ASU Scholarship Showcase

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2006 2017

Pay-for-performance (PFP) is a relatively new approach to agricultural conservation that attaches an incentive payment to quantified reductions in nutrient runoff from a participating farm. Similar to a payment for ecosystem services approach, PFP lends itself to providing incentives for the most beneficial practices at the field level. To date, PFP conservation in the U.S. has only been applied in small pilot programs. Because monitoring conservation performance for each field enrolled in a program would be cost-prohibitive, field-level modeling can provide cost-effective estimates of anticipated improvements in nutrient runoff. We developed a PFP system that uses a unique application of ...

Contributors
Muenich, Rebecca, Kalcic, M. M., Winsten, J., et al.
Created Date
2017

We numerically demonstrate a switchable metamaterial absorber/emitter by thermally turning on or off the excitation of magnetic resonance upon the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Perfect absorption peak exists around the wavelength of 5 lm when the excitation of magnetic resonance is supported with the insulating VO2 spacer layer. The wavelength-selective absorption is switched off when the magnetic resonance is disabled with metallic VO2 that shorts the top and bottom metallic structures. The resonance wavelength can be tuned with different geometry, and the switchable metamaterial exhibits diffuse behaviors at oblique angles. The results would facilitate the design of switchable ...

Contributors
Wang, Hao, Wang, Yue, Wang, Liping
Created Date
2014-08-19

Background There is much concern regarding undisclosed corporate authorship (“ghostwriting”) in the peer-reviewed medical literature. However, there are no studies of how disclosure of ghostwriting alone impacts the perceived credibility of research results. Findings We conducted a randomized vignette study with experienced nurses (n = 67), using a fictional study of antidepressant medication. The vignette described a randomized controlled trial and gave efficacy and adverse effect rates. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two authorship conditions, either (a) traditional authorship (n = 35) or (b) ghostwritten paper (n = 32), and then completed a perceived credibility scale. Our primary ...

Contributors
Lacasse, Jeffrey, Leo, Jonathan, Cimino, Andrea, et al.
Created Date
2012-09-05

Background Malignant brain tumors affect people of all ages and are the second leading cause of cancer deaths in children. While current treatments are effective and improve survival, there remains a substantial need for more efficacious therapeutic modalities. The ketogenic diet (KD) - a high-fat, low-carbohydrate treatment for medically refractory epilepsy - has been suggested as an alternative strategy to inhibit tumor growth by altering intrinsic metabolism, especially by inducing glycopenia. Methods Here, we examined the effects of an experimental KD on a mouse model of glioma, and compared patterns of gene expression in tumors vs. normal brain from animals ...

Contributors
Stafford, Phillip, Abdelwahab, Mohammed G., Kim, Do Young, et al.
Created Date
2010-09-10

Background Juvenile hormone (JH) has been demonstrated to control adult lifespan in a number of non-model insects where surgical removal of the corpora allata eliminates the hormone’s source. In contrast, little is known about how juvenile hormone affects adult Drosophila melanogaster. Previous work suggests that insulin signaling may modulate Drosophila aging in part through its impact on juvenile hormone titer, but no data yet address whether reduction of juvenile hormone is sufficient to control Drosophila life span. Here we adapt a genetic approach to knock out the corpora allata in adult Drosophila melanogaster and characterize adult life history phenotypes produced ...

Contributors
Yamamoto, Rochelle, Bai, Hua, Dolezal, Adam, et al.
Created Date
2013-07-17

Background Following incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), descending drive is impaired, possibly leading to a decrease in the complexity of gait. To test the hypothesis that iSCI impairs gait coordination and decreases locomotor complexity, we collected 3D joint angle kinematics and muscle parameters of rats with a sham or an incomplete spinal cord injury. Methods 12 adult, female, Long-Evans rats, 6 sham and 6 mild-moderate T8 iSCI, were tested 4 weeks following injury. The Basso Beattie Bresnahan locomotor score was used to verify injury severity. Animals had reflective markers placed on the bony prominences of their limb joints and were ...

