ASU Scholarship Showcase

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2006 2017

Pay-for-performance (PFP) is a relatively new approach to agricultural conservation that attaches an incentive payment to quantified reductions in nutrient runoff from a participating farm. Similar to a payment for ecosystem services approach, PFP lends itself to providing incentives for the most beneficial practices at the field level. To date, PFP conservation in the U.S. has only been applied in small pilot programs. Because monitoring conservation performance for each field enrolled in a program would be cost-prohibitive, field-level modeling can provide cost-effective estimates of anticipated improvements in nutrient runoff. We developed a PFP system that uses a unique application of ...

Contributors
Muenich, Rebecca, Kalcic, M. M., Winsten, J., et al.
Created Date
2017

We numerically demonstrate a switchable metamaterial absorber/emitter by thermally turning on or off the excitation of magnetic resonance upon the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Perfect absorption peak exists around the wavelength of 5 lm when the excitation of magnetic resonance is supported with the insulating VO2 spacer layer. The wavelength-selective absorption is switched off when the magnetic resonance is disabled with metallic VO2 that shorts the top and bottom metallic structures. The resonance wavelength can be tuned with different geometry, and the switchable metamaterial exhibits diffuse behaviors at oblique angles. The results would facilitate the design of switchable ...

Contributors
Wang, Hao, Wang, Yue, Wang, Liping
Created Date
2014-08-19

Background There is much concern regarding undisclosed corporate authorship (“ghostwriting”) in the peer-reviewed medical literature. However, there are no studies of how disclosure of ghostwriting alone impacts the perceived credibility of research results. Findings We conducted a randomized vignette study with experienced nurses (n = 67), using a fictional study of antidepressant medication. The vignette described a randomized controlled trial and gave efficacy and adverse effect rates. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two authorship conditions, either (a) traditional authorship (n = 35) or (b) ghostwritten paper (n = 32), and then completed a perceived credibility scale. Our primary ...

Contributors
Lacasse, Jeffrey, Leo, Jonathan, Cimino, Andrea, et al.
Created Date
2012-09-05

Background Malignant brain tumors affect people of all ages and are the second leading cause of cancer deaths in children. While current treatments are effective and improve survival, there remains a substantial need for more efficacious therapeutic modalities. The ketogenic diet (KD) - a high-fat, low-carbohydrate treatment for medically refractory epilepsy - has been suggested as an alternative strategy to inhibit tumor growth by altering intrinsic metabolism, especially by inducing glycopenia. Methods Here, we examined the effects of an experimental KD on a mouse model of glioma, and compared patterns of gene expression in tumors vs. normal brain from animals ...

Contributors
Stafford, Phillip, Abdelwahab, Mohammed G., Kim, Do Young, et al.
Created Date
2010-09-10

Background Juvenile hormone (JH) has been demonstrated to control adult lifespan in a number of non-model insects where surgical removal of the corpora allata eliminates the hormone’s source. In contrast, little is known about how juvenile hormone affects adult Drosophila melanogaster. Previous work suggests that insulin signaling may modulate Drosophila aging in part through its impact on juvenile hormone titer, but no data yet address whether reduction of juvenile hormone is sufficient to control Drosophila life span. Here we adapt a genetic approach to knock out the corpora allata in adult Drosophila melanogaster and characterize adult life history phenotypes produced ...

Contributors
Yamamoto, Rochelle, Bai, Hua, Dolezal, Adam, et al.
Created Date
2013-07-17

Background Following incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), descending drive is impaired, possibly leading to a decrease in the complexity of gait. To test the hypothesis that iSCI impairs gait coordination and decreases locomotor complexity, we collected 3D joint angle kinematics and muscle parameters of rats with a sham or an incomplete spinal cord injury. Methods 12 adult, female, Long-Evans rats, 6 sham and 6 mild-moderate T8 iSCI, were tested 4 weeks following injury. The Basso Beattie Bresnahan locomotor score was used to verify injury severity. Animals had reflective markers placed on the bony prominences of their limb joints and were ...

Contributors
Hillen, Brian, Yamaguchi, Gary T., Abbas, James, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-15

Background The World Health Organization recommends strategies to improve urban design, public transportation, and recreation facilities to facilitate physical activity for non-communicable disease prevention for an increasingly urbanized global population. Most evidence supporting environmental associations with physical activity comes from single countries or regions with limited variation in urban form. This paper documents variation in comparable built environment features across countries from diverse regions. Methods The International Physical Activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) study of adults aimed to measure the full range of variation in the built environment using geographic information systems (GIS) across 12 countries on 5 continents. ...

Contributors
Adams, Marc, Frank, Lawrence D., Schipperijn, Jasper, et al.
Created Date
2014-10-25

Background Advancements in geographic information systems over the past two decades have increased the specificity by which an individual’s neighborhood environment may be spatially defined for physical activity and health research. This study investigated how different types of street network buffering methods compared in measuring a set of commonly used built environment measures (BEMs) and tested their performance on associations with physical activity outcomes. Methods An internationally-developed set of objective BEMs using three different spatial buffering techniques were used to evaluate the relative differences in resulting explanatory power on self-reported physical activity outcomes. BEMs were developed in five countries using ...

Contributors
Frank, Lawrence D., Fox, Eric H., Ulmer, Jared M., et al.
Created Date
2017-01-23

Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease that affects between 50 and 100 million people each year. Increasing our understanding of the heterogeneous transmission patterns of dengue at different spatial scales could have considerable public health value by guiding intervention strategies. Methods Based on the weekly number of dengue cases in Perú by province, we investigated the association between dengue incidence during the period 1994-2008 and demographic and climate factors across geographic regions of the country. Results Our findings support the presence of significant differences in the timing of dengue epidemics between jungle and coastal regions, with differences significantly associated ...

Contributors
Chowell-Puente, Gerardo, Cazelles, Bernard, Broutin, Helene, et al.
Created Date
2011-06-08

Background The role of demographic factors, climatic conditions, school cycles, and connectivity patterns in shaping the spatio-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza is not clearly understood. Here we analyzed the spatial, age and temporal evolution of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile, a southern hemisphere country covering a long and narrow strip comprising latitudes 17°S to 56°S. Methods We analyzed the dissemination patterns of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic across 15 regions of Chile based on daily hospitalizations for severe acute respiratory disease and laboratory confirmed A/H1N1 influenza infection from 01-May to 31-December, 2009. We explored the association between timing of ...

Contributors
Chowell-Puente, Gerardo, Towers, Sherry, Viboud, Cecile, et al.
Created Date
2012-11-13

This study experimentally evaluated the short-term effects of the Arizona Attorney General’s cybersafety promotion presentation, a key component of which is cyberbullying prevention. Fifty-one parents of children attending a middle school in the southwestern United States participated in the study. Results reveal parents who viewed the presentation believed their children to be more susceptible to cyberbullying, and indicated that they were more likely to talk to their children about saving evidence, not retaliating, and telling an adult compared to parents who had not viewed the presentation. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

Contributors
Roberto, Tony, Eden, Jen, Deiss, Douglas M., et al.
Created Date
2017-09-09

Background Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a localized skin lesion that can progress to extensive ulceration and necrosis if left untreated. Unpublished studies of hydrated clays for therapeutic, topical treatment of Buruli ulcer suggest that specific clay mineral products may have beneficial effects on wound healing. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of a panel of clay mixtures and their derivative leachates against M. ulcerans and assessed the in vivo efficacy of topically-applied, hydrated clays on Buruli ulcer progression in mice infected with M. ulcerans. Methods M. ulcerans 1615 was incubated with 10 % ...

Contributors
Adusumilli, Sarojini, Hayden, Shelley, Arizona State University. Biodesign Institute. Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, et al.
Created Date
2016-01-30

Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who ...

