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The reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in the primate fossil record is dependent upon a thorough understanding of the phylogenetic utility of craniodental characters. Here, we test three previously proposed hypotheses for the propensity of primate craniomandibular data to exhibit homoplasy, using a study design based on the relative congruence between cranial distance matrices and a consensus genetic distance matrix (“genetic congruence”) for papionin taxa: 1) matrices based on cranial regions subjected to less masticatory strain are more genetically congruent than high-strain cranial matrices; 2) matrices based on cranial regions developing earlier in ontogeny are more genetically congruent than matrices based ...

Contributors
Smith, Heather, von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen, Arizona State University. School of Human Evolution and Social Change
Created Date
2015-08-01

The systematic exploitation of marine foods by terrestrial mammals lacking aquatic morphologies is rare. Widespread ethnographic and archaeological evidence from many areas of the world shows that modern humans living on coastlines often ratchet up the use of marine foods and develop social and technological characteristics unusual to hunter-gatherers and more consistent with small scale food producing societies. Consistent use of marine resources often is associated with reduced mobility, larger group size, population packing, smaller territories, complex technologies, increased economic and social differentiation, and more intense and wide-ranging gifting and exchange. The commitment to temporally and spatially predictable and dense ...

Contributors
Marean, Curtis, Arizona State University. School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University. Institute of Human Origins
Created Date
2014-12-01

For more than 80 years, Proconsul has held a pivotal position in interpretations of catarrhine evolution in East Africa. From early hypotheses of phyletic relationships with modern apes to more recent debates over their position within Hominoidea, the well-preserved fossils of this genus have been a foundation for most evolutionary scenarios regarding the early diversification of hominoids. The majority of what we "know" about Proconsul, however, derives from abundant younger fossils found at the Kisingiri localities on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands rather than from the smaller samples found at Koru – the locality of the type species, Proconsul africanus – ...

Contributors
McNulty, Kieran P., Begun, David R., Kelley, Jay, et al.
Created Date
2015-07-01