Contributors
Hillen, Brian, Yamaguchi, Gary T., Abbas, James, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-15

Background The World Health Organization recommends strategies to improve urban design, public transportation, and recreation facilities to facilitate physical activity for non-communicable disease prevention for an increasingly urbanized global population. Most evidence supporting environmental associations with physical activity comes from single countries or regions with limited variation in urban form. This paper documents variation in comparable built environment features across countries from diverse regions. Methods The International Physical Activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) study of adults aimed to measure the full range of variation in the built environment using geographic information systems (GIS) across 12 countries on 5 continents. ...

Contributors
Adams, Marc, Frank, Lawrence D., Schipperijn, Jasper, et al.
Created Date
2014-10-25

Background Advancements in geographic information systems over the past two decades have increased the specificity by which an individual’s neighborhood environment may be spatially defined for physical activity and health research. This study investigated how different types of street network buffering methods compared in measuring a set of commonly used built environment measures (BEMs) and tested their performance on associations with physical activity outcomes. Methods An internationally-developed set of objective BEMs using three different spatial buffering techniques were used to evaluate the relative differences in resulting explanatory power on self-reported physical activity outcomes. BEMs were developed in five countries using ...

Contributors
Frank, Lawrence D., Fox, Eric H., Ulmer, Jared M., et al.
Created Date
2017-01-23

Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease that affects between 50 and 100 million people each year. Increasing our understanding of the heterogeneous transmission patterns of dengue at different spatial scales could have considerable public health value by guiding intervention strategies. Methods Based on the weekly number of dengue cases in Perú by province, we investigated the association between dengue incidence during the period 1994-2008 and demographic and climate factors across geographic regions of the country. Results Our findings support the presence of significant differences in the timing of dengue epidemics between jungle and coastal regions, with differences significantly associated ...

Contributors
Chowell-Puente, Gerardo, Cazelles, Bernard, Broutin, Helene, et al.
Created Date
2011-06-08

Background The role of demographic factors, climatic conditions, school cycles, and connectivity patterns in shaping the spatio-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza is not clearly understood. Here we analyzed the spatial, age and temporal evolution of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile, a southern hemisphere country covering a long and narrow strip comprising latitudes 17°S to 56°S. Methods We analyzed the dissemination patterns of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic across 15 regions of Chile based on daily hospitalizations for severe acute respiratory disease and laboratory confirmed A/H1N1 influenza infection from 01-May to 31-December, 2009. We explored the association between timing of ...

Contributors
Chowell-Puente, Gerardo, Towers, Sherry, Viboud, Cecile, et al.
Created Date
2012-11-13

This study experimentally evaluated the short-term effects of the Arizona Attorney General’s cybersafety promotion presentation, a key component of which is cyberbullying prevention. Fifty-one parents of children attending a middle school in the southwestern United States participated in the study. Results reveal parents who viewed the presentation believed their children to be more susceptible to cyberbullying, and indicated that they were more likely to talk to their children about saving evidence, not retaliating, and telling an adult compared to parents who had not viewed the presentation. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

Contributors
Roberto, Tony, Eden, Jen, Deiss, Douglas M., et al.
Created Date
2017-09-09

Background Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a localized skin lesion that can progress to extensive ulceration and necrosis if left untreated. Unpublished studies of hydrated clays for therapeutic, topical treatment of Buruli ulcer suggest that specific clay mineral products may have beneficial effects on wound healing. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of a panel of clay mixtures and their derivative leachates against M. ulcerans and assessed the in vivo efficacy of topically-applied, hydrated clays on Buruli ulcer progression in mice infected with M. ulcerans. Methods M. ulcerans 1615 was incubated with 10 % ...

Contributors
Adusumilli, Sarojini, Hayden, Shelley, Arizona State University. Biodesign Institute. Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, et al.
Created Date
2016-01-30

Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who ...

