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ASU Scholarship Showcase


This growing collection consists of scholarly works authored by ASU-affiliated faculty, students and community members, and contains many open access articles. ASU-affiliated authors are encouraged to Share Your Work in the ASU Digital Repository.


Contributor
Date Range
2010 2017


Background Virus infections often result in quasispecies of viral strains that can have dramatic impacts on disease outcomes. However, sequencing of viruses to determine strain composition is time consuming and often cost-prohibitive. Rapid, cost-effective methods are needed for accurate measurement of virus diversity to understand virus evolution and can be useful for experimental systems. Methods We have developed a novel molecular method for sequence-specific detection of RNA virus genetic variants called Tentacle Probes. The probes are modified molecular beacons that have dramatically improved false positive rates and specificity in routine qPCR. To validate this approach, we have designed Tentacle Probes …

Contributors
Franco Achury, Lina, Holechek, Susan, Caplan, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2017-10-13

Tissue engineering aims to utilise biologic mediators to facilitate tissue regeneration. Several recombinant proteins have potential to mediate induction of bone production, however, the high production cost of mammalian cell expression impedes patient access to such treatments. The aim of this study is to produce recombinant human osteopontin (hOPN) in plants for inducing dental bone regeneration. The expression host was Nicotiana benthamiana using a geminiviral vector for transient expression. OPN expression was confirmed by Western blot and ELISA, and OPN was purified using Ni affinity chromatography. Structural analysis indicated that plant-produced hOPN had a structure similar to commercial HEK cell-produced …

Contributors
Rattanapisit, Kaewta, Abdulheem, Supaniga, Chaikeawkaew, Daneeya, et al.
Created Date
2017-12-11

Myxoma virus (MYXV), a Leporipoxvirus, is being developed as an oncolytic virotherapeutic for the treatment of a variety of human cancers. MYXV tropism for human cancer cells is largely mediated by intracellular signaling networks that regulate viral replication or innate antiviral response pathways. Thus, MYXV is fully or partially permissive for the majority of human cancer cells that harbor defects in antiviral signaling, but a minority are nonpermissive because the virus infection aborts before its completion. To identify host factors relevant for MYXV tropism in human cancer cells, we performed a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library screen targeting the 58 …

Contributors
Rahman, Masmudur, Bagdassarian, Eugenie, Ali, Mohamed A. M., et al.
Created Date
2017-11-16

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an enzyme with broad substrate and ligand specificities and may function as a generalized bioscavenger by binding and/or hydrolyzing various xenobiotic agents and toxicants, many of which target the central and peripheral nervous systems. Variants of BChE were rationally designed to increase the enzyme’s ability to hydrolyze the psychoactive enantiomer of cocaine. These variants were cloned, and then expressed using the magnICON transient expression system in plants and their enzymatic properties were investigated. In particular, we explored the effects that these site-directed mutations have over the enzyme kinetics with various substrates of BChE. We further compared the …

Contributors
Larrimore, Katherine, Kazan, I. Can, Kannan, Latha, et al.
Created Date
2017-09-05

Low fluid shear force, including that encountered in microgravity models, induces bacterial responses, but the range of bacteria capable of responding to this signal remains poorly characterized. We systematically analyzed a range of Gram negative Enterobacteriaceae for conservation of the low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) response using phenotypic assays, qPCR, and targeted mutations. Our results indicate LSMMG response conservation across Enterobacteriacae with potential variance in up- or down-regulation of a given response depending on genus. Based on the data, we analyzed the role of the trp operon genes and the TrpR regulator in the LSMMG response using targeted mutations in these …

Contributors
Soni, Anjali, O'Sullivan, Laura, Quick, Laura N., et al.
Created Date
2014

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genome encodes 13 fimbrial operons. Most of the fimbriae encoded by these operons are not produced under laboratory conditions but are likely to be synthesized in vivo. We used an in vivo expression technology (IVET) strategy to identify four fimbrial operons, agf, saf, sti, and stc that are expressed in the spleen. When any three of these operons were deleted, the strain retained wild-type virulence. However, when all four operons were deleted, the resulting strain was completely attenuated, indicating that these four fimbriae play functionally redundant roles critical for virulence. In mice, oral doses of as …

Contributors
Laniewski, Pawel, Baek, Chang-Ho, Roland, Kenneth, et al.
Created Date
2017-08-22

Several Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccine candidates have recently been described which use inactivated whole virus, DNA or RNA that express the virus’ Envelope (E) glycoprotein as the antigen. These were successful in stimulating production of virus-targeted antibodies that protected animals against ZIKV challenges, but their use potentially will predispose vaccinated individuals to infection by the related Dengue virus (DENV). We have devised a virus like particle (VLP) carrier based on the hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) that displays the ZIKV E protein domain III (zDIII), and shown that it can be produced quickly and easily purified in large quantities from …

Contributors
Yang, Ming, Lai, Huafang, Sun, Haiyan, et al.
Created Date
2017-08-09

Astronauts are exposed to a unique combination of stressors during spaceflight, which leads to alterations in their physiology and potentially increases their susceptibility to disease, including infectious diseases. To evaluate the potential impact of the spaceflight environment on the regulation of molecular pathways mediating cellular stress responses, we performed a first-of-its-kind pilot study to assess spaceflight-related gene-expression changes in the whole blood of astronauts. Using an array comprised of 234 well-characterized stress-response genes, we profiled transcriptomic changes in six astronauts (four men and two women) from blood preserved before and immediately following the spaceflight. Differentially regulated transcripts included those important …

Contributors
Barrila, Jennifer, Ott, C. Mark, LeBlanc, Carly, et al.
Created Date
2016-12-08

Non-typhoidal Salmonella are associated with gastrointestinal disease worldwide and invasive disease in Africa. We constructed novel bivalent vaccines through the recombinant expression of heterologous O-antigens from Salmonella Choleraesuis in Salmonella Typhimurium. A recombinant Asd[superscript +] plasmid pCZ1 with the cloned Salmonella Choleraesuis O-antigen gene cluster was introduced into three constructed Salmonella Typhimurium Δasd mutants: SLT11 (ΔrfbP), SLT12 (ΔrmlB-rfbP) and SLT16 (ΔrfbP ∆pagL::TT araCP[subscript BAD]rfbP). Immunoblotting demonstrated that SLT11 (pCZ1) and SLT12 (pCZ1) efficiently expressed the heterologous O-antigen. In the presence of arabinose, SLT16 (pCZ1) expressed both the homologous and heterologous O-antigens, whereas in the absence of arabinose, SLT16 (pCZ1) mainly …

Contributors
Zhao, Xinxin, Dai, Qinlong, Zhu, Dekang, et al.
Created Date
2017-07-28

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains belonging to sequence type ST313 are a major cause of fatal bacteremia among HIV-infected adults and children in sub-Saharan Africa. Unlike “classical” non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), gastroenteritis is often absent during ST313 infections and isolates are most commonly recovered from blood, rather than from stool. This is consistent with observations in animals, in which ST313 strains displayed lower levels of intestinal colonization and higher recovery from deeper tissues relative to classic NTS isolates. A better understanding of the key environmental factors regulating these systemic infections is urgently needed. Our previous studies using dynamic Rotating Wall Vessel …

Contributors
Yang, Jiseon, Barrila, Jennifer, Roland, Kenneth, et al.
Created Date
2016-06-09