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Human populations differ reliably in the degree to which people favor family, friends, and community members over strangers and outsiders. In the last decade, researchers have begun to propose several economic and evolutionary hypotheses for these cross-population differences in parochialism. In this paper, we outline major current theories and review recent attempts to test them. We also discuss the key methodological challenges in assessing these diverse economic and evolutionary theories for cross-population differences in parochialism.

Contributors
Hruschka, Daniel, Henrich, Joseph, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2013-09-11

Material wealth is a key factor shaping human development and well-being. Every year, hundreds of studies in social science and policy fields assess material wealth in low- and middle-income countries assuming that there is a single dimension by which households can move from poverty to prosperity. However, a one-dimensional model may miss important kinds of prosperity, particularly in countries where traditional subsistence-based livelihoods coexist with modern cash economies. Using multiple correspondence analysis to analyze representative household data from six countries—Nepal, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Guatemala—across three world regions, we identify a number of independent dimension of wealth, each with ...

Contributors
Hruschka, Daniel, Hadley, Craig, Hackman, Joseph, et al.
Created Date
2017-09-08

Background Prior studies have shown that using uterotonics to augment or induce labor before arrival at comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CEmONC) settings (henceforth, “outside uterotonics”) may contribute to perinatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We estimate its effect on perinatal mortality in rural Bangladesh. Methods Using hospital records (23986 singleton term births, Jan 1, 2009-Dec 31, 2015) from rural Bangladesh, we use a logistic regression model to estimate the increased risk of perinatal death from uterotonics administered outside a CEmONC facility. Results Among term births (≥37 weeks gestation), the risk of perinatal death adjusted for key confounders ...

Contributors
Day, Louise T., Hruschka, Daniel, Mussell, Felicity, et al.
Created Date
2016-10-06

Background Improving perinatal health is the key to achieving the Millennium Development Goal for child survival. Recently, several reviews suggest that scaling up available effective perinatal interventions in an integrated approach can substantially reduce the stillbirth and neonatal death rates worldwide. We evaluated the effect of packaged interventions given in pregnancy, delivery and post-partum periods through integration of community- and facility-based services on perinatal mortality. Methods This study took advantage of an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) and a new Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH) Project initiated in 2007 in Matlab, Bangladesh in half (intervention area) of ...

Contributors
Rahman, Anisur, Moran, Allisyn, Pervin, Jesmin, et al.
Created Date
2011-12-10

Background Antenatal Care (ANC) during pregnancy can play an important role in the uptake of evidence-based services vital to the health of women and their infants. Studies report positive effects of ANC on use of facility-based delivery and perinatal mortality. However, most existing studies are limited to cross-sectional surveys with long recall periods, and generally do not include population-based samples. Methods This study was conducted within the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) in Matlab, Bangladesh. The HDSS area is divided into an icddr,b service area (SA) where women and ...

Contributors
Pervin, Jasmine, Moran, Allisyn, Rahman, Monjur, et al.
Created Date
2012-10-16

Mean Absolute Error in Self-Reported BMI by BMI category. Figure S2. Mean Absolute Error in Self-Reported Height by BMI category. Figure S3. Mean Absolute Error in Self-Reported Weight by BMI category. Figure S4. Mean Measured BMI for Stunkard Figure Sizes. Note: There are no 95% CI bars for Figures eight and nine as only one individual selected the respective body figure number, respectively. Figure S5. Mean Predicted BMI for Stunkard Figure Sizes.

Contributors
Maupin, Jonathan, Hruschka, Daniel, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2014-09-19

Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth ...

Contributors
Hruschka, Daniel, Gerkey, Drew, Hadley, Craig, et al.
Created Date
2015-07-01

Much research has established reliable cross-population differences in motivations to invest in one's in-group. We compare two current historical-evolutionary hypotheses for this variation based on (1) effective large-scale institutions and (2) pathogen threats by analyzing cross-national differences (N = 122) in in-group preferences measured in three ways. We find that the effectiveness of government institutions correlates with favoring in-group members, even when controlling for pathogen stress and world region, assessing reverse causality, and providing a check on endogeneity with an instrumental variable analysis. Conversely, pathogen stress shows inconsistent associations with in-group favoritism when controlling for government effectiveness. Moreover, pathogen stress ...

Contributors
Hruschka, Daniel, Henrich, Joseph, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2013-05-21