Contributors
Della Santina, Cosimo, Bianchi, Matteo, Averta, Giuseppe, et al.
Created Date
2017-08-29

Background Blindness has evolved repeatedly in cave-dwelling organisms, and many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation, including both accumulation of neutral loss-of-function mutations and adaptation to darkness. Investigating the loss of sight in cave dwellers presents an opportunity to understand the operation of fundamental evolutionary processes, including drift, selection, mutation, and migration. Results Here we model the evolution of blindness in caves. This model captures the interaction of three forces: (1) selection favoring alleles causing blindness, (2) immigration of sightedness alleles from a surface population, and (3) mutations creating blindness alleles. We investigated the dynamics of this model ...

Contributors
Cartwright, Reed, Schwartz, Rachel, Merry, Alexandra, et al.
Created Date
2017-02-07

Material wealth is a key factor shaping human development and well-being. Every year, hundreds of studies in social science and policy fields assess material wealth in low- and middle-income countries assuming that there is a single dimension by which households can move from poverty to prosperity. However, a one-dimensional model may miss important kinds of prosperity, particularly in countries where traditional subsistence-based livelihoods coexist with modern cash economies. Using multiple correspondence analysis to analyze representative household data from six countries—Nepal, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Guatemala—across three world regions, we identify a number of independent dimension of wealth, each with ...

Contributors
Hruschka, Daniel, Hadley, Craig, Hackman, Joseph, et al.
Created Date
2017-09-08

Mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation and is, therefore, central to evolutionary change. Previous work on Paramecium tetraurelia found an unusually low germline base-substitution mutation rate in this ciliate. Here, we tested the generality of this result among ciliates using Tetrahymena thermophila. We sequenced the genomes of 10 lines of T. thermophila that had each undergone approximately 1,000 generations of mutation accumulation (MA). We applied an existing mutation-calling pipeline and developed a new probabilistic mutation detection approach that directly models the design of an MA experiment and accommodates the noise introduced by mismapped reads. Our probabilistic mutation-calling ...

Contributors
Long, Hongan, Winter, David, Chang, Allan Y.-C., et al.
Created Date
2016-09-15

The metastatic activity of breast carcinomas results from complex genetic changes in epithelial tumor cells and accounts for 90% of deaths in affected patients. Although the invasion of the local lymphatic vessels and veins by malignant breast tumor cells and their subsequent metastasis to the lung, has been recognized, the mechanisms behind the metastatic activity of breast tumor cells to other distal organs and the pathogenesis of metastatic cancer are not well understood. In this study, we utilized derivatives of the well-established and highly metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 (MDA-231) to study breast tumor metastasis in ...

Contributors
Kwiecien, Jacek M., Bassey-Archibong, Blessing I., Dabrowski, Wojciech, et al.
Created Date
2017-09-07

Background The green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis, is a key species for both laboratory and field-based studies of evolutionary genetics, development, neurobiology, physiology, behavior, and ecology. As the first non-avian reptilian genome sequenced, A. carolinesis is also a prime reptilian model for comparison with other vertebrate genomes. The public databases of Ensembl and NCBI have provided a first generation gene annotation of the anole genome that relies primarily on sequence conservation with related species. A second generation annotation based on tissue-specific transcriptomes would provide a valuable resource for molecular studies. Results Here we provide an annotation of the A. carolinensis ...

Contributors
Eckalbar, Walter, Hutchins, Elizabeth, Markov, Glenn, et al.
Created Date
2013-01-23

A new study on sex chromosome evolution in papaya helps to illuminate sex chromosome biology, including deviations from expected trajectories.

Contributors
Taravella, Angela, Wilson Sayres, Melissa, Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2016-11-29

Honey bees as other insects rely on the innate immune system for protection against diseases. The innate immune system includes the circulating hemocytes (immune cells) that clear pathogens from hemolymph (blood) by phagocytosis, nodulation or encapsulation. Honey bee hemocyte numbers have been linked to hemolymph levels of vitellogenin. Vitellogenin is a multifunctional protein with immune-supportive functions identified in a range of species, including the honey bee. Hemocyte numbers can increase via mitosis, and this recruitment process can be important for immune system function and maintenance. Here, we tested if hemocyte mediated phagocytosis differs among the physiologically different honey bee worker ...

Contributors
Hystad, Eva Marit, Salmela, Heli, Amdam, Gro, et al.
Created Date
2017-09-06

Essential or enduring understandings are often defined as the underlying core concepts or “big ideas” we’d like our students to remember when much of the course content has been forgotten. The central dogma of molecular biology and how cellular information is stored, used, and conveyed is one of the essential understandings students should retain after a course or unit in molecular biology or genetics. An additional enduring understanding is the relationships between DNA sequence, RNA sequence, mRNA production and processing, and the resulting polypeptide/protein product. A final big idea in molecular biology is the relationship between DNA mutation and polypeptide ...

Contributors
Marshall, Pamela, Arizona State University. New College of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences. School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences
Created Date
2017-08-11

The elongases of very long chain fatty acid (ELOVL or ELO) are essential in the biosynthesis of fatty acids longer than C14. Here, two ELO full-length cDNAs (TmELO1, TmELO2) from the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) were isolated and the functions were characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) lengths of TmELO1 and TmELO2 were 1005 bp and 972 bp, respectively and the corresponding peptide sequences each contained several conserved motifs including the histidine-box motif HXXHH. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated high similarity with the ELO of Tribolium castaneum and Drosophila melanogaster. Both TmELO genes were expressed at various levels in eggs, 1st ...

Contributors
Zheng, Tianxiang, Li, Hongshuang, Han, Na, et al.
Created Date
2017-09-08

The relationship between sequence and binding properties of an aptamer for immunoglobulin E (IgE) was investigated using custom DNA microarrays. Single, double and some triple mutations of the aptamer sequence were created to evaluate the importance of specific base composition on aptamer binding. The majority of the positions in the aptamer sequence were found to be immutable, with changes at these positions resulting in more than a 100-fold decrease in binding affinity. Improvements in binding were observed by altering the stem region of the aptamer, suggesting that it plays a significant role in binding. Results obtained for the various mutations ...

Contributors
Katilius, Evaldas, Flores, Carole, Woodbury, Neal, et al.
Created Date
2007-12-01

Evolutionary science is indispensable for understanding biological processes. Effective medical treatment must be anchored in sound biology. However, currently the insights available from evolutionary science are not adequately incorporated in either pre-medical or medical school curricula. To illuminate how evolution may be helpful in these areas, examples in which the insights of evolutionary science are already improving medical treatment and ways in which evolutionary reasoning can be practiced in the context of medicine are provided. To facilitate the learning of evolutionary principles, concepts derived from evolutionary science that medical students and professionals should understand are outlined. These concepts are designed ...

Contributors
Graves, Joseph L., Jr., Reiber, Chris, Thanukos, Anna, et al.
Created Date
2016-10-15

The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database, website and repository (http://dnasu.asu.edu or http://dnasu.org). The collection includes plasmids from grant-funded, high-throughput cloning projects performed in our laboratory, plasmids from external researchers, and large collections from consortia such as the ORFeome Collaboration and the NIGMS-funded Protein Structure Initiative: Biology (PSI:Biology). Through DNASU, researchers can search for and access detailed information about each plasmid such as the full length gene insert sequence, vector information, associated publications, and links to external ...

Contributors
Seiler, Catherine, Park, Jin, Sharma, Amit Arunkumar, et al.
Created Date
2013-11-12

Background Parasitic plants, represented by several thousand species of angiosperms, use modified structures known as haustoria to tap into photosynthetic host plants and extract nutrients and water. As a result of their direct plant-plant connections with their host plant, parasitic plants have special opportunities for horizontal gene transfer, the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. There is increasing evidence that parasitic plants have served as recipients and donors of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), but the long-term impacts of eukaryotic HGT in parasitic plants are largely unknown. Results Here we show that a gene encoding albumin 1 KNOTTIN-like protein, ...

