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2006 2017

Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences at linear chromosome termini, protecting chromosomes against end-to-end fusion and damage, providing chromosomal stability. Telomeres shorten with mitotic cellular division, but are maintained in cells with high proliferative capacity by telomerase. Loss-of-function mutations in telomere-maintenance genes are genetic risk factors for cirrhosis development in humans and murine models. Telomerase deficiency provokes accelerated telomere shortening and dysfunction, facilitating genomic instability and oncogenesis. Here we examined whether telomerase mutations and telomere shortening were associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) secondary to cirrhosis. Telomere length of peripheral blood leukocytes was measured by Southern blot and qPCR in 120 patients ...

Contributors
Donaires, Flavia S., Scatena, Natalia F., Alves-Paiva, Raquel M., et al.
Created Date
2017-08-16

Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of morphologic traits (for example, body size and coat color) in dogs and wolves, the genetic basis of their behavioral divergence is poorly understood. An integrative approach using both behavioral and genetic data is required to understand the molecular underpinnings of the various behavioral characteristics associated with domestication. We analyze a 5-Mb genomic region on chromosome 6 previously found to be under positive selection in domestic dog breeds. Deletion of this region in humans is linked to Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a multisystem congenital disorder characterized by hypersocial behavior. We ...

Contributors
vonHoldt, Bridgett, Shuldiner, Emily, Janowitz Koch, Ilana, et al.
Created Date
2017-07-19

High-quality historical data about US Congressional elections has long provided common ground for electoral studies. However, advances in geographic information science have recently made it efficient to compile, distribute, and analyze large spatio-temporal data sets on the structure of US Congressional districts. A single spatio-temporal data set that relates US Congressional election results to the spatial extent of the constituencies has not yet been developed. To address this, existing high-quality data sets of elections returns were combined with a spatiotemporal data set on Congressional district boundaries to generate a new spatio-temporal database of US Congressional election results that are explicitly ...

Contributors
Wolf, Levi, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning
Created Date
2017-08-15

The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak affected several countries worldwide, including six West African countries. It was the largest Ebola epidemic in the history and the first to affect multiple countries simultaneously. Significant national and international delay in response to the epidemic resulted in 28,652 cases and 11,325 deaths. The aim of this study was to develop a risk analysis framework to prioritize rapid response for situations of high risk. Based on findings from the literature, sociodemographic features of the affected countries, and documented epidemic data, a risk scoring framework using 18 criteria was developed. The framework includes measures ...

Contributors
Simeon Ajisegiri, Whenayon, Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad, MacIntyre, Chandini, et al.
Created Date
2017-08-15

Objective: The study aims were to (i) identify determinants of Nutrition Facts Panel (NFP) use and (ii) describe the association between NFP use and dietary intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Design: Baseline cross-sectional data from a clinical trial were used to assess the association between NFP use and dietary intake. Diet was measured using two methods: (i) a diet quality score (the Healthy Eating Index-2010) derived from a single 24 h recall and (ii) dietary pattern (exploratory factor analyses) from an FFQ. Multivariable logistic and non-parametric quantile regressions were conducted, as appropriate. Settings: Hartford County, Connecticut, USA. Subjects: ...

Contributors
Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace, Segura-Perez, Sofia, Shebl, Fatma M., et al.
Created Date
2017-06-20

Antibody detection and accurate diagnosis of tropical diseases is essential to help prevent the spread of disease. However, most detection methods lack cost-effectiveness and field portability, which are essential features for achieving diagnosis in a timely manner. To address this, 3D-printed oblate spheroid sample chambers were fabricated to measure green light scattering of gold nanoparticles using an optical caustic focus to detect antibodies. Scattering signals of 20–200 nm gold nanoparticles using a green laser were compared to green light emitting diode (LED) light source signals and to Mie theory. The change in signal from 60 to 120 nm decreased in ...

Contributors
Garcia, Antonio, Franco Achury, Lina, Pirez-Gomez, Miguel A., et al.
Created Date
2017-08-17

There is an urgent need for the development of new therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase-1A (Dyrk1a) is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau and thus represents a link between two key proteins involved in AD pathogenesis. Furthermore, Dyrk1a is upregulated in postmortem human brains, and high levels of Dyrk1a are associated with mental retardation. Here, we sought to determine the effects of Dyrk1 inhibition on AD-like pathology developed by 3xTg-AD mice, a widely used animal model of AD. We dosed 10-month-old 3xTg-AD and nontransgenic (NonTg) mice with a ...

Contributors
Branca, Caterina, Shaw, Darren, Belfiore, Ramona, et al.
Created Date
2017-06-19

The rates of marine deoxygenation leading to Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events are poorly recognized and constrained. If increases in primary productivity are the primary driver of these episodes, progressive oxygen loss from global waters should predate enhanced carbon burial in underlying sediments—the diagnostic Oceanic Anoxic Event relic. Thallium isotope analysis of organic-rich black shales from Demerara Rise across Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 reveals evidence of expanded sediment-water interface deoxygenation ~43 ± 11 thousand years before the globally recognized carbon cycle perturbation. This evidence for rapid oxygen loss leading to an extreme ancient climatic event has timely implications for the modern ...

Contributors
Ostrander, Chadlin, Owens, Jeremy D., Nielsen, Sune G., et al.
Created Date
2017-08-09

Human milk contains essential micronutrients for growth and development during early life. Environmental pollutants, such as potentially toxic metals, can also be transferred to the infant through human milk. These elements have been well-studied, but changing diets and environments and advances in laboratory technology require re-examining these elements in a variety of settings. The aim of this study was to characterize the concentrations of essential and toxic metals in human milk from four diverse populations. Human milk samples (n = 70) were collected in Argentina (n = 21), Namibia (n = 6), Poland (n = 23), and the United States ...

Contributors
Klein, Laura D., Breakey, Alicia A., Scelza, Brooke, et al.
Created Date
2017-08-17

Several Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccine candidates have recently been described which use inactivated whole virus, DNA or RNA that express the virus’ Envelope (E) glycoprotein as the antigen. These were successful in stimulating production of virus-targeted antibodies that protected animals against ZIKV challenges, but their use potentially will predispose vaccinated individuals to infection by the related Dengue virus (DENV). We have devised a virus like particle (VLP) carrier based on the hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) that displays the ZIKV E protein domain III (zDIII), and shown that it can be produced quickly and easily purified in large quantities from ...

Contributors
Yang, Ming, Lai, Huafang, Sun, Haiyan, et al.
Created Date
2017-08-09