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ASU Scholarship Showcase


This growing collection consists of scholarly works authored by ASU-affiliated faculty, students and community members, and contains many open access articles. ASU-affiliated authors are encouraged to Share Your Work in the ASU Digital Repository.


Language
  • English
Date Range
2006 2020


Introduction: Immune function is a vital physiological process that is often suppressed during times of resource scarcity due to investments in other physiological systems. While energy is the typical currency that has been examined in such trade-offs, limitations of other resources may similarly lead to trade-offs that affect immune function. Specifically, water is a critical resource with profound implications for organismal ecology, yet its availability can fluctuate at local, regional, and even global levels. Despite this, the effect of osmotic state on immune function has received little attention. Results: Using agglutination and lysis assays as measures of an organism's plasma …

Contributors
Moeller, Karla, Butler, Michael, DeNardo, Dale, et al.
Created Date
2013-05-04

Attributing observed CO2 variations to human or natural cause is critical to deducing and tracking emissions from observations. We have used in situ CO2, CO, and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) measurements recorded during the CalNex-LA (CARB et al., 2008) ground campaign of 15 May-15 June 2010, in Pasadena, CA, to deduce the diurnally varying anthropogenic component of observed CO2 in the megacity of Los Angeles (LA). This affordable and simple technique, validated by carbon isotope observations and WRF-STILT (Weather Research and Forecasting model - Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model) predictions, is shown to robustly attribute observed CO2 variation to …

Contributors
Newman, S., Jeong, S., Fischer, M.L., et al.
Created Date
2013-04-26

Much research has established reliable cross-population differences in motivations to invest in one's in-group. We compare two current historical-evolutionary hypotheses for this variation based on (1) effective large-scale institutions and (2) pathogen threats by analyzing cross-national differences (N = 122) in in-group preferences measured in three ways. We find that the effectiveness of government institutions correlates with favoring in-group members, even when controlling for pathogen stress and world region, assessing reverse causality, and providing a check on endogeneity with an instrumental variable analysis. Conversely, pathogen stress shows inconsistent associations with in-group favoritism when controlling for government effectiveness. Moreover, pathogen stress …

Contributors
Hruschka, Daniel, Henrich, Joseph, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2013-05-21

We have identified a natural clay mixture that exhibits in vitro antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. We collected four samples from the same source and demonstrated through antibacterial susceptibility testing that these clay mixtures have markedly different antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we used X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to characterize the mineralogical and chemical features of the four clay mixture samples. XRD analyses of the clay mixtures revealed minor mineralogical differences between the four samples. However, ICP …

Contributors
Otto, Caitlin, Haydel, Shelley E., College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2013-05-17

We present a microarray nonlinear calibration (MiNC) method for quantifying antibody binding to the surface of protein microarrays that significantly increases the linear dynamic range and reduces assay variation compared with traditional approaches. A serological analysis of guinea pig Mycobacterium tuberculosis models showed that a larger number of putative antigen targets were identified with MiNC, which is consistent with the improved assay performance of protein microarrays. MiNC has the potential to be employed in biomedical research using multiplex antibody assays that need quantitation, including the discovery of antibody biomarkers, clinical diagnostics with multi-antibody signatures, and construction of immune mathematical models.

Contributors
Yu, Xiaobo, Wallstrom, Garrick, Magee, Mitch, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-12

Transmembrane proteins are responsible for transporting ions and small molecules across the hydrophobic region of the cell membrane. We are reviewing the evidence for regulation of these transport processes by interactions with the lipids of the membrane. We focus on ion channels, including potassium channels, mechanosensitive and pentameric ligand gated ion channels, and active transporters, including pumps, sodium or proton driven secondary transporters and ABC transporters. For ion channels it has been convincingly shown that specific lipid-protein interactions can directly affect their function. In some cases, a combined approach of molecular and structural biology together with computer simulations has revealed …

Contributors
Denning, Elizabeth J., Beckstein, Oliver, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-12