Contributors
Della Santina, Cosimo, Bianchi, Matteo, Averta, Giuseppe, et al.
Created Date
2017-08-29

Background Blindness has evolved repeatedly in cave-dwelling organisms, and many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation, including both accumulation of neutral loss-of-function mutations and adaptation to darkness. Investigating the loss of sight in cave dwellers presents an opportunity to understand the operation of fundamental evolutionary processes, including drift, selection, mutation, and migration. Results Here we model the evolution of blindness in caves. This model captures the interaction of three forces: (1) selection favoring alleles causing blindness, (2) immigration of sightedness alleles from a surface population, and (3) mutations creating blindness alleles. We investigated the dynamics of this model ...

Contributors
Cartwright, Reed, Schwartz, Rachel, Merry, Alexandra, et al.
Created Date
2017-02-07

Material wealth is a key factor shaping human development and well-being. Every year, hundreds of studies in social science and policy fields assess material wealth in low- and middle-income countries assuming that there is a single dimension by which households can move from poverty to prosperity. However, a one-dimensional model may miss important kinds of prosperity, particularly in countries where traditional subsistence-based livelihoods coexist with modern cash economies. Using multiple correspondence analysis to analyze representative household data from six countries—Nepal, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Guatemala—across three world regions, we identify a number of independent dimension of wealth, each with ...

Contributors
Hruschka, Daniel, Hadley, Craig, Hackman, Joseph, et al.
Created Date
2017-09-08

Mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation and is, therefore, central to evolutionary change. Previous work on Paramecium tetraurelia found an unusually low germline base-substitution mutation rate in this ciliate. Here, we tested the generality of this result among ciliates using Tetrahymena thermophila. We sequenced the genomes of 10 lines of T. thermophila that had each undergone approximately 1,000 generations of mutation accumulation (MA). We applied an existing mutation-calling pipeline and developed a new probabilistic mutation detection approach that directly models the design of an MA experiment and accommodates the noise introduced by mismapped reads. Our probabilistic mutation-calling ...

Contributors
Long, Hongan, Winter, David, Chang, Allan Y.-C., et al.
Created Date
2016-09-15

The metastatic activity of breast carcinomas results from complex genetic changes in epithelial tumor cells and accounts for 90% of deaths in affected patients. Although the invasion of the local lymphatic vessels and veins by malignant breast tumor cells and their subsequent metastasis to the lung, has been recognized, the mechanisms behind the metastatic activity of breast tumor cells to other distal organs and the pathogenesis of metastatic cancer are not well understood. In this study, we utilized derivatives of the well-established and highly metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 (MDA-231) to study breast tumor metastasis in ...

Contributors
Kwiecien, Jacek M., Bassey-Archibong, Blessing I., Dabrowski, Wojciech, et al.
Created Date
2017-09-07

Background The green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis, is a key species for both laboratory and field-based studies of evolutionary genetics, development, neurobiology, physiology, behavior, and ecology. As the first non-avian reptilian genome sequenced, A. carolinesis is also a prime reptilian model for comparison with other vertebrate genomes. The public databases of Ensembl and NCBI have provided a first generation gene annotation of the anole genome that relies primarily on sequence conservation with related species. A second generation annotation based on tissue-specific transcriptomes would provide a valuable resource for molecular studies. Results Here we provide an annotation of the A. carolinensis ...

Contributors
Eckalbar, Walter, Hutchins, Elizabeth, Markov, Glenn, et al.
Created Date
2013-01-23

A new study on sex chromosome evolution in papaya helps to illuminate sex chromosome biology, including deviations from expected trajectories.

Contributors
Taravella, Angela, Wilson Sayres, Melissa, Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2016-11-29

Honey bees as other insects rely on the innate immune system for protection against diseases. The innate immune system includes the circulating hemocytes (immune cells) that clear pathogens from hemolymph (blood) by phagocytosis, nodulation or encapsulation. Honey bee hemocyte numbers have been linked to hemolymph levels of vitellogenin. Vitellogenin is a multifunctional protein with immune-supportive functions identified in a range of species, including the honey bee. Hemocyte numbers can increase via mitosis, and this recruitment process can be important for immune system function and maintenance. Here, we tested if hemocyte mediated phagocytosis differs among the physiologically different honey bee worker ...

