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Streamer biofilm communities (SBC) are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75–88°C) SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae and Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and “Bison Pool,” using various [superscript 13]C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and glucose) ...

Contributors
Schubotz, Florence, Hays, Lindsay E., Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R., et al.
Created Date
2015-02-05

Gas seeps emanating from Yanartaş (Chimera), Turkey, have been documented for thousands of years. Active serpentinization produces hydrogen and a range of carbon gases that may provide fuel for life. Here we report a newly discovered, ephemeral fluid seep emanating from a small gas vent at Yanartaş. Fluids and biofilms were sampled at the source and points downstream. We describe site conditions, and provide microbiological data in the form of enrichment cultures, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of solids, and PCR screens of nitrogen cycle genes. Source fluids are pH 11.95, with a Ca:Mg of ~200, ...

Contributors
Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R., Woycheese, Kristin M., Yargicoglu, Erin N., et al.
Created Date
2015-01-19

We have constructed a conceptual model of biogeochemical cycles and metabolic and microbial community shifts within a hot spring ecosystem via coordinated analysis of the “Bison Pool” (BP) Environmental Genome and a complementary contextual geochemical dataset of ∼75 geochemical parameters. 2,321 16S rRNA clones and 470 megabases of environmental sequence data were produced from biofilms at five sites along the outflow of BP, an alkaline hot spring in Sentinel Meadow (Lower Geyser Basin) of Yellowstone National Park. This channel acts as a >22 m gradient of decreasing temperature, increasing dissolved oxygen, and changing availability of biologically important chemical species, such ...

Contributors
Swingley, Wesley D., Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R., Shock, Everett, et al.
Created Date
2012-06-04

Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the ...

Contributors
Dick, Jeffrey, Shock, Everett, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2011-08-11

Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as “Bison Pool” in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions ...

Contributors
Dick, Jeffrey M., Shock, Everett, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2013-09-02

Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes). PCR was used to screen samples for Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Over 500 Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were screened by RFLP analysis and 90 were sequenced, resulting in identification of novel Korarchaeota phylotypes and exclusive geographical variants. Korarchaeota diversity was low, as in other terrestrial geothermal systems, suggesting a marine origin for Korarchaeota with subsequent niche-invasion into terrestrial systems. Korarchaeota endemism is consistent with endemism of other terrestrial thermophiles and supports the existence of dispersal ...

Contributors
Miller-Coleman, Robin L., Dodsworth, Jeremy A., Ross, Christian A., et al.
Created Date
2012-05-04

Carbon can be a major constituent of crustal and mantle uids, occurring both as dissolved ionic species (e.g., carbonate ions or organic acids) and molecular species (e.g., CO[subscript 2], CO, CH[subscript 4], and more complex organic compounds). The chemistry of dissolved carbon changes dramatically with pressure (P) and temperature (T). In aqueous uids at low P and T, molecular carbon gas species such as CO[subscript 2] and CH[subscript 4] saturate at low concentration to form a separate phase. With modest increases in P and T, these molecular species become fully miscible with H[subscript 2]O, enabling deep crustal and mantle uids ...

Contributors
Manning, Craig E., Shock, Everett, Sverjensky, Dimitri A., et al.
Created Date
2013

Explosive extrusion of cold material from the interior of icy bodies, or cryovolcanism, has been observed on Enceladus and, perhaps, Europa, Triton, and Ceres. It may explain the observed evidence for a young surface on Charon (Pluto’s surface is masked by frosts). Here, we evaluate prerequisites for cryovolcanism on dwarf planet-class Kuiper belt objects (KBOs). We first review the likely spatial and temporal extent of subsurface liquid, proposed mechanisms to overcome the negative buoyancy of liquid water in ice, and the volatile inventory of KBOs. We then present a new geochemical equilibrium model for volatile exsolution and its ability to ...

Contributors
Neveu, Marc, Desch, Steven, Shock, Everett, et al.
Created Date
2015-01-15