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Date Range
2013 2017

The ‘Hestia Project’ uses a bottom-up approach to quantify fossil fuel CO[subscript 2] (FFCO[subscript 2]) emissions spatially at the building/street level and temporally at the hourly level. Hestia FFCO[subscript 2] emissions are provided in the form of a group of sector-specific vector layers with point, line, and polygon sources to support carbon cycle science and climate policy. Application to carbon cycle science, in particular, requires regular gridded data in order to link surface carbon fluxes to atmospheric transport models. However, the heterogeneity and complexity of FFCO[subscript 2] sources within regular grids is sensitive to spatial resolution. From the perspective of ...

Contributors
Liang, Jianming, Gurney, Kevin, O'Keeffe, Darragh, et al.
Created Date
2017-05-19

Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cities is a key challenge towards effective emissions management. An inversion analysis from the INdianapolis FLUX experiment (INFLUX) project, as the first of its kind, has achieved a top-down emission estimate for a single city using CO[subscript 2] data collected by the dense tower network deployed across the city. However, city-level emission data, used as a priori emissions, are also a key component in the atmospheric inversion framework. Currently, fine-grained emission inventories (EIs) able to resolve GHG city emissions at high spatial resolution, are only available for few major cities across the globe. Following ...

Contributors
Oda, Tomohiro, Lauvaux, Thomas, Lu, Dengsheng, et al.
Created Date
2017-06-14

The objective of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) is to develop, evaluate and improve methods for measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cities. INFLUX’s scientific objectives are to quantify CO[subscript 2] and CH[subscript 4] emission rates at 1 km[subscript 2] resolution with a 10% or better accuracy and precision, to determine whole-city emissions with similar skill, and to achieve high (weekly or finer) temporal resolution at both spatial resolutions. The experiment employs atmospheric GHG measurements from both towers and aircraft, atmospheric transport observations and models, and activity-based inventory products to quantify urban GHG emissions. Multiple, independent methods for estimating urban ...

Contributors
Davis, Kenneth J., Deng, Aijun, Lauvaux, Thomas, et al.
Created Date
2017-05-23

Recent advances in fossil fuel CO[subscript 2] (FFCO[subscript 2]) emission inventories enable sensitivity tests of simulated atmospheric CO[subscript 2] concentrations to sub-annual variations in FFCO[subscript 2] emissions and what this implies for the interpretation of observed CO[subscript 2]. Six experiments are conducted to investigate the potential impact of three cycles of FFCO[subscript 2] emission variability (diurnal, weekly and monthly) using a global tracer transport model. Results show an annual FFCO[subscript 2] rectification varying from −1.35 to +0.13 ppm from the combination of all three cycles. This rectification is driven by a large negative diurnal FFCO[subscript 2] rectification due to the ...

Contributors
Zhang, Xia, Gurney, Kevin, Rayner, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2016-02-19
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High-resolution, global quantification of fossil fuel CO[subscript 2] emissions is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle science and climate policy. We build upon a previously developed fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating global high-resolution fossil fuel CO[subscript 2] emissions. We have improved the underlying observationally based data sources, expanded the approach through treatment of separate emitting sectors including a new pointwise database of global power plants, and extended the results to cover a 1997 to 2010 time series at a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Long-term trend analysis of the resulting global emissions shows subnational spatial structure ...

Contributors
Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi, Rayner, P. J., Gurney, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2014-09-16

Atmospheric radiocarbon ([superscript 14]C) represents an important observational constraint on emissions of fossil-fuel derived carbon into the atmosphere due to the absence of [superscript 14]C in fossil fuel reservoirs. The high sensitivity and precision that accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) affords in atmospheric [superscript 14]C analysis has greatly increased the potential for using such measurements to evaluate bottom-up emissions inventories of fossil fuel CO[subscript 2] (CO[subscript 2]ff), as well as those for other co-emitted species. Here we use observations of [superscript 14]CO[subscript 2] and a series of primary hydrocarbons and combustion tracers from discrete air samples collected between June 2009 and ...

Contributors
LaFranchi, B. W., Petron, G., Miller, J. B., et al.
Created Date
2013-11-15

Errors in the specification or utilization of fossil fuel CO[subscript 2] emissions within carbon budget or atmospheric CO[subscript 2] inverse studies can alias the estimation of biospheric and oceanic carbon exchange. A key component in the simulation of CO[subscript 2] concentrations arising from fossil fuel emissions is the spatial distribution of the emission near coastlines. Regridding of fossil fuel CO[subscript 2] emissions (FFCO[subscript 2]) from fine to coarse grids to enable atmospheric transport simulations can give rise to mismatches between the emissions and simulated atmospheric dynamics which differ over land or water. For example, emissions originally emanating from the land ...

Contributors
Zhang, X., Gurney, Kevin, Rayner, P., et al.
Created Date
2013-11-30

A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The paper is addressed to scientists, policymakers, and funding agencies who need to have a global picture of the current ...

Contributors
Ciais, P., Dolman, A. J., Bombelli, A., et al.
Created Date
2013-11-30

Attributing observed CO2 variations to human or natural cause is critical to deducing and tracking emissions from observations. We have used in situ CO2, CO, and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) measurements recorded during the CalNex-LA (CARB et al., 2008) ground campaign of 15 May-15 June 2010, in Pasadena, CA, to deduce the diurnally varying anthropogenic component of observed CO2 in the megacity of Los Angeles (LA). This affordable and simple technique, validated by carbon isotope observations and WRF-STILT (Weather Research and Forecasting model - Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model) predictions, is shown to robustly attribute observed CO2 variation to ...

Contributors
Newman, S., Jeong, S., Fischer, M.L., et al.
Created Date
2013-04-26

We present a high-resolution atmospheric inversion system combining a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) and the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), and test the impact of assimilating meteorological observation on transport accuracy. A Four Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA) technique continuously assimilates meteorological observations from various observing systems into the transport modeling system, and is coupled to the high resolution CO[subscript 2] emission product Hestia to simulate the atmospheric mole fractions of CO[subscript 2]. For the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) project, we evaluated the impact of assimilating different meteorological observation systems on the linearized adjoint solutions and the CO[subscript 2] ...

Contributors
Deng, Aijun, Lauvaux, Thomas, Davis, Kenneth J., et al.
Created Date
2017-05-23