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The INFLUX experiment has taken multiple approaches to estimate the carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) flux in a domain centered on the city of Indianapolis, Indiana. One approach, Hestia, uses a bottom-up technique relying on a mixture of activity data, fuel statistics, direct flux measurement and modeling algorithms. A second uses a Bayesian atmospheric inverse approach constrained by atmospheric CO[subscript 2] measurements and the Hestia emissions estimate as a prior CO[subscript 2] flux. The difference in the central estimate of the two approaches comes to 0.94 MtC (an 18.7% difference) over the eight-month period between September 1, 2012 and April 30, ...

Contributors
Gurney, Kevin, Liang, Jianming, Patarasuk, Risa, et al.
Created Date
2017-08-03

We assess the detectability of city emissions via a tower-based greenhouse gas (GHG) network, as part of the Indianapolis Flux (INFLUX) experiment. By examining afternoon-averaged results from a network of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]), methane (CH[subscript 4]), and carbon monoxide (CO) mole fraction measurements in Indianapolis, Indiana for 2011–2013, we quantify spatial and temporal patterns in urban atmospheric GHG dry mole fractions. The platform for these measurements is twelve communications towers spread across the metropolitan region, ranging in height from 39 to 136 m above ground level, and instrumented with cavity ring-down spectrometers. Nine of the sites were deployed as ...

Contributors
Miles, Natasha L., Richardson, Scott J., Lauvaux, Thomas, et al.
Created Date
2017-06-13

Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cities is a key challenge towards effective emissions management. An inversion analysis from the INdianapolis FLUX experiment (INFLUX) project, as the first of its kind, has achieved a top-down emission estimate for a single city using CO[subscript 2] data collected by the dense tower network deployed across the city. However, city-level emission data, used as a priori emissions, are also a key component in the atmospheric inversion framework. Currently, fine-grained emission inventories (EIs) able to resolve GHG city emissions at high spatial resolution, are only available for few major cities across the globe. Following ...

Contributors
Oda, Tomohiro, Lauvaux, Thomas, Lu, Dengsheng, et al.
Created Date
2017-06-14

The objective of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) is to develop, evaluate and improve methods for measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cities. INFLUX’s scientific objectives are to quantify CO[subscript 2] and CH[subscript 4] emission rates at 1 km[subscript 2] resolution with a 10% or better accuracy and precision, to determine whole-city emissions with similar skill, and to achieve high (weekly or finer) temporal resolution at both spatial resolutions. The experiment employs atmospheric GHG measurements from both towers and aircraft, atmospheric transport observations and models, and activity-based inventory products to quantify urban GHG emissions. Multiple, independent methods for estimating urban ...

Contributors
Davis, Kenneth J., Deng, Aijun, Lauvaux, Thomas, et al.
Created Date
2017-05-23

We present a high-resolution atmospheric inversion system combining a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) and the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), and test the impact of assimilating meteorological observation on transport accuracy. A Four Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA) technique continuously assimilates meteorological observations from various observing systems into the transport modeling system, and is coupled to the high resolution CO[subscript 2] emission product Hestia to simulate the atmospheric mole fractions of CO[subscript 2]. For the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) project, we evaluated the impact of assimilating different meteorological observation systems on the linearized adjoint solutions and the CO[subscript 2] ...

Contributors
Deng, Aijun, Lauvaux, Thomas, Davis, Kenneth J., et al.
Created Date
2017-05-23