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ASU Scholarship Showcase


This growing collection consists of scholarly works authored by ASU-affiliated faculty, students and community members, and contains many open access articles. ASU-affiliated authors are encouraged to Share Your Work in the ASU Digital Repository.


Date Range
2011 2016


Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance (IR) place youth at higher risk for premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In adults, abdominal obesity and IR contribute to the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Whether similar mechanisms are operational in Latino adolescents is unknown. Therefore, we determined whether IR and abdominal adiposity are associated with higher oxLDL concentrations in Latino adolescents. Data from 123 Latino adolescents (16.3 ± 2.5 years; female = 74) were used for the present analysis. Participants were assessed for waist circumference, fasting serum oxLDL, and insulin sensitivity by the whole body insulin sensitivity …

Contributors
Ryder, Justin, Vega Lopez, Sonia, Djedjos, Constantine S., et al.
Created Date
2013-11-16

Background Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity. Objective To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans. Methods Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U) during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5) to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or …

Contributors
Everman, Sarah, Mandarino, Lawrence, Carroll, Chad C., et al.
Created Date
2015-03-17

Background To examine the influence of ethnicity on liver transaminases among adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods A retrospective medical chart review of 57 (30 males and 27 females) newly diagnosed patients with T2DM. Ethnicity was determined by self-report and height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained using standard clinical procedures. Fasting levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were collected prior to the initiation of any therapy. Results Age, gender, height, weight, BMI, and HbA1c did not differ between ethnic groups. Compared to African-Americans, Hispanics had significantly higher ALT (23.9 …

Contributors
Hudson, Omar D., Nunez, Martha, Shaibi, Gabriel, et al.
Created Date
2012-11-07

Background Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as lenalidomide, are therapeutically active compounds that bind and modulate the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate recruiter cereblon, thereby affect steady-state levels of cereblon and cereblon binding partners, such as ikaros and aiolos, and induce many cellular responses, including cytotoxicity to multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Nevertheless, it takes many days for MM cells to die after IMiD induced depletion of ikaros and aiolos and thus we searched for other cereblon binding partners that participate in IMiD cytotoxicity. Methods Cereblon binding partners were identified from a MM cell line expressing histidine-tagged cereblon by pulling down cereblon and …

Contributors
Xu, Qinqin, Hou, Yue-xian, Langlais, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2016-05-03

LL-37, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, has numerous immune-modulating effects. However, the identity of a receptor that mediates the responses in immune cells remains uncertain. We have recently demonstrated that LL-37 interacts with the αMI-domain of integrin α[subscript M]β[subscript 2] (Mac-1), a major receptor on the surface of myeloid cells, and induces a migratory response in Mac-1-expressing monocyte/macrophages as well as activation of Mac-1 on neutrophils. Here, we show that LL-37 and its C-terminal derivative supported strong adhesion of various Mac-1-expressing cells, including human embryonic kidney cells stably transfected with Mac-1, human U937 monocytic cells, and murine IC-21 macrophages. The cell …

Contributors
Lishko, Valeryi, Moreno, Benjamin, Podolnikova, Nataly, et al.
Created Date
2016-07-07

The broad recognition specificity exhibited by integrin α[subscript M]β[subscript 2] (Mac-1, CD11b/CD18) has allowed this adhesion receptor to play innumerable roles in leukocyte biology, yet we know little about how and why α[subscript M]β[subscript 2] binds its multiple ligands. Within α[subscript M]β[subscript 2], the α[subscript M]I-domain is responsible for integrin’s multiligand binding properties. To identify its recognition motif, we screened peptide libraries spanning sequences of many known protein ligands for α[subscript M]I-domain binding and also selected the α[subscript M]I-domain recognition sequences by phage display. Analyses of >1400 binding and nonbinding peptides derived from peptide libraries showed that a key feature …

Contributors
Podolnikova, Nataly, Podolnikov, Andriy, Haas, Thomas A., et al.
Created Date
2015-02-17

Background Obesity is a metabolic disease caused by environmental and genetic factors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are incompletely understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle DNA methylation in combination with transcriptomic changes in obesity. Results Muscle biopsies were obtained basally from lean (n = 12; BMI = 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m[superscript 2]) and obese (n = 10; BMI = 32.9 ± 0.7 kg/m[superscript 2]) participants in combination with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps to assess insulin sensitivity. We performed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) next-generation methylation and microarray analyses on DNA and RNA isolated …

Contributors
Day, Samantha, Coletta, Rich, Kim, Joon Young, et al.
Created Date
2016-07-18

Background Although the effect of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene on adiposity is well established, there is a lack of evidence whether physical activity (PA) modifies the effect of FTO variants on obesity in Latino populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine PA influences and interactive effects between FTO variants and PA on measures of adiposity in Latinos. Results After controlling for age and sex, participants who did not engage in regular PA exhibited higher BMI, fat mass, HC, and WC with statistical significance (P < 0.001). Although significant associations between the three FTO genotypes …

Contributors
Kim, Joon Young, DeMenna, Jacob, Puppala, Sobha, et al.
Created Date
2016-02-24

Our previous studies show reduced abundance of the β-subunit of mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) in skeletal muscle of obese individuals. The β-F1-ATPase forms the catalytic core of the ATP synthase, and it is critical for ATP production in muscle. The mechanism(s) impairing β-F1-ATPase metabolism in obesity, however, are not completely understood. First, we studied total muscle protein synthesis and the translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in obese (BMI, 36±1 kg/m[superscript 2]) and lean (BMI, 22±1 kg/m[superscript 2]) subjects. Both total protein synthesis (0.044±0.006 vs 0.066±0.006%·h[superscript -1]) and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase (0.0031±0.0007 vs 0.0073±0.0004) were lower in muscle from the obese …

Contributors
Tran, Lee, Hanavan, Paul, Campbell, Latoya, et al.
Created Date
2016-08-17

We sought to evaluate the reproducibility of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based approach to measure the stable-isotope enrichment of in vivo-labeled muscle ATP synthase β subunit (β-F1-ATPase), a protein most directly involved in ATP production, and whose abundance is reduced under a variety of circumstances. Muscle was obtained from a rat infused with stable-isotope-labeled leucine. The muscle was homogenized, β-F1-ATPase immunoprecipitated, and the protein was resolved using 1D-SDS PAGE. Following trypsin digestion of the isolated protein, the resultant peptide mixtures were subjected to analysis by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, which resulted in the detection of multiple β-F1-ATPase peptides. There were three β-F1-ATPase …

Contributors
Everman, Sarah, Yi, Zhengping, Langlais, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2011-10-12