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ASU Scholarship Showcase


There is an increasing awareness that health care must move from post-symptomatic treatment to presymptomatic intervention. An ideal system would allow regular inexpensive monitoring of health status using circulating antibodies to report on health fluctuations. Recently, we demonstrated that peptide microarrays can do this through antibody signatures (immunosignatures). Unfortunately, printed microarrays are not scalable. Here we demonstrate a platform based on fabricating microarrays (~10 M peptides per slide, 330,000 peptides per assay) on silicon wafers using equipment common to semiconductor manufacturing. The potential of these microarrays for comprehensive health monitoring is verified through the simultaneous detection and classification of six ...

Contributors
Legutki, Joseph Barten, Zhao, Zhan-Gong, Greving, Matt, et al.
Created Date
2014-09-03

Background Immunosignaturing is a new peptide microarray based technology for profiling of humoral immune responses. Despite new challenges, immunosignaturing gives us the opportunity to explore new and fundamentally different research questions. In addition to classifying samples based on disease status, the complex patterns and latent factors underlying immunosignatures, which we attempt to model, may have a diverse range of applications. Methods We investigate the utility of a number of statistical methods to determine model performance and address challenges inherent in analyzing immunosignatures. Some of these methods include exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, classical significance testing, structural equation and mixture modeling. ...

Contributors
Brown, Justin, Stafford, Phillip, Johnston, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2011-08-19

The rise in antibiotic resistance has led to an increased research focus on discovery of new antibacterial candidates. While broad-spectrum antibiotics are widely pursued, there is evidence that resistance arises in part from the wide spread use of these antibiotics. Our group has developed a system to produce protein affinity agents, called synbodies, which have high affinity and specificity for their target. In this report, we describe the adaptation of this system to produce new antibacterial candidates towards a target bacterium. The system functions by screening target bacteria against an array of 10,000 random sequence peptides and, using a combination ...

Contributors
Domenyuk, Valeriy, Loskutov, Andrey, Johnston, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2013-01-23

Immunosignaturing shows promise as a general approach to diagnosis. It has been shown to detect immunological signs of infection early during the course of disease and to distinguish Alzheimer’s disease from healthy controls. Here we test whether immunosignatures correspond to clinical classifications of disease using samples from people with brain tumors. Blood samples from patients undergoing craniotomies for therapeutically naïve brain tumors with diagnoses of astrocytoma (23 samples), Glioblastoma multiforme (22 samples), mixed oligodendroglioma/astrocytoma (16 samples), oligodendroglioma (18 samples), and 34 otherwise healthy controls were tested by immunosignature. Because samples were taken prior to adjuvant therapy, they are unlikely to ...

Contributors
Hughes, Alexa, Cichacz, Zbigniew, Scheck, Adrienne, et al.
Created Date
2012-07-16

Antigen-antibody complexes are central players in an effective immune response. However, finding those interactions relevant to a particular disease state can be arduous. Nonetheless many paths to discovery have been explored since deciphering these interactions can greatly facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. In silico B cell epitope mapping approaches have been widely pursued, though success has not been consistent. Antibody mixtures in immune sera have been used as handles for biologically relevant antigens, but these and other experimental approaches have proven resource intensive and time consuming. In addition, these methods are often tailored to individual diseases ...

Contributors
Whittemore, Kurt, Johnston, Stephen, Sykes, Kathryn, et al.
Created Date
2016-06-14

Background High-throughput technologies such as DNA, RNA, protein, antibody and peptide microarrays are often used to examine differences across drug treatments, diseases, transgenic animals, and others. Typically one trains a classification system by gathering large amounts of probe-level data, selecting informative features, and classifies test samples using a small number of features. As new microarrays are invented, classification systems that worked well for other array types may not be ideal. Expression microarrays, arguably one of the most prevalent array types, have been used for years to help develop classification algorithms. Many biological assumptions are built into classifiers that were designed ...

Contributors
Kukreja, Muskan, Johnston, Stephen, Stafford, Phillip, et al.
Created Date
2012-06-21

Background The success of new sequencing technologies and informatic methods for identifying genes has made establishing gene product function a critical rate limiting step in progressing the molecular sciences. We present a method to functionally mine genomes for useful activities in vivo, using an unusual property of a member of the poxvirus family to demonstrate this screening approach. Results The genome of Parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus) was sequenced, annotated, and then used to PCR-amplify its open-reading-frames. Employing a cloning-independent protocol, a viral expression-library was rapidly built and arrayed into sub-library pools. These were directly delivered into mice as expressible cassettes ...

Contributors
McGuire, Michael J., Johnston, Stephen, Sykes, Kathryn, et al.
Created Date
2012-01-13

Background Cancer diagnosis in both dogs and humans is complicated by the lack of a non-invasive diagnostic test. To meet this clinical need, we apply the recently developed immunosignature assay to spontaneous canine lymphoma as clinical proof-of-concept. Here we evaluate the immunosignature as a diagnostic for spontaneous canine lymphoma at both at initial diagnosis and evaluating the disease free interval following treatment. Methods Sera from dogs with confirmed lymphoma (B cell n = 38, T cell n = 11) and clinically normal dogs (n = 39) were analyzed. Serum antibody responses were characterized by analyzing the binding pattern, or immunosignature, ...

Contributors
Johnston, Stephen, Thamm, Douglas H., Legutki, Joseph Barten, et al.
Created Date
2014-09-08

The heat-labile toxins (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli display adjuvant effects to coadministered antigens, leading to enhanced production of serum antibodies. Despite extensive knowledge of the adjuvant properties of LT derivatives, including in vitro-generated non-toxic mutant forms, little is known about the capacity of these adjuvants to modulate the epitope specificity of antibodies directed against antigens. This study characterizes the role of LT and its non-toxic B subunit (LTB) in the modulation of antibody responses to a coadministered antigen, the dengue virus (DENV) envelope glycoprotein domain III (EDIII), which binds to surface receptors and mediates virus entry into host ...

Contributors
Lina Nascimento Fabris Maeda, Denicar, Tavares Batista, Milene, Ramos Pereira, Lennon, et al.
Created Date
2017-09-25

We have previously shown that the diversity of antibodies in an individual can be displayed on chips on which 130,000 peptides chosen from random sequence space have been synthesized. This immunosignature technology is unbiased in displaying antibody diversity relative to natural sequence space, and has been shown to have diagnostic and prognostic potential for a wide variety of diseases and vaccines. Here we show that a global measure such as Shannon’s entropy can be calculated for each immunosignature. The immune entropy was measured across a diverse set of 800 people and in 5 individuals over 3 months. The immune entropy ...

Contributors
Wang, Lu, Whittemore, K., Johnston, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2017-12-22