Contributors
Zhang, Yeting, Fernandez-Aparicio, Monica, Wafula, Eric K., et al.
Created Date
2013-02-20

Background The inability to inhibit reinforced responses is a defining feature of ADHD associated with impulsivity. The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) has been extolled as an animal model of ADHD, but there is no clear experimental evidence of inhibition deficits in SHR. Attempts to demonstrate these deficits may have suffered from methodological and analytical limitations. Methods We provide a rationale for using two complementary response-withholding tasks to doubly dissociate impulsivity from motivational and motor processes. In the lever-holding task (LHT), continual lever depression was required for a minimum interval. Under a differential reinforcement of low rates schedule (DRL), a minimum ...

Contributors
Sanabria, Federico, Killeen, Peter, Arizona State University. Department of Psychology
Created Date
2008-02-08

Background GoGirlGo! (GGG) is designed to increase girls’ physical activity (PA) using a health behavior and PA-based curriculum and is widely available for free to afterschool programs across the nation. However, GGG has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the GGG curricula to improve PA, and self-efficacy for and enjoyment of PA in elementary aged girls (i.e., 5-13 years). Methods Nine afterschool programs were recruited to participate in the pilot (within subjects repeated measures design). GGG is a 12-week program, with a once a week, one-hour lesson with 30 minutes ...

Contributors
Huberty, Jennifer, Dinkel, Danae M., Beets, Michael W., et al.
Created Date
2014-02-05

Background To examine the influence of ethnicity on liver transaminases among adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods A retrospective medical chart review of 57 (30 males and 27 females) newly diagnosed patients with T2DM. Ethnicity was determined by self-report and height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained using standard clinical procedures. Fasting levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were collected prior to the initiation of any therapy. Results Age, gender, height, weight, BMI, and HbA1c did not differ between ethnic groups. Compared to African-Americans, Hispanics had significantly higher ALT (23.9 ...

Contributors
Hudson, Omar D., Nunez, Martha, Shaibi, Gabriel, et al.
Created Date
2012-11-07

Background Over the last decade, next generation sequencing (NGS) has become widely available, and is now the sequencing technology of choice for most researchers. Nonetheless, NGS presents a challenge for the evolutionary biologists who wish to estimate evolutionary genetic parameters from a mixed sample of unlabelled or untagged individuals, especially when the reconstruction of full length haplotypes can be unreliable. We propose two novel approaches, least squares estimation (LS) and Approximate Bayesian Computation Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation (ABC-MCMC), to infer evolutionary genetic parameters from a collection of short-read sequences obtained from a mixed sample of anonymous DNA using the ...

Contributors
Wu, Steven, Rodrigo, Allen G., Arizona State University. Biodesign Institute
Created Date
2015-11-04

Background Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a poor prognosis, and advances in treatment have led to only marginal increases in overall survival. We and others have shown previously that the therapeutic ketogenic diet (KD) prolongs survival in mouse models of glioma, explained by both direct tumor growth inhibition and suppression of pro-inflammatory microenvironment conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of the KD on the glioma reactive immune response. Methods The GL261-Luc2 intracranial mouse model of glioma was used to investigate the effects of the KD on the tumor-specific immune response. Tumor-infiltrating ...

Contributors
Lussier, Danielle, Woolf, Eric, Johnson, John, et al.
Created Date
2016-05-13

Background Mucin type O-glycosylation is one of the most common types of post-translational modifications that impacts stability and biological functions of many mammalian proteins. A large family of UDP-GalNAc polypeptide:N-acetyl-α-galactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) catalyzes the first step of mucin type O-glycosylation by transferring GalNAc to serine and/or threonine residues of acceptor polypeptides. Plants do not have the enzyme machinery to perform this process, thus restricting their use as bioreactors for production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. Results The present study demonstrates that an isoform of the human GalNAc-Ts family, GalNAc-T2, retains its localization and functionality upon expression in N. benthamiana L. plants. The ...

Contributors
Daskalova, Sasha, Radder, Josiah, Cichacz, Zbigniew, et al.
Created Date
2010-08-24

Background Health information exchange (HIE) is an important tool for improving efficiency and quality and is required for providers to meet Meaningful Use certification from the United States Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. However widespread adoption and use of HIE has been difficult to achieve, especially in settings such as smaller-sized physician practices and federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). We assess electronic data exchange activities and identify barriers and benefits to HIE participation in two underserved settings. Methods We conducted key-informant interviews with stakeholders at physician practices and health centers. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded in two ...

Contributors
McCullough, Mac, Zimmerman, Frederick J., Bell, Douglas S., et al.
Created Date
2014-09-21

Background Responses to hypoxia have been investigated in many species; however, comparative studies between conspecific geographical populations at different altitudes are rare, especially for invertebrates. The migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, is widely distributed around the world, including on the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the low-altitude North China Plain (NP). TP locusts have inhabited Tibetan Plateau for over 34,000 years and thus probably have evolved superior capacity to cope with hypoxia. Results Here we compared the hypoxic responses of TP and NP locusts from morphological, behavioral, and physiological perspectives. We found that TP locusts were more tolerant of extreme hypoxia ...

Contributors
Zhao, Dejian, Zhang, Zhenyu, Cease, Arianne, et al.
Created Date
2013-09-18

Background Diet-derived carotenoid pigments are concentrated in the retinas of birds and serve a variety of functions, including photoprotection. In domesticated bird species (e.g., chickens and quail), retinal carotenoid pigmentation has been shown to respond to large manipulations in light exposure and provide protection against photodamage. However, it is not known if or how wild birds respond to ecologically relevant variation in sun exposure. Methods We manipulated the duration of natural sunlight exposure and dietary carotenoid levels in wild-caught captive House Finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), then measured carotenoid accumulation and oxidative stress in the retina. Results We found no significant effects ...

Contributors
Toomey, Matthew, McGraw, Kevin, Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences
Created Date
2016-03-29

Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a compression neuropathy of the median nerve that results in sensorimotor deficits in the hand. Until recently, the effects of CTS on hand function have been studied using mostly two-digit grip tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coordination of multi-digit forces as a function of object center of mass (CM) during whole-hand grasping. Methods Fourteen CTS patients and age- and gender-matched controls were instructed to grasp, lift, hold, and release a grip device with five digits for seven consecutive lifts while maintaining its vertical orientation. The object CM was changed ...

Contributors
Zhang, Wei, Johnston, Jamie A., Ross, Mark A., et al.
Created Date
2012-11-21

Background We have previously identified two mineral mixtures, CB07 and BY07, and their respective aqueous leachates that exhibit in vitro antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens. The present study assesses cellular ultrastructure and membrane integrity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli after exposure to CB07 and BY07 aqueous leachates. Methods We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate E. coli and MRSA ultrastructure and morphology following exposure to antibacterial leachates. Additionally, we employed Bac light LIVE/DEAD staining and flow cytometry to investigate the cellular membrane as a possible target for antibacterial activity. Results Scanning electron ...

Contributors
Otto, Caitlin, Cunningham, Tanya, Hansen, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2010-09-16

Background Improving perinatal health is the key to achieving the Millennium Development Goal for child survival. Recently, several reviews suggest that scaling up available effective perinatal interventions in an integrated approach can substantially reduce the stillbirth and neonatal death rates worldwide. We evaluated the effect of packaged interventions given in pregnancy, delivery and post-partum periods through integration of community- and facility-based services on perinatal mortality. Methods This study took advantage of an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) and a new Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH) Project initiated in 2007 in Matlab, Bangladesh in half (intervention area) of ...

Contributors
Rahman, Anisur, Moran, Allisyn, Pervin, Jesmin, et al.
Created Date
2011-12-10

Background Peanut consumption favorably influences satiety. This study examined the acute effect of peanut versus grain bar preloads on postmeal satiety and glycemia in healthy adults and the long-term effect of these meal preloads on body mass in healthy overweight adults. Methods In the acute crossover trial (n = 15; 28.4 ± 2.9 y; 23.1 ± 0.9 kg/m[superscript 2]), the preload (isoenergetic peanut or grain bar with water, or water alone) was followed after 60 min with ingestion of a standardized glycemic test meal. Satiety and blood glucose were assessed immediately prior to the preload and to the test meal, ...