Contributors
Hystad, Eva Marit, Salmela, Heli, Amdam, Gro, et al.
Created Date
2017-09-06

Essential or enduring understandings are often defined as the underlying core concepts or “big ideas” we’d like our students to remember when much of the course content has been forgotten. The central dogma of molecular biology and how cellular information is stored, used, and conveyed is one of the essential understandings students should retain after a course or unit in molecular biology or genetics. An additional enduring understanding is the relationships between DNA sequence, RNA sequence, mRNA production and processing, and the resulting polypeptide/protein product. A final big idea in molecular biology is the relationship between DNA mutation and polypeptide ...

Contributors
Marshall, Pamela, Arizona State University. New College of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences. School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences
Created Date
2017-08-11

The elongases of very long chain fatty acid (ELOVL or ELO) are essential in the biosynthesis of fatty acids longer than C14. Here, two ELO full-length cDNAs (TmELO1, TmELO2) from the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) were isolated and the functions were characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) lengths of TmELO1 and TmELO2 were 1005 bp and 972 bp, respectively and the corresponding peptide sequences each contained several conserved motifs including the histidine-box motif HXXHH. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated high similarity with the ELO of Tribolium castaneum and Drosophila melanogaster. Both TmELO genes were expressed at various levels in eggs, 1st ...

Contributors
Zheng, Tianxiang, Li, Hongshuang, Han, Na, et al.
Created Date
2017-09-08

The relationship between sequence and binding properties of an aptamer for immunoglobulin E (IgE) was investigated using custom DNA microarrays. Single, double and some triple mutations of the aptamer sequence were created to evaluate the importance of specific base composition on aptamer binding. The majority of the positions in the aptamer sequence were found to be immutable, with changes at these positions resulting in more than a 100-fold decrease in binding affinity. Improvements in binding were observed by altering the stem region of the aptamer, suggesting that it plays a significant role in binding. Results obtained for the various mutations ...

Contributors
Katilius, Evaldas, Flores, Carole, Woodbury, Neal, et al.
Created Date
2007-12-01

Evolutionary science is indispensable for understanding biological processes. Effective medical treatment must be anchored in sound biology. However, currently the insights available from evolutionary science are not adequately incorporated in either pre-medical or medical school curricula. To illuminate how evolution may be helpful in these areas, examples in which the insights of evolutionary science are already improving medical treatment and ways in which evolutionary reasoning can be practiced in the context of medicine are provided. To facilitate the learning of evolutionary principles, concepts derived from evolutionary science that medical students and professionals should understand are outlined. These concepts are designed ...

Contributors
Graves, Joseph L., Jr., Reiber, Chris, Thanukos, Anna, et al.
Created Date
2016-10-15

The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database, website and repository (http://dnasu.asu.edu or http://dnasu.org). The collection includes plasmids from grant-funded, high-throughput cloning projects performed in our laboratory, plasmids from external researchers, and large collections from consortia such as the ORFeome Collaboration and the NIGMS-funded Protein Structure Initiative: Biology (PSI:Biology). Through DNASU, researchers can search for and access detailed information about each plasmid such as the full length gene insert sequence, vector information, associated publications, and links to external ...

Contributors
Seiler, Catherine, Park, Jin, Sharma, Amit Arunkumar, et al.
Created Date
2013-11-12

Background Parasitic plants, represented by several thousand species of angiosperms, use modified structures known as haustoria to tap into photosynthetic host plants and extract nutrients and water. As a result of their direct plant-plant connections with their host plant, parasitic plants have special opportunities for horizontal gene transfer, the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. There is increasing evidence that parasitic plants have served as recipients and donors of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), but the long-term impacts of eukaryotic HGT in parasitic plants are largely unknown. Results Here we show that a gene encoding albumin 1 KNOTTIN-like protein, ...

