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This paper considers the changes in education and capacity building that are needed in response to environmental and social challenges of the 21st Century. We argue that such changes will require more than adjustments in current educational systems, research funding strategies, and interdisciplinary collaborations. Instead, it calls for a deeper questioning of the assumptions and beliefs that frame both problems and solutions. We first discuss the challenges of transforming education and capacity building within five key arenas: interdisciplinary research; university education systems; primary and secondary education systems; researchers from the developing world; and the public at large and politicians. Our ...

Contributors
O'Brien, Karen, Reams, Jonathan, Caspari, Anne, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-12

Summer extreme heat events in the arid Phoenix, Arizona (USA) metropolitan region for the period 2041-2070 are projected based on the ensemble of ten climate models from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program for the SRES A2 greenhouse gas emissions scenario by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Extreme heat events are identified by measures related to two thresholds of the maximum daily air temperature distribution for the historical reference period 1971-2000. Comparing this reference period to the model ensemble-mean, the frequency of extreme heat events is projected to increase by a factor of six to 1.9 events ...

Contributors
Grossman-Clarke, Susanne, Schubert, Sebastian, Clarke, Thomas R., et al.
Created Date
2013-11-30

Allocations of child custody postdivorce are currently determined according to the best interest standard; that is, what is best for the child. Decisions about what is best for a child necessarily reflect cultural norms, at least in part. It is therefore useful as well as interesting to ask whether current understandings of the best interest standard align with moral intuitions of lay citizens asked to take the role of judge in hypothetical cases. Do factors such as whether 1 parent had an extramarital affair influence how respondents would award custody? In the current studies, a representative sample of citizens awaiting ...

Contributors
Votruba, Ashley, Braver, Sanford, Ellman, Ira, et al.
Created Date
2014-08-01

Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and adolescents. Although 70% of patients with localized disease are cured with chemotherapy and surgical resection, patients with metastatic osteosarcoma are typically refractory to treatment. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) limit the development of metastatic osteosarcoma. We have investigated the role of PD-1, an inhibitory TNFR family protein expressed on CTLs, in limiting the efficacy of immune-mediated control of metastatic osteosarcoma. We show that human metastatic, but not primary, osteosarcoma tumors express a ligand for PD-1 (PD-L1) and that tumor-infiltrating CTLs express PD-1, suggesting this pathway ...

Contributors
Lussier, Danielle, O'Neill, Lauren, Nieves, Lizbeth, et al.
Created Date
2015-04-01

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of information placement within the confines of the online classroom architecture. Also reviewed was the impact of other variables such as course design, teaching presence and student patterns in looking for information. The sample population included students from a major online university in their first year course sequence. Students were tasked with completing a survey at the end of the course, indicating their preference for accessing information within the online classroom. The qualitative data indicated that student preference is to receive information from multiple access points and sources within the ...

Contributors
Steele, John, Nordin, Eric J., Larson, Elizabeth, et al.
Created Date
2017

Introduction: Immune function is a vital physiological process that is often suppressed during times of resource scarcity due to investments in other physiological systems. While energy is the typical currency that has been examined in such trade-offs, limitations of other resources may similarly lead to trade-offs that affect immune function. Specifically, water is a critical resource with profound implications for organismal ecology, yet its availability can fluctuate at local, regional, and even global levels. Despite this, the effect of osmotic state on immune function has received little attention. Results: Using agglutination and lysis assays as measures of an organism's plasma ...

Contributors
Moeller, Karla, Butler, Michael, DeNardo, Dale, et al.
Created Date
2013-05-04

Attributing observed CO2 variations to human or natural cause is critical to deducing and tracking emissions from observations. We have used in situ CO2, CO, and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) measurements recorded during the CalNex-LA (CARB et al., 2008) ground campaign of 15 May-15 June 2010, in Pasadena, CA, to deduce the diurnally varying anthropogenic component of observed CO2 in the megacity of Los Angeles (LA). This affordable and simple technique, validated by carbon isotope observations and WRF-STILT (Weather Research and Forecasting model - Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model) predictions, is shown to robustly attribute observed CO2 variation to ...

Contributors
Newman, S., Jeong, S., Fischer, M.L., et al.
Created Date
2013-04-26

Much research has established reliable cross-population differences in motivations to invest in one's in-group. We compare two current historical-evolutionary hypotheses for this variation based on (1) effective large-scale institutions and (2) pathogen threats by analyzing cross-national differences (N = 122) in in-group preferences measured in three ways. We find that the effectiveness of government institutions correlates with favoring in-group members, even when controlling for pathogen stress and world region, assessing reverse causality, and providing a check on endogeneity with an instrumental variable analysis. Conversely, pathogen stress shows inconsistent associations with in-group favoritism when controlling for government effectiveness. Moreover, pathogen stress ...

Contributors
Hruschka, Daniel, Henrich, Joseph, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2013-05-21

We have identified a natural clay mixture that exhibits in vitro antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. We collected four samples from the same source and demonstrated through antibacterial susceptibility testing that these clay mixtures have markedly different antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we used X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to characterize the mineralogical and chemical features of the four clay mixture samples. XRD analyses of the clay mixtures revealed minor mineralogical differences between the four samples. However, ICP ...

Contributors
Otto, Caitlin, Haydel, Shelley E., College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, et al.
Created Date
2013-05-17

We present a microarray nonlinear calibration (MiNC) method for quantifying antibody binding to the surface of protein microarrays that significantly increases the linear dynamic range and reduces assay variation compared with traditional approaches. A serological analysis of guinea pig Mycobacterium tuberculosis models showed that a larger number of putative antigen targets were identified with MiNC, which is consistent with the improved assay performance of protein microarrays. MiNC has the potential to be employed in biomedical research using multiplex antibody assays that need quantitation, including the discovery of antibody biomarkers, clinical diagnostics with multi-antibody signatures, and construction of immune mathematical models.

Contributors
Yu, Xiaobo, Wallstrom, Garrick, Magee, Mitch, et al.
Created Date
2013-08-12