Contributors
Johnston, Carol, Catherine, Trier, Fleming, Katie, et al.
Created Date
2013-03-27

Introduction Nutrient availability, assimilation, and allocation can have important and lasting effects on the immune system development of growing animals. Though carotenoid pigments have immunostimulatory properties in many animals, relatively little is known regarding how they influence the immune system during development. Moreover, studies linking carotenoids to health at any life stage have largely been restricted to birds and mammals. We investigated the effects of carotenoid supplementation on multiple aspects of immunity in juvenile veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus). We supplemented half of the chameleons with lutein (a xanthophyll carotenoid) for 14 weeks during development and serially measured multiple aspects of ...

Contributors
McCartney, Kristen, Ligon, Russell, Butler, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2014-03-22

Introduction Abundance of immune cells has been shown to have prognostic and predictive significance in many tumor types. Beyond abundance, the spatial organization of immune cells in relation to cancer cells may also have significant functional and clinical implications. However there is a lack of systematic methods to quantify spatial associations between immune and cancer cells. Methods We applied ecological measures of species interactions to digital pathology images for investigating the spatial associations of immune and cancer cells in breast cancer. We used the Morisita-Horn similarity index, an ecological measure of community structure and predator–prey interactions, to quantify the extent ...

Contributors
Maley, Carlo, Koelble, Konrad, Natrajan, Rachael, et al.
Created Date
2015-09-22

Background A growing body of research emphasizes the importance of contextual factors on health outcomes. Using postcode sector data for Scotland (UK), this study tests the hypothesis of spatial heterogeneity in the relationship between area-level deprivation and mortality to determine if contextual differences in the West vs. the rest of Scotland influence this relationship. Research into health inequalities frequently fails to recognise spatial heterogeneity in the deprivation-health relationship, assuming that global relationships apply uniformly across geographical areas. In this study, exploratory spatial data analysis methods are used to assess local patterns in deprivation and mortality. Spatial regression models are then ...

Contributors
Sridharan, Sanjeev, Koschinsky, Julia, Walker, Jeremy J., et al.
Created Date
2011-05-12

Background Accurately prioritizing candidate disease genes is an important and challenging problem. Various network-based methods have been developed to predict potential disease genes by utilizing the disease similarity network and molecular networks such as protein interaction or gene co-expression networks. Although successful, a common limitation of the existing methods is that they assume all diseases share the same molecular network and a single generic molecular network is used to predict candidate genes for all diseases. However, different diseases tend to manifest in different tissues, and the molecular networks in different tissues are usually different. An ideal method should be able ...

Contributors
Ni, Jingchao, Koyuturk, Mehmet, Tong, Hanghang, et al.
Created Date
2016-11-10

Background The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was used to ascertain whether increases in inadequate sleep differentially affected black and white Americans. We tested the hypothesis that prevalence estimates of inadequate sleep were consistently greater among blacks, and that temporal changes have affected these two strata differentially. Methods NHIS is an ongoing cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized US adults (≥18 years) providing socio-demographic, health risk, and medical factors. Sleep duration was coded as very short sleep [VSS] (<5 h), short sleep [SS] (5–6 h), or long sleep [LS] (>8 h), referenced to 7–8 h sleepers. Analyses adjusted for NHIS’ complex sampling ...

Contributors
Girardin, Jean-Louis, Grandner, Michael A., Youngstedt, Shawn, et al.
Created Date
2015-11-26

Background Lizards are evolutionarily the most closely related vertebrates to humans that can lose and regrow an entire appendage. Regeneration in lizards involves differential expression of hundreds of genes that regulate wound healing, musculoskeletal development, hormonal response, and embryonic morphogenesis. While microRNAs are able to regulate large groups of genes, their role in lizard regeneration has not been investigated. Results MicroRNA sequencing of green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) regenerating tail and associated tissues revealed 350 putative novel and 196 known microRNA precursors. Eleven microRNAs were differentially expressed between the regenerating tail tip and base during maximum outgrowth (25 days post ...

Contributors
Hutchins, Elizabeth, Eckalbar, Walter, Wolter, Justin, et al.
Created Date
2016-05-05

Background Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous tumor and carries a very poor prognosis. Invasion precludes effective treatment and virtually assures tumor recurrence. In the current study, we applied analytical and bioinformatics approaches to identify a set of microRNAs (miRs) from several different human glioblastoma cell lines that exhibit significant differential expression between migratory (edge) and migration-restricted (core) cell populations. The hypothesis of the study is that differential expression of miRs provides an epigenetic mechanism to drive cell migration and invasion. Results Our research data comprise gene expression values for a set of 805 human miRs collected from ...

Contributors
Bradley, Barrie, Loftus, Joseph C., Mielke, Clinton, et al.
Created Date
2014-01-18

Background Little research has explored who responds better to an automated vs. human advisor for health behaviors in general, and for physical activity (PA) promotion in particular. The purpose of this study was to explore baseline factors (i.e., demographics, motivation, interpersonal style, and external resources) that moderate intervention efficacy delivered by either a human or automated advisor. Methods Data were from the CHAT Trial, a 12-month randomized controlled trial to increase PA among underactive older adults (full trial N = 218) via a human advisor or automated interactive voice response advisor. Trial results indicated significant increases in PA in both ...

Contributors
Hekler, Eric, Buman, Matthew, Otten, Jennifer, et al.
Created Date
2013-09-22

Background The discovery of genetic associations is an important factor in the understanding of human illness to derive disease pathways. Identifying multiple interacting genetic mutations associated with disease remains challenging in studying the etiology of complex diseases. And although recently new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at genes implicated in immune response, cholesterol/lipid metabolism, and cell membrane processes have been confirmed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to be associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), a percentage of AD heritability continues to be unexplained. We try to find other genetic variants that may influence LOAD risk utilizing data mining methods. Methods Two ...

Contributors
Briones, Natalia, Dinu, Valentin, Arizona State University. College of Health Solutions. Department of Biomedical Informatics, et al.
Created Date
2012-01-25

Background Overexpression and abnormal accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein (αS) have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. αS can misfold and adopt a variety of morphologies but recent studies implicate oligomeric forms as the most cytotoxic species. Both genetic mutations and chronic exposure to neurotoxins increase αS aggregation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in PD cell models. Results Here we show that curcumin can alleviate αS-induced toxicity, reduce ROS levels and protect cells against apoptosis. We also show that both intracellular overexpression of αS and extracellular addition of oligomeric αS ...

Contributors
Wang, Min, Boddapati, Shanta, Emadi, Sharareh, et al.
Created Date
2010-04-30

Background Heterogeneity within cell populations is relevant to the onset and progression of disease, as well as development and maintenance of homeostasis. Analysis and understanding of the roles of heterogeneity in biological systems require methods and technologies that are capable of single cell resolution. Single cell gene expression analysis by RT-qPCR is an established technique for identifying transcriptomic heterogeneity in cellular populations, but it generally requires specialized equipment or tedious manipulations for cell isolation. Results We describe the optimization of a simple, inexpensive and rapid pipeline which includes isolation and culture of live single cells as well as fluorescence microscopy ...

Contributors
Yaron, Jordan, Ziegler, Colleen, Tran, Thai, et al.
Created Date
2014-05-08

Background The phylogenetic relationships of the lophophorate lineages, ectoprocts, brachiopods and phoronids, within Lophotrochozoa are still controversial. We sequenced an additional mitochondrial genome of the most species-rich lophophorate lineage, the ectoprocts. Although it is known that there are large differences in the nucleotide composition of mitochondrial sequences of different lineages as well as in the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins, this bias is often not considered in phylogenetic analyses. We applied several approaches for reducing compositional bias and saturation in the phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial sequences. Results The complete mitochondrial genome (16,089 bp) of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, ...

