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Chinese Immigrants in Cuba: Documents from the James and Ana Melikian Collection


The Chinese Immigrants in Cuba collection includes hundreds of original documents, manuscripts and photos covering the migration of 125,000 Chinese who signed up to be cheap labor in Cuba from 1847 until the later 1890s. The archive continues until the 1970s and records the Chinese community in Cuba and is rich with photos. This massive collection, from the archive of James and Ana Melikian Collection, is probably the largest one in private hands concerning Chinese in Cuba. At present the collection contains over 1341 records and about 8,000-9,000 pages.


Mime Type
  • application/pdf
Resource Type
  • Image
Series
  • Chinese Immigrants in Cuba Labor Series
Date Range
1860 1877


A contract between Antonio, a Chinese settler, and Elias Lolano y Garcia. Antonio was originally from Macao. Noted that Antonio completed a contract with Juan Oxaca previously. Antonio did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by the governor, Elias Lolano y Garcia, and two witnesses.

This is a second work contract that was shared between Antonio- a Chinese settler, and his owner, D. Martin de Cardenas y Layas. Prior to entering this agreement, Antonio was being held in the municipal deposit of the capital; according to the fourth and fifth articles in the contract, and it is possible that he was required to enter this contract as a punishment for past transgressions against his owner. The length of this contract was for six months. Signed in Chinese.

A contract between Adan, a Chinese settler, and Juan Calisto Oxamendi. The contract was to last for two years and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Signed by Juan Calisto Oxamendi and Adan, who signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1877-09-16

A contract between Camilo, a Chinese settler, and Ricardo Alfonso. The contract was to last for two years and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Notes Camila completed a contract with Ricardo Alfonso previously. Signed by Ricardo Alfonso, the Administrator, Señor Ramos, and Camilo, who signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1877-08-27

This is a labor contract signed by Jobita, a Chinese settler, in which he agreed to work for a new owner for one year. This contract was issued between Jobita and his new owner after he completed an initial labor contract with another owner. Signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1877-05-05

A contract between Jacinto, a Chinese settler, and Jose Olauo. The contract was to last for two years and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Notes that Jose Olauo wrote a letter of good conduct for a future employer. Signed by Jose Olauo and Jacinto, who signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1875-10-26

A contract between Onofre, a Chinese settler, and El Marques Du Luerne. The contract was to last for four years and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Noted that Onofre completed a contract with el Marques Du Luerne previously. Signed by Onofre, who signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1875-06-08

A contract between Paluas, a Chinese settler, and el Marques de Guesme. The contract was to last for four years and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Notes that Paluas completed a contract with el Marques de Guesme previously.

Created Date
1875-06-08

A contract between Hipolito, a Chinese settler, and Pedro Reynaldos. The contract was to last for an undisclosed amount of time and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Notes that Hipolito completed the contract at the end of its proposed term. Hipolito did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by Carlos Catalan and Pedro Reynaldo. Handwritten.

Created Date
1872-08-05

A contract between Pablo, a Chinese settler, and Dolores Reynaldos. The contract was to last for a year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Signed by Dolores Reynaldos and Pablo, who signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1871-10-05

A contract between Blas, a Chinese settler, and Jose Basquet. The contract was to last for eight years and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Notes that Blas completed a contract with Jose Basquet previously. Blas did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by the governor, two witnesses, and Jose Basquet.

Created Date
1871-05-06

This is a second labor contract that was shared between Blas, a Chinese settler, and his owner, Jose Maria Bosquet y Cara. Blas was brought from China to Cuba to work as an indentured servant and the length of the contract was for two years. This is signed by the governor, Jose Maria Bosquet y Cara, and two witnesses.

Created Date
1871-05-06

A contract between Romualdo, a Chinese settler, and Francisco Garcia Rey. Notes that Romulado completed a contract with Francisco Garcia Rey previously. Romulado did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by Francisco Garcia Rey

Created Date
1870-10-16

A contract between Patricio, a Chinese settler, and Joaquin Ruiz. The contract was to last for one year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Notes that Patricio completed a contract with Roque Corral previously. Signed by Joaquin Ruiz and Patricio, who signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1870-05-30

A contract between Ramon, a Chinese settler, and Francisco San Varilla. The contract was to last for six months and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Notes that Ramon was originally from Macao. Ramon did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by Francisco San Varilla and the governor of Havana.