Contributors
Zhang, Yeting, Fernandez-Aparicio, Monica, Wafula, Eric K., et al.
Created Date
2013-02-20

Background The inability to inhibit reinforced responses is a defining feature of ADHD associated with impulsivity. The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) has been extolled as an animal model of ADHD, but there is no clear experimental evidence of inhibition deficits in SHR. Attempts to demonstrate these deficits may have suffered from methodological and analytical limitations. Methods We provide a rationale for using two complementary response-withholding tasks to doubly dissociate impulsivity from motivational and motor processes. In the lever-holding task (LHT), continual lever depression was required for a minimum interval. Under a differential reinforcement of low rates schedule (DRL), a minimum ...

Contributors
Sanabria, Federico, Killeen, Peter, Arizona State University. Department of Psychology
Created Date
2008-02-08

Background GoGirlGo! (GGG) is designed to increase girls’ physical activity (PA) using a health behavior and PA-based curriculum and is widely available for free to afterschool programs across the nation. However, GGG has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the GGG curricula to improve PA, and self-efficacy for and enjoyment of PA in elementary aged girls (i.e., 5-13 years). Methods Nine afterschool programs were recruited to participate in the pilot (within subjects repeated measures design). GGG is a 12-week program, with a once a week, one-hour lesson with 30 minutes ...

Contributors
Huberty, Jennifer, Dinkel, Danae M., Beets, Michael W., et al.
Created Date
2014-02-05

Background To examine the influence of ethnicity on liver transaminases among adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods A retrospective medical chart review of 57 (30 males and 27 females) newly diagnosed patients with T2DM. Ethnicity was determined by self-report and height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained using standard clinical procedures. Fasting levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were collected prior to the initiation of any therapy. Results Age, gender, height, weight, BMI, and HbA1c did not differ between ethnic groups. Compared to African-Americans, Hispanics had significantly higher ALT (23.9 ...

Contributors
Hudson, Omar D., Nunez, Martha, Shaibi, Gabriel, et al.
Created Date
2012-11-07

Background Over the last decade, next generation sequencing (NGS) has become widely available, and is now the sequencing technology of choice for most researchers. Nonetheless, NGS presents a challenge for the evolutionary biologists who wish to estimate evolutionary genetic parameters from a mixed sample of unlabelled or untagged individuals, especially when the reconstruction of full length haplotypes can be unreliable. We propose two novel approaches, least squares estimation (LS) and Approximate Bayesian Computation Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation (ABC-MCMC), to infer evolutionary genetic parameters from a collection of short-read sequences obtained from a mixed sample of anonymous DNA using the ...

Contributors
Wu, Steven, Rodrigo, Allen G., Arizona State University. Biodesign Institute
Created Date
2015-11-04

Background Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a poor prognosis, and advances in treatment have led to only marginal increases in overall survival. We and others have shown previously that the therapeutic ketogenic diet (KD) prolongs survival in mouse models of glioma, explained by both direct tumor growth inhibition and suppression of pro-inflammatory microenvironment conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of the KD on the glioma reactive immune response. Methods The GL261-Luc2 intracranial mouse model of glioma was used to investigate the effects of the KD on the tumor-specific immune response. Tumor-infiltrating ...

Contributors
Lussier, Danielle, Woolf, Eric, Johnson, John, et al.
Created Date
2016-05-13

Background Mucin type O-glycosylation is one of the most common types of post-translational modifications that impacts stability and biological functions of many mammalian proteins. A large family of UDP-GalNAc polypeptide:N-acetyl-α-galactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) catalyzes the first step of mucin type O-glycosylation by transferring GalNAc to serine and/or threonine residues of acceptor polypeptides. Plants do not have the enzyme machinery to perform this process, thus restricting their use as bioreactors for production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. Results The present study demonstrates that an isoform of the human GalNAc-Ts family, GalNAc-T2, retains its localization and functionality upon expression in N. benthamiana L. plants. The ...