Contributors
Nesnidal, Maximilian P., Helmkampf, Martin, Bruchhaus, Iris, et al.
Created Date
2011-11-23

Background Many studies used the older ActiGraph (7164) for physical activity measurement, but this model has been replaced with newer ones (e.g., GT3X+). The assumption that new generation models are more accurate has been questioned, especially for measuring lower intensity levels. The low-frequency extension (LFE) increases the low-intensity sensitivity of newer models, but its comparability with older models is unknown. This study compared step counts and physical activity collected with the 7164 and GT3X + using the Normal Filter and the LFE (GT3X+N and GT3X+LFE, respectively). Findings Twenty-five adults wore 2 accelerometer models simultaneously for 3Âdays and were instructed to ...

Contributors
Cain, Kelli L., Conway, Terry L., Adams, Marc, et al.
Created Date
2013-04-25

Background To determine the effects of high sucrose diets on vascular reactivity. We hypothesized that similar to high fat diets (HFD), HSD feeding would lead to increased adiposity resulting in inflammation and oxidative stress-mediated impairment of vasodilation. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control chow (Chow), HSD or HFD diets for 6 weeks. The role of inflammation and oxidative stress on impaired vasodilation were assessed in isolated mesenteric arterioles. Results HSD and HFD induced increased adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation. HFD rats developed fasting hyperglycemia. Both HSD and HFD rats developed impaired glucose tolerance and hyperleptinemia. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation ...

Contributors
Sweazea, Karen, Lekic, Mateja, Walker, Benjimen R., et al.
Created Date
2010-06-04

Background Time series models can play an important role in disease prediction. Incidence data can be used to predict the future occurrence of disease events. Developments in modeling approaches provide an opportunity to compare different time series models for predictive power. Results We applied ARIMA and Random Forest time series models to incidence data of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) in Egypt, available through the online EMPRES-I system. We found that the Random Forest model outperformed the ARIMA model in predictive ability. Furthermore, we found that the Random Forest model is effective for predicting outbreaks of H5N1 in ...

Contributors
Kane, Michael J., Price, Natalie, Scotch, Matthew, et al.
Created Date
2014-08-13

Background High-throughput technologies such as DNA, RNA, protein, antibody and peptide microarrays are often used to examine differences across drug treatments, diseases, transgenic animals, and others. Typically one trains a classification system by gathering large amounts of probe-level data, selecting informative features, and classifies test samples using a small number of features. As new microarrays are invented, classification systems that worked well for other array types may not be ideal. Expression microarrays, arguably one of the most prevalent array types, have been used for years to help develop classification algorithms. Many biological assumptions are built into classifiers that were designed ...

Contributors
Kukreja, Muskan, Johnston, Stephen, Stafford, Phillip, et al.
Created Date
2012-06-21

Background Tissue-specific RNA plasticity broadly impacts the development, tissue identity and adaptability of all organisms, but changes in composition, expression levels and its impact on gene regulation in different somatic tissues are largely unknown. Here we developed a new method, polyA-tagging and sequencing (PAT-Seq) to isolate high-quality tissue-specific mRNA from Caenorhabditis elegans intestine, pharynx and body muscle tissues and study changes in their tissue-specific transcriptomes and 3’UTRomes. Results We have identified thousands of novel genes and isoforms differentially expressed between these three tissues. The intestine transcriptome is expansive, expressing over 30% of C. elegans mRNAs, while muscle transcriptomes are smaller ...

Contributors
Blazie, Stephen, Babb, Cody, Wilky, Henry, et al.
Created Date
2015-01-20

Background The extracellular sunscreen scytonemin is the most common and widespread indole-alkaloid among cyanobacteria. Previous research using the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 revealed a unique 18-gene cluster (NpR1276 to NpR1259 in the N. punctiforme genome) involved in the biosynthesis of scytonemin. We provide further genomic characterization of these genes in N. punctiforme and extend it to homologous regions in other cyanobacteria. Results Six putative genes in the scytonemin gene cluster (NpR1276 to NpR1271 in the N. punctiforme genome), with no previously known protein function and annotated in this study as scyA to scyF, are likely involved in the assembly ...

Contributors
Soule, Tanya, Palmer, Kendra, Gao, Qunjie, et al.
Created Date
2009-07-24

Background Clostridium acetobutylicum, a gram-positive and spore-forming anaerobe, is a major strain for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol. But a previously isolated hyper-butanol producing strain C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 does not produce spores and has greater capability of solvent production, especially for butanol, than the type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Results Complete genome of C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. Genomic comparison with ATCC 824 identified many variations which may contribute to the hyper-butanol producing characteristics in the EA 2018 strain, including a total of 46 deletion sites and 26 insertion sites. ...

Contributors
Hu, Shiyuan, Zheng, Huajun, Gu, Yang, et al.
Created Date
2011-02-02

Background A growing body of research recommends controlling alcohol availability to reduce harm. Various common approaches, however, provide dramatically different pictures of the physical availability of alcohol. This limits our understanding of the distribution of alcohol access, the causes and consequences of this distribution, and how best to reduce harm. The aim of this study is to introduce both a gravity potential measure of access to alcohol outlets, comparing its strengths and weaknesses to other popular approaches, and an empirically-derived taxonomy of neighborhoods based on the type of alcohol access they exhibit. Methods We obtained geospatial data on Seattle, including ...

Contributors
Grubesic, Anthony, Wei, Ran, Murray, Alan T., et al.
Created Date
2016-08-02

Background Osteosarcoma is one of the most common bone cancers in children. Most patients with metastatic osteosarcoma die of pulmonary disease and limited curative therapeutic options exist for such patients. We have previously shown that PD-1 limits the efficacy of CTL to mediate immune control of metastatic osteosarcoma in the K7M2 mouse model of pulmonary metastatic disease and that blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions can partially improve survival outcomes by enhancing the function of osteosarcoma-specific CTL. However, PD-1/PD-L1 blockade-treated mice eventually succumb to disease due to selection of PD-L1 mAb-resistant tumor cells. We investigated the mechanism of tumor cell resistance after ...

Contributors
Lussier, Danielle, Johnson, John, Hingorani, Pooja, et al.
Created Date
2015-05-19

Background Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) and InfoUSA commercial business lists. Methods We ...

Contributors
Han, Euna, Powell, Lisa M., Zenk, Shannon N., et al.
Created Date
2012-04-18

Photoconvertible fluorescent proteins (pcFPs) constitute a large group of fluorescent proteins related to green fluorescent protein (GFP) that, when exposed to blue light, bear the capability of irreversibly switching their emission color from green to red. Not surprisingly, this fascinating class of FPs has found numerous applications, in particular for the visualization of biological processes. A detailed understanding of the photoconversion mechanism appears indispensable in the design of improved variants for applications such as super-resolution imaging. In this article, recent work is reviewed that involves using pcFPs as a model system for studying protein dynamics. Evidence has been provided that ...

Contributors
Wachter, Rebekka, Arizona State University. School of Molecular Sciences, Arizona State University. Center for Bioenergy and Photosynthesis
Created Date
2017-08-18

The smart-grid approach undergoes many difficulties regarding the strategy that will enable its actual implementation. In this paper, an overview of real-time simulation technologies and their applicability to the smart-grid approach are presented as enabling steps toward the smart-grid’s actual implementation. The objective of this work is to contribute with an introductory text for interested readers of real-time systems in the context of modern electric needs and trends. In addition, a comprehensive review of current applications of real-time simulation in electric systems is provided, together with the basis to understand real-time simulation and the topologies and hardware used to implement ...