Created Date
1869-11-15

This is a second labor contract that belonged to Severo- a Chinese settler, and his owner, D. Francisco Gandarilla. The purpose of this second contract was to renew and extend Severo's original eight year labor contract with Gandarilla for six months. 1869.

Created Date
1869-11-15

This is a labor contract that was shared between Plutarco- a Chinese settler, and his owner, Julian Ramos; the term of the contract was for one year. Prior to this contract, Plutarco had completed another labor contract doing fieldwork for Manuel Arias. 1869.

Created Date
1869-11-05

This is a second labor contract that was shared between Anacleto- a Chinese settler, and Manuel Paredes, his owner. By signing the contract, Anacleto agreed to work under the orders of Paredes for one year. 1869.

Created Date
1869-10-11

A contract between Antonio, a Chinese settler, and Pedro R. Casanas. The contract was to last for a year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Noted that Benito completed a contract with Pedro previously. Antonio did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by Pedro Casanas, Manuel Ruiz, and two witnesses.

Created Date
1869-09-29

This is a second labor contract that was shared between Daniel a Chinese settler, and Jose Valentin de Cabo, his new owner, in which Daniel agreed to work for Jose Valentin de Cabo for one year. The contract was issued after Daniel completed his original eight year labor contract with another owner. 1869.

Created Date
1869-09-21

This was a second labor contract that belonged to Lotesa- a Chinese settler, and D. Desiderio Casusa, his owner; the term of the contract was for two years.

Created Date
1869-09-20

A contract between Francisco, a Chinese settler, and Juan Ocarco y Arango. The contract was to last for a year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Francisco did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by Fermin Franco, Manuel Ruiz, Vicente, and Julio.

Created Date
1869-08-09

A contract between Salomi, a Chinese settler, and Ramon Flores Apodaca. The contract was to last for a year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Salomi did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by the governor, Ramon Flores Apodaca, and two witnesses.

Created Date
1869-08-05

A contract between Serafin, a Chinese settler, and D. Ramon Flores Apodaca. The contract was to last for a year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Notes Serafin completed a contract with Ramon previously. Serafin did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by Ramon Flores Apodaca, the Governor, and two witnesses.

Created Date
1869-08-05

A contract between Cariano, a Chinese settler, and Ramon Flores Apodaca. The contract was to last for one year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Cariano did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by the governor of Jaruco, Ramon Flores Apodaca, and two witnesses, but not Cariano.

Created Date
1869-08-05

This is the first labor contract between Marcelo, a Chinese settler, and Ramon Flores Apodaca, his owner. Marcelo was brought to Cuba from China to work as an indentured servant in the fields. The term of the contract was for one year and, according to the document, Marcelo had completed a previous contract with a different owner.

Created Date
1869-08-05

A contract between Joaquin, a Chinese settler, and Ramon Flores Apodaca. The contract was to last for a year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Joaquin did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by Julian Gellanea, Vicente, and Manuel Arey.

Created Date
1869-08-05

This is the second labor contract between Gavino, a Chinese settler, and D. Ramon Flores Apodaca, his owner. Gavino was brought to Cuba from Hay Fon in China to serve as an indentured servant. The term of this contract was for one year, and according to the document, Gavino and D. Ramon shared a previous labor contract prior to this one. This contract is signed by Ramon Flores Apodaca, the governor of Jaruco, and two witnesses, but not Gavino himself.

Created Date
1869-08-05

A contract between Jose Maria, a Chinese settler, and Ramon Flores Apodaca. The contract was to last for a year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Signed by the governor, Ramon Flores Apodaca, and two witnesses.

Created Date
1869-08-05

This is a second labor contract that belonged to Matias, a Chinese settler, and his owner, Ramon Flores Apodaca. Matias was brought from China to Cuba to work as an indentured servant and the term of the contract was for one year. This is signed by the governor, Ramon Flores Apodaca, and two witnesses. 1869.

Created Date
1869-08-05

A contract between Benito, a Chinese settler, and Gabriel Vivo y Fuentes. The contract was to last for one year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Noted that Benito completed a contract with another employer previously.

Created Date
1869-08-04

A contract between Celestino, a Chinese settler, and Gabriel Nevo. The contract was to last for a year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Celestino did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by the governor, Gabriel Nevo, and two witnesses.