In this paper, we design distributed spectrum access mechanisms with both complete and incomplete network information. We propose an evolutionary spectrum access mechanism with complete network information, and show that the mechanism achieves an equilibrium that is globally evolutionarily stable. With incomplete network information, we propose a distributed learning mechanism, where each user utilizes local observations to estimate the expected throughput and learns to adjust its spectrum access strategy adaptively over time. We show that the learning mechanism converges to the same evolutionary equilibrium on the time average. Numerical results show that the proposed mechanisms achieve up to 35 percent …

Contributors
Chen, Xu, Huang, Jianwei, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-12

Spherical catalytic micromotors fabricated as described in Wheat et al. [Langmuir 26, 13052 ( 2010)] show fuel concentration dependent translational and rotational velocity. The motors possess short-time and long-time diffusivities that scale with the translational and rotational velocity with respect to fuel concentration. The short-time diffusivities are two to three orders of magnitude larger than the diffusivity of a Brownian sphere of the same size, increase linearly with concentration, and scale as v(2)/2 omega. The measured long-time diffusivities are five times lower than the short-time diffusivities, scale as v(2)/{2D(r)[ 1 + (omega/D-r)(2)]}, and exhibit a maximum as a function of …

Contributors
Marine, Nathan, Wheat, Philip, Ault, Jesse, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-12
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This paper considers the changes in education and capacity building that are needed in response to environmental and social challenges of the 21st Century. We argue that such changes will require more than adjustments in current educational systems, research funding strategies, and interdisciplinary collaborations. Instead, it calls for a deeper questioning of the assumptions and beliefs that frame both problems and solutions. We first discuss the challenges of transforming education and capacity building within five key arenas: interdisciplinary research; university education systems; primary and secondary education systems; researchers from the developing world; and the public at large and politicians. Our …

Contributors
O'Brien, Karen, Reams, Jonathan, Caspari, Anne, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-12

This investigation seeks to establish the practicality of numerical frame approximations. Specifically, it develops a new method to approximate the inverse frame operator and analyzes its convergence properties. It is established that sampling with well-localized frames improves both the accuracy of the numerical frame approximation as well as the robustness and efficiency of the (finite) frame operator inversion. Moreover, in applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, where the given data often may not constitute a well-localized frame, a technique is devised to project the corresponding frame data onto a more suitable frame. As a result, the target function may be …

Contributors
Song, Guohui, Gelb, Anne, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-13

We describe a multi-parameter family of the minimum-uncertainty squeezed states for the harmonic oscillator in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. They are derived by the action of the corresponding maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard ground state solution. We show that the product of the variances attains the required minimum value 1/4 only at the instances that one variance is a minimum and the other is a maximum, when the squeezing of one of the variances occurs. The generalized coherent states are explicitly constructed and their Wigner function is studied. The overlap coefficients between the squeezed, or generalized harmonic, and the …

Contributors
Kryuchkov, Sergey, Suslov, Sergei, Vega-Guzman, Jose, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-15

Explicit solutions of the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation in a linear and quadratic approximation are applied to wave fields with invariant features, such as oscillating laser beams in a parabolic waveguide and spiral light beams in varying media. A similar effect of superfocusing of particle beams in a thin monocrystal film, harmonic oscillations of cold trapped atoms, and motion in magnetic field are also mentioned.

Contributors
Mahalov, Alex, Suazo, Erwin, Suslov, Sergei, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-15

In this paper, we study oscillating solutions of the 1D-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the help of Wigner's quasiprobability distribution in quantum phase space. An "absolute squeezing property", namely a periodic in time total localization of wave packets at some finite spatial points without violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, is analyzed in this nonlinear model.