Contributors
Ibarra, Luis, Rosales, Antonio, Ponce, Pedro, et al.
Created Date
2017-06-16

The ‘Hestia Project’ uses a bottom-up approach to quantify fossil fuel CO[subscript 2] (FFCO[subscript 2]) emissions spatially at the building/street level and temporally at the hourly level. Hestia FFCO[subscript 2] emissions are provided in the form of a group of sector-specific vector layers with point, line, and polygon sources to support carbon cycle science and climate policy. Application to carbon cycle science, in particular, requires regular gridded data in order to link surface carbon fluxes to atmospheric transport models. However, the heterogeneity and complexity of FFCO[subscript 2] sources within regular grids is sensitive to spatial resolution. From the perspective of ...

Contributors
Liang, Jianming, Gurney, Kevin, O'Keeffe, Darragh, et al.
Created Date
2017-05-19

The optical properties of bulk InAs[subscript 0.936]Bi[subscript 0.064] grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a (100)-oriented GaSb substrate are measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The index of refraction and absorption coefficient are measured over photon energies ranging from 44 meV to 4.4 eV and are used to identify the room temperature bandgap energy of bulk InAs[subscript 0.936]Bi[subscript 0.064] as 60.6 meV. The bandgap of InAsBi is expressed as a function of Bi mole fraction using the band anticrossing model and a characteristic coupling strength of 1.529 eV between the Bi impurity state and the InAs valence band. These results are programmed ...

Contributors
Webster, Preston, Shalindar Christaj, Arvind Joshua Jaydev, Riordan, Nathaniel, et al.
Created Date
2016-06-08

The valley degree of freedom in two-dimensional (2D) crystals recently emerged as a novel information carrier in addition to spin and charge. The intrinsic valley lifetime in 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) is expected to be markedly long due to the unique spin-valley locking behavior, where the intervalley scattering of the electron simultaneously requires a large momentum transfer to the opposite valley and a flip of the electron spin. However, the experimentally observed valley lifetime in 2D TMDs has been limited to tens of nanoseconds thus far. We report efficient generation of microsecond-long-lived valley polarization in WSe[subscript 2]/MoS[subscript 2] heterostructures ...

Contributors
Kim, Jonghwan, Jin, Chenhao, Chen, Bin, et al.
Created Date
2017-07-26

We introduce a non-Hermitian Schrödinger-type approximation of optical Bloch equations for two-level systems. This approximation provides a complete and accurate description of the coherence and decoherence dynamics in both weak and strong laser fields at the cost of losing accuracy in the description of populations. In this approach, it is sufficient to propagate the wave function of the quantum system instead of the density matrix, providing that relaxation and dephasing are taken into account via automatically adjusted time-dependent gain and decay rates. The developed formalism is applied to the problem of scattering and absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a thin ...

Contributors
Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju, Sukharev, Maxim, Charron, Eric, et al.
Created Date
2016-04-20

Recently, near-field thermal radiation has attracted much attention in several fields since it can exceed the Planck blackbody limit through the coupling of evanescent waves. In this work, near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials with two different material property sets is theoretically analyzed. The near-field radiative heat transfer is calculated using fluctuational electrodynamics incorporated with anisotropic wave optics. The underlying mechanisms, namely, magnetic hyperbolic mode, magnetic surface polariton, electrical hyperbolic mode, and electrical surface polariton, between two homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials are investigated by examining the transmission coefficient and the spectral heat flux. The ...

Contributors
Chang, Jui-Yung, Basu, Soumyadipta, Yang, Yue, et al.
Created Date
2016-06-07

Pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of bacteria and fungi release membrane vesicles (MV), containing proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids, into the extracellular milieu. Previously, we demonstrated that several mycobacterial species, including bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, release MV containing lipids and proteins that subvert host immune response in a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent manner (R. Prados-Rosales et al., J. Clin. Invest. 121:1471–1483, 2011, doi:10.1172/JCI44261). In this work, we analyzed the vaccine potential of MV in a mouse model and compared the effects of immunization with MV to those of standard BCG vaccination. Immunization with MV from BCG or M. tuberculosis elicited ...

Contributors
Prados-Rosales, Rafael, Carreno, Leandro J., Batista-Gonzalez, Ana, et al.
Created Date
2014-09-30

Introduction Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation of unknown cause in children. JIA is an autoimmune disease and small numbers of autoantibodies have been reported in JIA patients. The identification of antibody markers could improve the existing clinical management of patients. Methods A pilot study was performed on the application of a high-throughput platform, the nucleic acid programmable protein array (NAPPA), to assess the levels of antibodies present in the systemic circulation and synovial joint of a small cohort of juvenile arthritis patients. Plasma and synovial fluid from 10 JIA patients was screened ...

Contributors
Gibson, David S., Qiu, Ji, Mendoza, D. Eliseo A., et al.
Created Date
2012-04-17

Background Operant hyperactivity, the emission of reinforced responses at an inordinately high rate, has been reported in children with ADHD and in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), the most widely studied animal model of ADHD. The SHR emits behavior at hyperactive levels, relative to a normoactive strain, only when such behavior is seldom reinforced. Because of its dependence on rate of reinforcement, operant hyperactivity appears to be driven primarily by incentive motivation, not motoric capacity. This claim was evaluated in the present study using a novel strategy, based on the organization of behavior in bouts of reinforced responses separated by ...

Contributors
Hill, Jade, Herbst, Katrina, Sanabria, Federico, et al.
Created Date
2012-01-26

Background Recent advances in the treatment of cancer have focused on targeting genomic aberrations with selective therapeutic agents. In rare tumors, where large-scalec linical trials are daunting, this targeted genomic approach offers a new perspective and hope for improved treatments. Cancers of the ampulla of Vater are rare tumors that comprise only about 0.2% of gastrointestinal cancers. Consequently, they are often treated as either distal common bile duct or pancreatic cancers. Methods We analyzed DNA from a resected cancer of the ampulla of Vater and whole blood DNAfrom a 63 year-old man who underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy by whole genomesequencing, achieving ...

Contributors
Demeure, Michael J., Craig, David W., Sinari, Shripad, et al.
Created Date
2012-07-04

Background Glycosylated proteins and lipids are important regulatory factors whose functions can be altered by addition or removal of sugars to the glycan structure. The glycans are recognized by sugar-binding lectins that serve as receptors on the surface of many cells and facilitate initiation of an intracellular signal that changes the properties of the cells. We identified a peptide that mimics the ligand of an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific lectin and asked whether the peptide would express specific biological activity. Findings A 12-mer phage display library was screened with a GalNAc-specific lectin to identify an amino acid sequence that binds to the ...

Contributors
Eggink, Laura, Hoober, Kenneth, Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences
Created Date
2009-02-11

Background Postmortem memento photography has emerged in Western hospitals as part of compassionate bereavement care for parents facing perinatal death. Many parents endorse this psychosocial intervention, yet implementation varies greatly and little research on parents’ specific needs guides health care professionals. Parents are in crisis and vulnerable after the death of their child, thus best practice is crucial. This study contributes 104 parents’ experiences and opinions toward the understanding of best practice in perinatal bereavement photography. Methods Parents who experienced the perinatal death of their child were recruited from U.S.-based bereavement organizations and social media sites. Volunteers completed an anonymous ...

Contributors
Blood, Cybele, Cacciatore, Joanne, Arizona State University. School of Social Work
Created Date
2014-06-23

Background Model selection is a vital part of most phylogenetic analyses, and accounting for the heterogeneity in evolutionary patterns across sites is particularly important. Mixture models and partitioning are commonly used to account for this variation, and partitioning is the most popular approach. Most current partitioning methods require some a priori partitioning scheme to be defined, typically guided by known structural features of the sequences, such as gene boundaries or codon positions. Recent evidence suggests that these a priori boundaries often fail to adequately account for variation in rates and patterns of evolution among sites. Furthermore, new phylogenomic datasets such ...