Created Date
1869-08-04

This is the second labor contract between Cipirian, a Chinese settler, and his owner, Gabriel Vivo y Fuentes in the city of Jaruco. Cipirian was originally from Canton and brought to Cuba to serve as an indentured servant. The length of the contract was for a year and details the rules of the contract under Cuban law. His salary was six and a half pesos. This document is signed by Gabriel Vivo y Fuentes, the governor of Jaruco and two witnesses, but not by Cipirian himself.

Created Date
1869-08-04

This is a second labor contract that was shared between Brito, a Chinese settler, and his owner, Gabriel Vivo y Fuentes; the term of the contract was for one year. 1869.

Created Date
1869-08-04

A contract between Melitin, a Chinese settler, and la Compania de Caminos de Hierro. The contract was to last for six months and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Notes that Melitin completed a contract previously. Signed by Manuel Barque and Melitin, who signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1869

A contract between Pablo, a Chinese settler, and Alejandro Duhaidis. The contract was to last for six months and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Pablo did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by two witnesses, Alejandro Duhaidis, and the governor.

Created Date
1869

This is a second labor contract that was shared between Constantino, a Chinese settler, and his owner, D. Ludres Valle. Valle was a Chinese landlord. The term of the contract was for one year. 1868. This document is signed by the governor of Cuba and signed in Chinese by Ludres Valle and Constantino.

Created Date
1868-12-05

A contract between Laureano, a Chinese settler, and Francisco Aballi. The contract was to last for a year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Notes Laureano completed a contract with Francisco Aballi previously. Laureano did not negotiate or sign the contract as the signature stipulates that someone else signed for him. Signed by Antonio Laucinca and Antonio Liney.

Created Date
1868-10-15

This is a second labor contract between a Chinese settler named Agapito, and his owner, another Chinese settler, named Pedro Delgado. The term of the contract was for one year. 1868. Signed by the governor of Cuba and in Chinese by Agapito and Pedro Delgado.

Created Date
1868-09-14

A contract between Vicente Vang Acun, a Chinese settler, and Joaquin Pedroso. The contract was to last for a year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Signed by Joaquin Pedroso y Veritia and Vicente Vang Acun, who signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1868-08-24

This is a second labor contract that was shared between a Chinese settler named Emeterio Jaugi, and his owner, Gabriel Ferra; the term of the contract was for one year. 1868. Signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1868-08-22

This is the first labor contract that belonged to a Chinese settler named Benigno, and his owner, Ramon Felipe. Benigno was brought from Soltero to Cuba to work as an indentured servant. The term of the contract was for one year. 1868. Signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1868-07-30

This is a second labor contract that was shared between El Chuman- a Chinese settler, and his owner, D. Paulino Ligarreta; the term of the contract was for one year. Details regarding El Chuman's wage, food, clothes, and work hours were stipulated in the document. 1868. Signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1868-07-08

This is a second labor contract that was shared between Francisco- a Chinese settler, and a Cuban landlord named D. Pedro L. Garcia; the contract term, as specified within the contract, was for one year. 1968. Signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1868-06-28

This is a second labor contract that was shared between Celestino, a Chinese settler, and his owner, Pablo Momilo; the term of the contract was for one year. Details regarding Celestino's wage, food, clothes, and work hours were stipulated in the document. 1868. Signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1868-06-28

This is a second labor contract that was shared between a Chinese settler, Aristoteles, and la Empresa del ferro carril, the railroad company; the term of the contract was for one year. 1868. Signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1868-05-30

This is a second labor contract that belonged to Meco- a Chinese settler, and his owner; the term of the contract was for one year. 1868.

Created Date
1868-05-30

A contract between Suno, a Chinese settler, and Francisco R. Gleao. The contract was to last for one year and lists the legal requirements for both the employee and the employer. Signed by Carlos Hernandez and Suno, who signed in Chinese.

Created Date
1868-05-20

A contract between Joaquin, a Chinese settler, and Domingo E. Madan. The contract was to last for a year and lists the legal requirements of both the employee and the employer. Noted Joaquin completed a contract with a different employer previously.

Created Date
1868-04-14

This is a second labor contract that was shared between Federico, a Chinese settler, and his owner, Francisco Cairo. Federico was brought to Cuba from China to serve as an indentured servant and the term of the contract was for one year. Details regarding Federico's wage, food, clothes, and work hours were stipulated in the document. 1868. Signed in Chinese by Federico.

Created Date
1868-03-28