Contributors
Mahalov, Alex, Suslov, Sergei, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-15

As part of a larger trend across industrialized nations, European research policy discourse has placed increasing emphasis on socio-technical integration: the explicit incorporation of activities devoted to broader social aspects into scientific activities. In order to compare these high-level integration discourses against patterns at the level of resource allocation, we analyze nearly 2500 research solicitations from the three European Framework Programmes for R&D during the period 1998-2010. We identify four distinct types of integration (socio-ethical, stakeholder, socio-economic and industrial) that occur either as core or parallel components of R&D solicitations. Quantitative analysis reveals an overall trend towards increasing integration, with …

Contributors
Rodriguez, Hannot, Fisher, Erik, Schuurbiers, Daan, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-15

A measure of shape compactness is a numerical quantity representing the degree to which a shape is compact. Ways to provide an accurate measure have been given great attention due to its application in a broad range of GIS problems, such as detecting clustering patterns from remote-sensing images, understanding urban sprawl, and redrawing electoral districts to avoid gerrymandering. In this article, we propose an effective and efficient approach to computing shape compactness based on the moment of inertia (MI), a well-known concept in physics. The mathematical framework and the computer implementation for both raster and vector models are discussed in …

Contributors
Li, Wenwen, Goodchild, Michael F., Church, Richard, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-15

Patches of deposits containing unusual mafic minerals are observed in and around some large lunar impact craters. Numerical simulations suggest that in the slowest of these impacts, asteroidal material, alien to the Moon, could have survived.

Contributors
Asphaug, Erik, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, School of Earth and Space Exploration
Created Date
2013-08-16

This paper addresses the complex historical/political scenarios of Spanish-speaking people in the Southwestern USA and of Gaelic speakers in the Outer Hebrides. It examines (1) the historical background and current status of Spanish in the Southwestern USA and Gaelic in the Outer Hebrides; (2) comparative issues in relation to the use of dual languages; and (3) the challenges that communication in more than one prevalent language present to social work service providers. It is based on field research in the Southwestern USA (primarily Arizona) and the Comhairle nan Eilean Siar region (Outer Hebrides, Scotland). While these two areas might appear …

Contributors
Martinez-Brawley, Emilia, Zorita, Paz, Rennie, Frank, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-22

Background: HIV-1 Clade C (Subtype C; HIV-1C) is responsible for greater than 50% of infections worldwide. Unlike clade B HIV-1 (Subtype B; HIV-1B), which is known to cause HIV associated dementia (HAD) in approximately 15% to 30% of the infected individuals, HIV-1C has been linked with lower prevalence of HAD (0 to 6%) in India and Ethiopia. However, recent studies report a higher prevalence of HAD in South Africa, Zambia and Botswana, where HIV-1C infections predominate. Therefore, we examined whether Southern African HIV-1C is genetically distinct and investigated its neurovirulence. HIV-1 Tat protein is a viral determinant of neurocognitive dysfunction. …

Contributors
Rao, Vasudev R., Neogi, Ujjwal, Talboom, Joshua, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-30

Many ants rely on both visual cues and self-generated chemical signals for navigation, but their relative importance varies across species and context. We evaluated the roles of both modalities during colony emigration by Temnothorax rugatulus. Colonies were induced to move from an old nest in the center of an arena to a new nest at the arena edge. In the midst of the emigration the arena floor was rotated 60 degrees around the old nest entrance, thus displacing any substrate-bound odor cues while leaving visual cues unchanged. This manipulation had no effect on orientation, suggesting little influence of substrate cues …

Contributors
Bowens, Sean, Glatt, Daniel P., Pratt, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-30

Nitrogen availability and cell density each affects growth and cellular astaxanthin content of Haematococcus pluvialis, but possible combined effects of these two factors on the content and productivity of astaxanthin, especially under outdoor culture conditions, is less understood. In this study, the effects of the initial biomass densities IBDs of 0.1, 0.5, 0.8, 1.5, 2.7, 3.5, and 5.0 g L-1 DW and initial nitrogen concentrations of 0, 4.4, 8.8, and 17.6 mM nitrate on growth and cellular astaxanthin content of H. pluvialis Flotow K-0084 were investigated in outdoor glass column photobioreactors in a batch culture mode. A low IBD of …

Contributors
Wang, Junfeng, Sommerfeld, Milton, Lu, Congming, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-30