Contributors
Frandsen, Paul B., Calcott, Brett, Mayer, Christoph, et al.
Created Date
2015-02-10

Background The purpose of the study was to develop and test the initial psychometric properties of the ATTitudes and Avatars INstrument (ATTAIN). The integrated behavior model guided instrument development to measure the young adolescent boys’ attitudes, intentions and actions to change their bodies. Methods An adolescent health expert panel and young adolescent boys were recruited to test for content validity. Fifty-nine boys 11 to 14 years of age were recruited at a middle school in the USA during physical education class to conduct a pilot study to test for internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results The ATTAIN was found to ...

Contributors
Lyles, Annmarie, Riesch, Susan K., Brown, Roger L., et al.
Created Date
2015-07-14

We report on a new numerical approach for multi-band drift within the context of full band Monte Carlo (FBMC) simulation and apply this to Si and InAs nanowires. The approach is based on the solution of the Krieger and Iafrate (KI) equations [J. B. Krieger and G. J. Iafrate, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5494 (1986)], which gives the probability of carriers undergoing interband transitions subject to an applied electric field. The KI equations are based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and previous solutions of these equations have used Runge-Kutta (RK) methods to numerically solve the KI equations. ...

Contributors
Hathwar, Raghuraj, Saraniti, Marco, Goodnick, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2016-07-29

Public power system test cases that are of high quality benefit the power systems research community with expanded resources for testing, demonstrating, and cross-validating new innovations. Building synthetic grid models for this purpose is a relatively new problem, for which a challenge is to show that created cases are sufficiently realistic. This paper puts forth a validation process based on a set of metrics observed from actual power system cases. These metrics follow the structure, proportions, and parameters of key power system elements, which can be used in assessing and validating the quality of synthetic power grids. Though wide diversity ...

Contributors
Birchfield, Adam B., Schweitzer, Eran, Athari, Mir Hadi, et al.
Created Date
2017-08-19

The ways in which we travel—by what mode, for how long, and for what purpose—can affect our sense of happiness and well-being. This paper assesses the relationships between measures of the sustainability of transportation systems in U.S. metropolitan areas and subjective well-being. Associations between self-reported happiness levels from the Gallup Healthways Well-being Index and commute data were examined for 187 core-based statistical areas (CBSA). We also supplement this quantitative analysis through brief case studies of high- and low-performing happiness cities. Our quantitative results indicate that regions with higher commute mode shares by non-automobile modes generally had higher well-being scores, even ...

Contributors
Cloutier, Scott, Karner, Alex, Breetz, Hanna, et al.
Created Date
2017-07-13

The brain is a common site of metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer, which has few therapeutic options and dismal outcomes. The purpose of our study was to identify common and rare events that underlie breast cancer brain metastasis. We performed deep genomic profiling, which integrated gene copy number, gene expression and DNA methylation datasets on a collection of breast brain metastases. We identified frequent large chromosomal gains in 1q, 5p, 8q, 11q, and 20q and frequent broad-level deletions involving 8p, 17p, 21p and Xq. Frequently amplified and overexpressed genes included ATAD2, BRAF, DERL1, DNMTRB and NEK2A. The ATM, ...

Contributors
Salhia, Bodour, Kiefer, Jeff, Ross, Julianna T. D., et al.
Created Date
2014-01-29

Background Zoonotic avian influenza poses a major risk to China, and other parts of the world. H5N1 has remained endemic in China and globally for nearly two decades, and in 2013, a novel zoonotic influenza A subtype H7N9 emerged in China. This study aimed to improve upon our current understanding of the spreading mechanisms of H7N9 and H5N1 by generating spatial risk profiles for each of the two virus subtypes across mainland China. Methods and findings In this study, we (i) developed a refined data set of H5N1 and H7N9 locations with consideration of animal/animal environment case data, as well ...

Contributors
Bui, Chau Minh, Gardner, Lauren, MacIntyre, Chandini, et al.
Created Date
2017-04-04

The properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) have been studied for application in intermediate band solar cells. It is found that suppression of plastic relaxation in the QDs has a significant effect on the optoelectronic properties. Partial capping plus annealing is shown to be effective in controlling the height of the QDs and in suppressing plastic relaxation. A force balancing model is used to explain the relationship between plastic relaxation and QD height. A strong luminescence has been observed from strained QDs, indicating the presence of localized states in the desired energy range. No luminescence has been observed from plastically ...

Contributors
Xie, Hongen, Prioli Menezes, Rodrigo, Fischer, Alec M., et al.
Created Date
2016-07-15

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used ...

Contributors
Wang, Ying, Brent, Colin S., Fennern, Erin, et al.
Created Date
2012-06-28

A modified mathematical model describing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis with cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and infected cells in eclipse phase is presented and studied in this paper. The model under consideration also includes a saturated rate describing viral infection. First, the positivity and boundedness of solutions for nonnegative initial data are proved. Next, the global stability of the disease free steady state and the endemic steady states are established depending on the basic reproduction number R[subscript 0] and the CTL immune response reproduction number R[subscript CTL]. Moreover, numerical simulations are performed in order to show the numerical stability for ...

Contributors
Allali, Karam, Danane, Jaouad, Kuang, Yang, et al.
Created Date
2017-08-21

Anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) generate electric current in microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs) by channeling electrons from the oxidation of organic substrates to an electrode. Production of high current densities by monocultures in MXCs has resulted almost exclusively from the activity of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a neutrophilic freshwater Fe(III)-reducing bacterium and the highest-current-producing member documented for the Geobacteraceae family of the Deltaproteobacteria. Here we report high current densities generated by haloalkaliphilic Geoalkalibacter spp., thus broadening the capability for high anode respiration rates by including other genera within the Geobacteraceae. In this study, acetate-fed pure cultures of two related Geoalkalibacter spp. produced current densities ...

Contributors
Badalamenti, Jonathan, Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa, Torres, Cesar, et al.
Created Date
2013-04-30

Gain control is essential for the proper function of any sensory system. However, the precise mechanisms for achieving effective gain control in the brain are unknown. Based on our understanding of the existence and strength of connections in the insect olfactory system, we analyze the conditions that lead to controlled gain in a randomly connected network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We consider two scenarios for the variation of input into the system. In the first case, the intensity of the sensory input controls the input currents to a fixed proportion of neurons of the excitatory and inhibitory populations. In ...

Contributors
Serrano, Eduardo, Nowotny, Thomas, Levi, Rafael, et al.
Created Date
2013-07-18

Using non-linear dielectric techniques, we have measured the dynamics of 5-methyl-3-heptanol at a temperature at which the Kirkwood correlation factor g[subscript K] indicates the coexistence of ring- and chain-like hydrogen-bonded structures. Steady state permittivity spectra recorded in the presence of a high dc bias electric field (17 MV/m) reveal that both the amplitude and the time constant are increased by about 10% relative to the low field limit. This change is attributed to the field driven conversion from ring-like to the more polar chain-like structures, and a direct observation of its time dependence shows that the ring/chain structural transition occurs ...

Contributors
Young-Gonzales, Amanda, Richert, Ranko, Arizona State University. School of Molecular Sciences
Created Date
2016-08-16

The molecular mechanisms that allow generalist parasitoids to exploit many, often very distinct hosts are practically unknown. The wasp Aphidius ervi, a generalist koinobiont parasitoid of aphids, was introduced from Europe into Chile in the late 1970s to control agriculturally important aphid species. A recent study showed significant differences in host preference and host acceptance (infectivity) depending on the host A. ervi were reared on. In contrast, no genetic differentiation between A. ervi populations parasitizing different aphid species and aphids of the same species reared on different host plants was found in Chile. Additionally, the same study did not find ...