Contributors
Daskalova, Sasha, Radder, Josiah, Cichacz, Zbigniew, et al.
Created Date
2010-08-24

Background Health information exchange (HIE) is an important tool for improving efficiency and quality and is required for providers to meet Meaningful Use certification from the United States Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. However widespread adoption and use of HIE has been difficult to achieve, especially in settings such as smaller-sized physician practices and federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). We assess electronic data exchange activities and identify barriers and benefits to HIE participation in two underserved settings. Methods We conducted key-informant interviews with stakeholders at physician practices and health centers. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded in two ...

Contributors
McCullough, Mac, Zimmerman, Frederick J., Bell, Douglas S., et al.
Created Date
2014-09-21

Background Responses to hypoxia have been investigated in many species; however, comparative studies between conspecific geographical populations at different altitudes are rare, especially for invertebrates. The migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, is widely distributed around the world, including on the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the low-altitude North China Plain (NP). TP locusts have inhabited Tibetan Plateau for over 34,000 years and thus probably have evolved superior capacity to cope with hypoxia. Results Here we compared the hypoxic responses of TP and NP locusts from morphological, behavioral, and physiological perspectives. We found that TP locusts were more tolerant of extreme hypoxia ...

Contributors
Zhao, Dejian, Zhang, Zhenyu, Cease, Arianne, et al.
Created Date
2013-09-18

Background Diet-derived carotenoid pigments are concentrated in the retinas of birds and serve a variety of functions, including photoprotection. In domesticated bird species (e.g., chickens and quail), retinal carotenoid pigmentation has been shown to respond to large manipulations in light exposure and provide protection against photodamage. However, it is not known if or how wild birds respond to ecologically relevant variation in sun exposure. Methods We manipulated the duration of natural sunlight exposure and dietary carotenoid levels in wild-caught captive House Finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), then measured carotenoid accumulation and oxidative stress in the retina. Results We found no significant effects ...

Contributors
Toomey, Matthew, McGraw, Kevin, Arizona State University. School of Life Sciences
Created Date
2016-03-29

Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a compression neuropathy of the median nerve that results in sensorimotor deficits in the hand. Until recently, the effects of CTS on hand function have been studied using mostly two-digit grip tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coordination of multi-digit forces as a function of object center of mass (CM) during whole-hand grasping. Methods Fourteen CTS patients and age- and gender-matched controls were instructed to grasp, lift, hold, and release a grip device with five digits for seven consecutive lifts while maintaining its vertical orientation. The object CM was changed ...

Contributors
Zhang, Wei, Johnston, Jamie A., Ross, Mark A., et al.
Created Date
2012-11-21

Background We have previously identified two mineral mixtures, CB07 and BY07, and their respective aqueous leachates that exhibit in vitro antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens. The present study assesses cellular ultrastructure and membrane integrity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli after exposure to CB07 and BY07 aqueous leachates. Methods We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate E. coli and MRSA ultrastructure and morphology following exposure to antibacterial leachates. Additionally, we employed Bac light LIVE/DEAD staining and flow cytometry to investigate the cellular membrane as a possible target for antibacterial activity. Results Scanning electron ...

Contributors
Otto, Caitlin, Cunningham, Tanya, Hansen, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2010-09-16

Background Improving perinatal health is the key to achieving the Millennium Development Goal for child survival. Recently, several reviews suggest that scaling up available effective perinatal interventions in an integrated approach can substantially reduce the stillbirth and neonatal death rates worldwide. We evaluated the effect of packaged interventions given in pregnancy, delivery and post-partum periods through integration of community- and facility-based services on perinatal mortality. Methods This study took advantage of an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) and a new Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH) Project initiated in 2007 in Matlab, Bangladesh in half (intervention area) of ...

