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Date Range
2013 2017

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate the flow and delivery of oxygen and other substances in a capillary network. A three-dimensional capillary network has been constructed to replicate the one studied by Secomb et al. (2000), and the computational framework features a non-Newtonian viscosity model of blood and the oxygen transport model including in-stream oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation and wall flux due to tissue absorption, as well as an ability to study delivery of drugs and other materials in the capillary streams. The model is first run to compute the volumetric flow rates from the velocity profiles in ...

Contributors
Lee, T.-W., Bae, K.-S., Choi, Heung S., et al.
Created Date
2014-04-15

We determined muscle attachment points for the index, middle, ring and little fingers in an OpenSim upper-extremity model. Attachment points were selected to match both experimentally measured locations and mechanical function (moment arms). Although experimental measurements of finger muscle attachments have been made, models differ from specimens in many respects such as bone segment ratio, joint kinematics and coordinate system. Likewise, moment arms are not available for all intrinsic finger muscles. Therefore, it was necessary to scale and translate muscle attachments from one experimental or model environment to another while preserving mechanical function. We used a two-step process. First, we ...

Contributors
Lee, Jong Hwa, Asakawa, Deanna S., Dennerlein, Jack T., et al.
Created Date
2015-04-08

Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation “phantom limb pain” and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF), rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech “rubber hand” illusion, in ...

Contributors
Hellman, Randall, Chang, Eric, Tanner, Justin, et al.
Created Date
2015-02-19

The focus of this investigation is on a first assessment of the predictive capabilities of nonlinear geometric reduced order models for the prediction of the large displacement and stress fields of panels with localized geometric defects, the case of a notch serving to exemplify the analysis. It is first demonstrated that the reduced order model of the notched panel does indeed provide a close match of the displacement and stress fields obtained from full finite element analyses for moderately large static and dynamic responses (peak displacement of 2 and 4 thicknesses). As might be expected, the reduced order model of ...

Contributors
Perez, Ricardo, Wang, X. Q., Mignolet, Marc, et al.
Created Date
2014-12-02

We used a novel diffraction-based method to extract the local, atomic-level elastic strain in nanoscale amorphous TiAl films during in situ transmission electron microscopy deformation, while simultaneously measuring the macroscopic strain. The complementary strain measurements revealed significant anelastic deformation, which was independently confirmed by strain rate experiments. Furthermore, the distribution of first nearest-neighbor distances became narrower during loading and permanent changes were observed in the atomic structure upon unloading, even in the absence of macroscopic plasticity. The results demonstrate the capability of in situ electron diffraction to probe structural rearrangements and decouple elastic and anelastic deformation in metallic glasses.

Contributors
Sarkar, Rohit, Ebner, Christian, Izadi, Ehsan, et al.
Created Date
2016-09-22

In previous work from this laboratory, it has been found that the urban heat island intensity (UHI) can be scaled with the urban length scale and the wind speed, through the time-dependent energy balance. The heating of the urban surfaces during the daytime sets the initial temperature, and this overheating is dissipated during the night-time through mean convection motion over the urban surface. This may appear to be in contrast to the classical work by Oke (1973). However, in this work, we show that if the population density is used in converting the population data into urbanized area, then a ...

Contributors
Lee, T. -W., Choi, Heung S., Lee, Jinoh, et al.
Created Date
2013-11-30

Background Robotic devices have been utilized in gait rehabilitation but have only produced moderate results when compared to conventional physiotherapy. Because bipedal walking requires neural coupling and dynamic interactions between the legs, a fundamental understanding of the sensorimotor mechanisms of inter-leg coordination during walking, which are not well understood but are systematically explored in this study, is needed to inform robotic interventions in gait therapy. Methods In this study we investigate mechanisms of inter-leg coordination by utilizing novel sensory perturbations created by real-time control of floor stiffness on a split-belt treadmill. We systematically alter the unilateral magnitude of the walking ...

Contributors
Skidmore, Jeffrey, Artemiadis, Panagiotis, Arizona State University. School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy. Department of Mechanical Engineering, et al.
Created Date
2016-03-22

One of the hottest topics in rehabilitation robotics is that of proper control of prosthetic devices. Despite decades of research, the state of the art is dramatically behind the expectations. To shed light on this issue, in June, 2013 the first international workshop on Present and future of non-invasive peripheral nervous system (PNS)–Machine Interfaces (MI; PMI) was convened, hosted by the International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics. The keyword PMI has been selected to denote human–machine interfaces targeted at the limb-deficient, mainly upper-limb amputees, dealing with signals gathered from the PNS in a non-invasive way, that is, from the surface of ...

Contributors
Castellini, Claudio, Artemiadis, Panagiotis, Wininger, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2014-08-15

This paper addresses the stochastic modeling of the stiffness matrix of slender uncertain curved beams that are forced fit into a clamped–clamped fixture designed for straight beams. Because of the misfit with the clamps, the final shape of the clamped–clamped beams is not straight and they are subjected to an axial preload. Both of these features are uncertain given the uncertainty on the initial, undeformed shape of the beams and affect significantly the stiffness matrix associated with small motions around the clamped–clamped configuration. A modal model using linear modes of the straight clamped–clamped beam with a randomized stiffness matrix is ...

Contributors
Avalos, Javier, Richter, Lanae A., Wang, X. Q., et al.
Created Date
2015-01-06

The addition of tactile and proprioceptive feedback to neuroprosthetic limbs is expected to significantly improve the control of these devices. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of somatosensory cortex is a promising method of delivering this sensory feedback. To date, the main focus of somatosensory ICMS studies has been to deliver discriminable signals, corresponding to varying intensity, to a single location in cortex. However, multiple independent and simultaneous streams of sensory information will need to be encoded by ICMS to provide functionally relevant feedback for a neuroprosthetic limb (e.g., encoding contact events and pressure on multiple digits). In this study, we evaluated the ...

Contributors
Overstreet, Cynthia, Hellman, Randall, Ponce Wong, Ruben, et al.
Created Date
2016-12-02