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Date Range
2011 2017

Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who ...

Contributors
Della Santina, Cosimo, Bianchi, Matteo, Averta, Giuseppe, et al.
Created Date
2017-08-29

Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a compression neuropathy of the median nerve that results in sensorimotor deficits in the hand. Until recently, the effects of CTS on hand function have been studied using mostly two-digit grip tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coordination of multi-digit forces as a function of object center of mass (CM) during whole-hand grasping. Methods Fourteen CTS patients and age- and gender-matched controls were instructed to grasp, lift, hold, and release a grip device with five digits for seven consecutive lifts while maintaining its vertical orientation. The object CM was changed ...

Contributors
Zhang, Wei, Johnston, Jamie A., Ross, Mark A., et al.
Created Date
2012-11-21

Background Heterogeneity within cell populations is relevant to the onset and progression of disease, as well as development and maintenance of homeostasis. Analysis and understanding of the roles of heterogeneity in biological systems require methods and technologies that are capable of single cell resolution. Single cell gene expression analysis by RT-qPCR is an established technique for identifying transcriptomic heterogeneity in cellular populations, but it generally requires specialized equipment or tedious manipulations for cell isolation. Results We describe the optimization of a simple, inexpensive and rapid pipeline which includes isolation and culture of live single cells as well as fluorescence microscopy ...

Contributors
Yaron, Jordan, Ziegler, Colleen, Tran, Thai, et al.
Created Date
2014-05-08

The chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α), is a key regulator of the endogenous neural progenitor/stem cell-mediated regenerative response after neural injury. Increased and sustained bioavailability of SDF-1α in the peri-injury region is hypothesized to modulate this endogenous repair response. Here, we describe poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles capable of releasing bioactive SDF-1α in a sustained manner over 60 days after a burst of 23%. Moreover, we report a biphasic cellular response to SDF-1α concentrations thus the large initial burst release in an in vivo setting may result in supratherapeutic concentrations of SDF-1α. Specific protein–protein interactions between SDF-1α and fibrin (as ...

Contributors
Dutta, Dipankar, Fauer, Chase, Mulleneux, H.L., et al.
Created Date
2015-08-11
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Important antibiotics in human medicine have been used for many decades in animal agriculture for growth promotion and disease treatment. Several publications have linked antibiotic resistance development and spread with animal production. Aquaculture, the newest and fastest growing food production sector, may promote similar or new resistance mechanisms. This review of 650+ papers from diverse sources examines parallels and differences between land-based agriculture of swine, beef, and poultry and aquaculture. Among three key findings was, first, that of 51 antibiotics commonly used in aquaculture and agriculture, 39 (or 76%) are also of importance in human medicine; furthermore, six classes of ...

Contributors
Done, Hansa, Venkatesan, Arjunkrishna, Halden, Rolf, et al.
Created Date
2015-05-01

As many as 20–55% of patients with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience chronic endocrine dysfunction, leading to impaired quality of life, impaired rehabilitation efforts and lowered life expectancy. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI is thought to result from acceleration–deceleration forces to the brain within the skull, creating enduring hypothalamic and pituitary neuropathology, and subsequent hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine (HPE) dysfunction. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that a single diffuse TBI results in chronic dysfunction of corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid released in response to stress and testosterone. We used a rodent model of diffuse TBI induced by midline ...

Contributors
Rowe, Rachel K., Rumney, Benjamin M., May, Hazel G., et al.
Created Date
2016

Background: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) has wide applicability for non-invasive biochemical assessment in clinical and pre-clinical applications but suffers from long scan times. Compressed sensing (CS) has been successfully applied to clinical H-1 MRSI, however a detailed evaluation of CS for conventional chemical shift imaging is lacking. Here we evaluate the performance of CS accelerated MRSI, and specifically apply it to accelerate Na-23-MRSI on mouse hearts in vivo at 9.4 T. Methods: Synthetic phantom data representing a simplified section across a mouse thorax were used to evaluate the fidelity of the CS reconstruction for varying levels of under-sampling, resolution ...

Contributors
Maguire, Mahon L., Geethanath, Sairam, Lygate, Craig A., et al.
Created Date
2015-06-15

Background Determining neuronal topographical information in the cerebral cortex is of fundamental importance for developing neuroprosthetics. Significant progress has been achieved in decoding hand voluntary movement with cortical neuronal activity in nonhuman primates. However, there are few successful reports in scientific literature for decoding lower limb voluntary movement with the cortical neuronal firing. We once reported an experimental system, which consists of a specially designed chair, a visually guided stand and squat task training paradigm and an acute neuron recording setup. With this system, we can record high quality cortical neuron activity to investigate the correlation between these neuronal signals ...

Contributors
Ma, Chaolin, Ma, Xuan, Zhang, Hang, et al.
Created Date
2015-04-09

The objective of the study was to design a virtual reality (VR) training to induce perturbation in older adults similar to a slip and examine the effect of the training on kinematic and muscular responses in older adults. Twenty-four older adults were involved in a laboratory study and randomly assigned to two groups (VR training and control). Both groups went through three sessions including baseline slip, training, and transfer of training on slippery surface. The training group experienced 12 simulated slips using a visual perturbation induced by tilting a VR scene while walking on the treadmill and the control group ...

Contributors
Parijat, Prakriti, Lockhart, Thurmon, Liu, Jian, et al.
Created Date
2015-02-01

Despite the prevalence of directional changes during every-day gait, relatively little is known about turning compared to straight gait. While the center of mass (COM) movement during straight gait is well characterized, the COM trajectory and the factors that influence it are less established for turning. This study investigated the influence of a corner׳s height on the COM trajectory as participants walked around the corner. Ten participants (25.3±3.74 years) performed both 90° step and spin turns to the left at self-selected slow, normal, and fast speeds while walking inside a marked path. A pylon was placed on the inside corner ...

Contributors
Fino, Peter C., Lockhart, Thurmon, Fino, Nora F., et al.
Created Date
2015-01-02