Contributors
Ballesteros, Gabriel I., Gadau, Juergen, Legeai, Fabrice, et al.
Created Date
2017-08-21

Modulated reflectance (contactless electroreflectance (CER), photoreflectance (PR), and piezoreflectance (PzR)) has been applied to study direct optical transitions in bulk MoS[subscript 2], MoSe[subscript 2], WS[subscript 2], and WSe[subscript 2]. In order to interpret optical transitions observed in CER, PR, and PzR spectra, the electronic band structure for the four crystals has been calculated from the first principles within the density functional theory for various points of Brillouin zone including K and H points. It is clearly shown that the electronic band structure at H point of Brillouin zone is very symmetric and similar to the electronic band structure at K ...

Contributors
Kopaczek, J., Polak, M. P., Scharoch, P., et al.
Created Date
2016-06-21

Chemical vapor deposition methods were developed, using stoichiometric reactions of specialty Ge[subscript 3]H[subscript 8] and SnD[subscript 4] hydrides, to fabricate Ge[subscript 1-y]Sn[subscript y] photodiodes with very high Sn concentrations in the 12%–16% range. A unique aspect of this approach is the compatible reactivity of the compounds at ultra-low temperatures, allowing efficient control and systematic tuning of the alloy composition beyond the direct gap threshold. This crucial property allows the formation of thick supersaturated layers with device-quality material properties. Diodes with composition up to 14% Sn were initially produced on Ge-buffered Si(100) featuring previously optimized n-Ge/i-Ge[subscript 1-y]Sn[subscript y]/p-Ge[subscript 1-z]Sn[subscript z] type ...

Contributors
Senaratne, Charutha Lasitha, Wallace, Patrick, Gallagher, John, et al.
Created Date
2016-07-13

We define the dielectric constant (susceptibility) that should enter the Maxwell boundary value problem when applied to microscopic dielectric interfaces polarized by external fields. The dielectric constant (susceptibility) of the interface is defined by exact linear-response equations involving correlations of statistically fluctuating interface polarization and the Coulomb interaction energy of external charges with the dielectric. The theory is applied to the interface between water and spherical solutes of altering size studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The effective dielectric constant of interfacial water is found to be significantly lower than its bulk value, and it also depends on the solute ...

Contributors
Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan, Matyushov, Dmitry, Arizona State University. Department of Physics, et al.
Created Date
2016-07-06

Singly deuterated silylene has been detected and characterized in the gas-phase using high-resolution, two-dimensional, optical spectroscopy. Rotationally resolved lines in the 0[0 over 0][˜ over X][superscript 1]A′ → [˜ over A][superscript 1]A′′000X˜1A′→A˜1A″ band are assigned to both c-type perpendicular transition and additional parallel, axis-switching induced bands. The extracted rotational constants were combined with those for SiH[subscript 2] and SiD[subscript 2] to determine an improved equilibrium bond length, r[subscript SiH], and bond angle, θ, of 1.5137 ± 0.0003 Å and 92.04° ± 0.05°, and 1.4853 ± 0.0005 Å and 122.48° ± 0.08° for the [˜ over X][superscript 1]A′(0, 0, 0) and ...

Contributors
Kokkin, Damian, Ma, Tongmei, Steimle, Timothy, et al.
Created Date
2016-06-27

Dengue virus (DV) infections cause undisputedly the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in terms of worldwide prevalence, human suffering, and cost. Worldwide DV infection prevalence in 2010 was between 284 to 528 million cases. Approximately 84% of these cases come from Asia and the Americas, where the cost for emerging economies can be as high as 580 million dollars per year. Thus, the need for an efficient vaccine against DV is extreme.

Contributors
Maria del Angel, Rosa, Reyes del Valle, Jorge, Arizona State University. School of Life Science
Created Date
2013-10-03

α-(1,3)-Glucan is a major component of the cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic human fungal pathogen. There are three genes (AGS1, AGS2 and AGS3) controlling the biosynthesis of α-(1,3)-glucan in this fungal species. Deletion of all the three AGS genes resulted in a triple mutant that was devoid of α-(1,3)-glucan in its cell wall; however, its growth and germination was identical to that of the parental strain in vitro. In the experimental murine aspergillosis model, this mutant was less pathogenic than the parental strain. The AGS deletion resulted in an extensive structural modification of the conidial cell wall, especially ...

Contributors
Beauvais, Anne, Bozza, Silvia, Kniemeyer, Olaf, et al.
Created Date
2013-11-14

Community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in the US. We developed an age-structured compartmental model to study the spread of CA-MRSA at the population level and assess the effect of control intervention strategies. We used Monte-Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) techniques to parameterize our model using monthly time series data on SSTIs incidence in children (≤19 years) during January 2004 -December 2006 in Maricopa County, Arizona. Our model-based forecast for the period January 2007–December 2008 also provided a good fit to data. We also carried out an uncertainty and ...

Contributors
Wang, Xiaoxia, Panchanathan, Sarada, Chowell-Puente, Gerardo, et al.
Created Date
2013-11-21

The optical properties of intersubband transition in a semipolar AlGaN/GaN single quantum well (SQW) are theoretically studied, and the results are compared with polar c-plane and nonpolar m-plane structures. The intersubband transition frequency, dipole matrix elements, and absorption spectra are calculated for SQW on different semipolar planes. It is found that SQW on a certain group of semipolar planes (55° < θ < 90° tilted from c-plane) exhibits low transition frequency and long wavelength response with high absorption quantum efficiency, which is attributed to the weak polarization-related effects. Furthermore, these semipolar SQWs show tunable transition frequency and absorption wavelength with ...

Contributors
Fu, Houqiang, Lu, Zhijian, Huang, Xuanqi, et al.
Created Date
2016-05-05

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a fatal hematological cancer. The genetic abnormalities underlying AML are extremely heterogeneous among patients, making prognosis and treatment selection very difficult. While clinical proteomics data has the potential to improve prognosis accuracy, thus far, the quantitative means to do so have yet to be developed. Here we report the results and insights gained from the DREAM 9 Acute Myeloid Prediction Outcome Prediction Challenge (AML-OPC), a crowdsourcing effort designed to promote the development of quantitative methods for AML prognosis prediction. We identify the most accurate and robust models in predicting patient response to therapy, remission duration, ...

Contributors
Noren, David P., Long, Byron L., Norel, Raquel, et al.
Created Date
2016-06-28

Thousands of mothers are at risk of transmitting mitochondrial diseases to their offspring each year, with the most severe form of these diseases being fatal [1]. With no cure, transmission prevention is the only current hope for decreasing the disease incidence. Current methods of prevention rely on low mutant maternal mitochondrial DNA levels, while those with levels close to or above threshold (>60%) are still at a very high risk of transmission [2]. Two novel approaches may offer hope for preventing and treating mitochondrial disease: mitochondrial replacement therapy, and CRISPR/Cas9. Mitochondrial replacement therapy has emerged as a promising tool that ...

Contributors
Fogelman, Sarah, Santana, Casey, Bishop, Casey, et al.
Created Date
2016-08-30

Mechanical oscillations or vibrations on spacecraft, also called pointing jitter, cause geometric distortions and/or smear in high resolution digital images acquired from orbit. Geometric distortion is especially a problem with pushbroom type sensors, such as the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) instrument on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Geometric distortions occur at a range of frequencies that may not be obvious in the image products, but can cause problems with stereo image correlation in the production of digital elevation models, and in measuring surface changes over time in orthorectified images. The HiRISE focal plane comprises a staggered array ...

Contributors
Sutton, S. S., Boyd, Aaron, Kirk, R. L., et al.
Created Date
2017-08-16

Background Theory suggests that individual behavioral responses impact the spread of flu-like illnesses, but this has been difficult to empirically characterize. Social distancing is an important component of behavioral response, though analyses have been limited by a lack of behavioral data. Our objective is to use media data to characterize social distancing behavior in order to empirically inform explanatory and predictive epidemiological models. Methods We use data on variation in home television viewing as a proxy for variation in time spent in the home and, by extension, contact. This behavioral proxy is imperfect but appealing since information on a rich ...

Contributors
Springborn, Michael, Chowell-Puente, Gerardo, MacLachlan, Matthew, et al.
Created Date
2015-01-23