Contributors
Rahman, Anisur, Moran, Allisyn, Pervin, Jesmin, et al.
Created Date
2011-12-10

Background Peanut consumption favorably influences satiety. This study examined the acute effect of peanut versus grain bar preloads on postmeal satiety and glycemia in healthy adults and the long-term effect of these meal preloads on body mass in healthy overweight adults. Methods In the acute crossover trial (n = 15; 28.4 ± 2.9 y; 23.1 ± 0.9 kg/m[superscript 2]), the preload (isoenergetic peanut or grain bar with water, or water alone) was followed after 60 min with ingestion of a standardized glycemic test meal. Satiety and blood glucose were assessed immediately prior to the preload and to the test meal, ...

Contributors
Johnston, Carol, Catherine, Trier, Fleming, Katie, et al.
Created Date
2013-03-27

Introduction Nutrient availability, assimilation, and allocation can have important and lasting effects on the immune system development of growing animals. Though carotenoid pigments have immunostimulatory properties in many animals, relatively little is known regarding how they influence the immune system during development. Moreover, studies linking carotenoids to health at any life stage have largely been restricted to birds and mammals. We investigated the effects of carotenoid supplementation on multiple aspects of immunity in juvenile veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus). We supplemented half of the chameleons with lutein (a xanthophyll carotenoid) for 14 weeks during development and serially measured multiple aspects of ...

Contributors
McCartney, Kristen, Ligon, Russell, Butler, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2014-03-22

Introduction Abundance of immune cells has been shown to have prognostic and predictive significance in many tumor types. Beyond abundance, the spatial organization of immune cells in relation to cancer cells may also have significant functional and clinical implications. However there is a lack of systematic methods to quantify spatial associations between immune and cancer cells. Methods We applied ecological measures of species interactions to digital pathology images for investigating the spatial associations of immune and cancer cells in breast cancer. We used the Morisita-Horn similarity index, an ecological measure of community structure and predator–prey interactions, to quantify the extent ...

Contributors
Maley, Carlo, Koelble, Konrad, Natrajan, Rachael, et al.
Created Date
2015-09-22

Background A growing body of research emphasizes the importance of contextual factors on health outcomes. Using postcode sector data for Scotland (UK), this study tests the hypothesis of spatial heterogeneity in the relationship between area-level deprivation and mortality to determine if contextual differences in the West vs. the rest of Scotland influence this relationship. Research into health inequalities frequently fails to recognise spatial heterogeneity in the deprivation-health relationship, assuming that global relationships apply uniformly across geographical areas. In this study, exploratory spatial data analysis methods are used to assess local patterns in deprivation and mortality. Spatial regression models are then ...

Contributors
Sridharan, Sanjeev, Koschinsky, Julia, Walker, Jeremy J., et al.
Created Date
2011-05-12

Background Accurately prioritizing candidate disease genes is an important and challenging problem. Various network-based methods have been developed to predict potential disease genes by utilizing the disease similarity network and molecular networks such as protein interaction or gene co-expression networks. Although successful, a common limitation of the existing methods is that they assume all diseases share the same molecular network and a single generic molecular network is used to predict candidate genes for all diseases. However, different diseases tend to manifest in different tissues, and the molecular networks in different tissues are usually different. An ideal method should be able ...

Contributors
Ni, Jingchao, Koyuturk, Mehmet, Tong, Hanghang, et al.
Created Date
2016-11-10

Background The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was used to ascertain whether increases in inadequate sleep differentially affected black and white Americans. We tested the hypothesis that prevalence estimates of inadequate sleep were consistently greater among blacks, and that temporal changes have affected these two strata differentially. Methods NHIS is an ongoing cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized US adults (≥18 years) providing socio-demographic, health risk, and medical factors. Sleep duration was coded as very short sleep [VSS] (<5 h), short sleep [SS] (5–6 h), or long sleep [LS] (>8 h), referenced to 7–8 h sleepers. Analyses adjusted for NHIS’ complex sampling ...

