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2013 2017

The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) that emerges under broken time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators (TIs) exhibits many fascinating physical properties for potential applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics. However, in transition metal–doped TIs, the only experimentally demonstrated QAHE system to date, the QAHE is lost at practically relevant temperatures. This constraint is imposed by the relatively low Curie temperature (T[subscript c]) and inherent spin disorder associated with the random magnetic dopants. We demonstrate drastically enhanced T[subscript c] by exchange coupling TIs to Tm[subscript 3]Fe[subscript 5]O[subscript 12], a high-T[subscript c] magnetic insulator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Signatures showing that the TI ...

Contributors
Tang, Chi, Chang, Cui-Zu, Zhao, Gejian, et al.
Created Date
2017-06-23

The development of non-volatile logic through direct coupling of spontaneous ferroelectric polarization with semiconductor charge carriers is nontrivial, with many issues, including epitaxial ferroelectric growth, demonstration of ferroelectric switching and measurable semiconductor modulation. Here we report a true ferroelectric field effect—carrier density modulation in an underlying Ge(001) substrate by switching of the ferroelectric polarization in epitaxial c-axis-oriented BaTiO[subscript 3] grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Using the density functional theory, we demonstrate that switching of BaTiO[subscript 3] polarization results in a large electric potential change in Ge. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirms BaTiO[subscript 3] tetragonality and the absence of any low-permittivity interlayer ...

Contributors
Ponath, Patrick, Fredrickson, Kurt, Posadas, Agham B., et al.
Created Date
2015-01-01

In this paper, we report on the highly conductive layer formed at the crystalline γ-alumina/SrTiO[subscript 3] interface, which is attributed to oxygen vacancies. We describe the structure of thin γ-alumina layers deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3 (001) at growth temperatures in the range of 400–800 °C, as determined by reflection-high-energy electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and high-resolution electron microscopy. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of the oxygen-deficient layer. Electrical characterization indicates sheet carrier densities of ∼1013 cm−2 at room temperature for the sample deposited at 700 °C, with a maximum electron Hall mobility ...

Contributors
Kormondy, Kristy J., Posadas, Agham B., Ngo, Thong Q., et al.
Created Date
2015-03-07

Novel hydride chemistries are employed to deposit light-emitting Ge [subscript 1- y] Sn [subscript y] alloys with y ≤ 0.1 by Ultra-High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-CVD) on Ge-buffered Si wafers. The properties of the resultant materials are systematically compared with similar alloys grown directly on Si wafers. The fundamental difference between the two systems is a fivefold (and higher) decrease in lattice mismatch between film and virtual substrate, allowing direct integration of bulk-like crystals with planar surfaces and relatively low dislocation densities. For y ≤ 0.06, the CVD precursors used were digermane Ge [subscript 2]H[subscript 6] and deuterated stannane ...

Contributors
Senaratne, Charutha Lasitha, Gallagher, J. D., Jiang, Liying, et al.
Created Date
2014-10-07

The (110) plane of Co[subscript 3]O[subscript 4] spinel exhibits significantly higher rates of carbon monoxide conversion due to the presence of active Co[superscript 3+] species at the surface. However, experimental studies of Co[subscript 3]O[subscript 4] (110) surfaces and interfaces have been limited by the difficulties in growing high-quality films. We report thin (10–250 Å) Co[subscript 3]O[subscript 4] films grown by molecular beam epitaxy in the polar (110) direction on MgAl[subscript 2]O[subscript 4] substrates. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy measurements attest to the high quality of the as-grown films. Furthermore, we investigate the ...

Contributors
Kormondy, Kristy J., Posadas, Agham B., Slepko, Alexander, et al.
Created Date
2014-06-28

Zintl phases are a class of intermetallic materials that have simultaneously ionic and covalent bonding resulting from charge transfer between two different atomic species. We present a combined first principles and experimental study of Zintl-phase SrAl4, which is grown in thin film form on the perovskite oxide LaAlO3 using molecular beam epitaxy. The structural properties are investigated using reflection-high-energy electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and cross-section transmission electron microscopy, which reveal relaxed epitaxial island growth. Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements verify the Zintl-Klemm nature of the bonding in the material and are utilized to determine the band offset and the work function of ...

Contributors
Schlipf, Lukas, Slepko, Alexander, Posadas, Agham B., et al.
Created Date
2013-07

This paper reports the molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of high-reflectivity and broad-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) made of ZnTe/GaSb quarter-wavelength (lambda/4) layers for optoelectronic applications in the midwave infrared spectral range (2-5 mu m). A series of ZnTe/GaSb DBRs has been successfully grown on GaSb (001) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). During the MBE growth, a temperature ramp was applied to the initial growth of GaSb layers on ZnTe to protect the ZnTe underneath from damage due to thermal evaporation. Post-growth characterization using high-resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy reveals smooth surface morphology, ...

Contributors
Fan, Jin, Liu, Xinyu, Ouyang, Lu, et al.
Created Date
2013-10-28

We report a study of the magnetic domain structure of nanocrystalline thin films of nickel-zinc ferrite. The ferrite films were synthesized using aqueous spin-spray coating at low temperature (∼90 °C) and showed high complex permeability in the GHz range. Electron microscopy and microanalysis revealed that the films consisted of columnar grains with uniform chemical composition. Off-axis electron holography combined with magnetic force microscopy indicated a multi-grain domain structure with in-plane magnetization. The correlation between the magnetic domain morphology and crystal structure is briefly discussed.

Contributors
Zhang, D., Ray, N. M., Petuskey, William, et al.
Created Date
2014-08-28

The current work explores the crystalline perovskite oxide, strontium hafnate, as a potential high-k gate dielectric for Ge-based transistors. SrHfO3 (SHO) is grown directly on Ge by atomic layer deposition and becomes crystalline with epitaxial registry after post-deposition vacuum annealing at ∼700 °C for 5 min. The 2 × 1 reconstructed, clean Ge (001) surface is a necessary template to achieve crystalline films upon annealing. The SHO films exhibit excellent crystallinity, as shown by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The SHO films have favorable electronic properties for consideration as a high-k gate dielectric on Ge, with satisfactory band offsets ...

Contributors
McDaniel, Martin D., Hu, Chengqing, Lu, Sirong, et al.
Created Date
2015-02-07