01

Widespread contamination of groundwater by chlorinated ethenes and their biological dechlorination products necessitates the reliable monitoring of liquid matrices; current methods approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require a minimum of 5 mL of sample volume and cannot simultaneously detect all transformative products. This paper reports on the simultaneous detection of six chlorinated ethenes and ethene itself, using a liquid sample volume of 1 mL by concentrating the compounds onto an 85-µm carboxen-polydimenthylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction fiber in 5 min and subsequent chromatographic analysis in 9.15 min. Linear increases in signal response were obtained over three orders of magnitude ...

Contributors
Ziv-El, Michal, Kalinowski, Tomasz, Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa, et al.
Created Date
2014-02-01

Background: Methylmercury (MeHg) may affect fetal growth; however, prior research often lacked assessment of mercury speciation, confounders, and interactions. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationship between MeHg and fetal growth as well as the potential for confounding or interaction of this relationship from speciated mercury, fatty acids, selenium, and sex. Methods: This cross-sectional study includes 271 singletons born in Baltimore, Maryland, 2004–2005. Umbilical cord blood was analyzed for speciated mercury, serum omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs), and selenium. Multivariable linear regression models controlled for gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, parity, prepregnancy body mass index, smoking, ...

Contributors
Wells, Ellen M., Herbstman, Julie B., Lin, Yu Hong, et al.
Created Date
2016-06-26

Despite increasing interest in the effects of triclosan and triclocarban on human biology, current knowledge is still limited on the impact of these additives to antimicrobial personal care products on the human microbiome. A carefully designed recent study published in mSphere by Poole and colleagues [A. C. Poole et al., mSphere 1(3):e00056-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00056-15] highlights both the power of novel methodologies for microbiome elucidation and the longstanding challenge of employing small-cohort studies to inform risk assessment for chemicals of ubiquitous use in modern society.

Contributors
Halden, Rolf, Arizona State University. Biodesign Institute. Center for Environmental Security, Arizona State University. School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, et al.
Created Date
2016-05-18

Background Doxorubicin is a common anticancer agent used in the treatment of a number of neoplasms, with the lifetime dose limited due to the potential for cardiotoxocity. This has motivated efforts to develop optimal dosage regimes that maximize anti-tumor activity while minimizing cardiac toxicity, which is correlated with peak plasma concentration. Doxorubicin is characterized by poor penetration from tumoral vessels into the tumor mass, due to the highly irregular tumor vasculature. I model the delivery of a soluble drug from the vasculature to a solid tumor using a tumor cord model and examine the penetration of doxorubicin under different dosage ...

Contributors
Eikenberry, Steffen, Arizona State University. School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University. Global Security Initiative
Created Date
2009-08-09