Contributors
Girardin, Jean-Louis, Grandner, Michael A., Youngstedt, Shawn, et al.
Created Date
2015-11-26

Background Lizards are evolutionarily the most closely related vertebrates to humans that can lose and regrow an entire appendage. Regeneration in lizards involves differential expression of hundreds of genes that regulate wound healing, musculoskeletal development, hormonal response, and embryonic morphogenesis. While microRNAs are able to regulate large groups of genes, their role in lizard regeneration has not been investigated. Results MicroRNA sequencing of green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) regenerating tail and associated tissues revealed 350 putative novel and 196 known microRNA precursors. Eleven microRNAs were differentially expressed between the regenerating tail tip and base during maximum outgrowth (25 days post ...

Contributors
Hutchins, Elizabeth, Eckalbar, Walter, Wolter, Justin, et al.
Created Date
2016-05-05

Background Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous tumor and carries a very poor prognosis. Invasion precludes effective treatment and virtually assures tumor recurrence. In the current study, we applied analytical and bioinformatics approaches to identify a set of microRNAs (miRs) from several different human glioblastoma cell lines that exhibit significant differential expression between migratory (edge) and migration-restricted (core) cell populations. The hypothesis of the study is that differential expression of miRs provides an epigenetic mechanism to drive cell migration and invasion. Results Our research data comprise gene expression values for a set of 805 human miRs collected from ...

Contributors
Bradley, Barrie, Loftus, Joseph C., Mielke, Clinton, et al.
Created Date
2014-01-18

Background Little research has explored who responds better to an automated vs. human advisor for health behaviors in general, and for physical activity (PA) promotion in particular. The purpose of this study was to explore baseline factors (i.e., demographics, motivation, interpersonal style, and external resources) that moderate intervention efficacy delivered by either a human or automated advisor. Methods Data were from the CHAT Trial, a 12-month randomized controlled trial to increase PA among underactive older adults (full trial N = 218) via a human advisor or automated interactive voice response advisor. Trial results indicated significant increases in PA in both ...

Contributors
Hekler, Eric, Buman, Matthew, Otten, Jennifer, et al.
Created Date
2013-09-22

Background The discovery of genetic associations is an important factor in the understanding of human illness to derive disease pathways. Identifying multiple interacting genetic mutations associated with disease remains challenging in studying the etiology of complex diseases. And although recently new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at genes implicated in immune response, cholesterol/lipid metabolism, and cell membrane processes have been confirmed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to be associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), a percentage of AD heritability continues to be unexplained. We try to find other genetic variants that may influence LOAD risk utilizing data mining methods. Methods Two ...

Contributors
Briones, Natalia, Dinu, Valentin, Arizona State University. College of Health Solutions. Department of Biomedical Informatics, et al.
Created Date
2012-01-25

Background Overexpression and abnormal accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein (αS) have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. αS can misfold and adopt a variety of morphologies but recent studies implicate oligomeric forms as the most cytotoxic species. Both genetic mutations and chronic exposure to neurotoxins increase αS aggregation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in PD cell models. Results Here we show that curcumin can alleviate αS-induced toxicity, reduce ROS levels and protect cells against apoptosis. We also show that both intracellular overexpression of αS and extracellular addition of oligomeric αS ...

Contributors
Wang, Min, Boddapati, Shanta, Emadi, Sharareh, et al.
Created Date
2010-04-30

Background Heterogeneity within cell populations is relevant to the onset and progression of disease, as well as development and maintenance of homeostasis. Analysis and understanding of the roles of heterogeneity in biological systems require methods and technologies that are capable of single cell resolution. Single cell gene expression analysis by RT-qPCR is an established technique for identifying transcriptomic heterogeneity in cellular populations, but it generally requires specialized equipment or tedious manipulations for cell isolation. Results We describe the optimization of a simple, inexpensive and rapid pipeline which includes isolation and culture of live single cells as well as fluorescence microscopy ...

Contributors
Yaron, Jordan, Ziegler, Colleen, Tran, Thai, et al.
Created Date
2014-05-08