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Phoenix Regional Heat Mitigation, Planning, and Response Research


This archives houses peer-reviewed literature, data sets, reports, and other materials generated by ASU researchers that may be informative for local and regional efforts mitigating the adverse impacts of heat. The collection is intended to serve as a resource for students, faculty, and staff collaborating on research initiatives related to heat as well as for community, local, state, and regional partners and other interested parties contributing to heat planning, preparedness, and response activities.


Date Range
1987 2017


Objectives: To provide novel quantification and advanced measurements of surface temperatures (Ts) in playgrounds, employing multiple scales of data, and provide insight into hot-hazard mitigation techniques and designs for improved environmental and public health. Methods: We conduct an analysis of Ts in two Metro-Phoenix playgrounds at three scales: neighborhood (1 km resolution), microscale (6.8 m resolution), and touch-scale (1 cm resolution). Data were derived from two sources: airborne remote sensing (neighborhood and microscale) and in situ (playground site) infrared Ts (touch-scale). Metrics of surface-to-air temperature deltas (Ts–a) and scale offsets (errors) are introduced. Results: Select in situ Ts in direct ...

Contributors
Vanos, Jennifer K., Middel, Ariane, McKercher, Grant R., et al.
Created Date
2015-11-10

Access to air conditioned space is critical for protecting urban populations from the adverse effects of heat exposure. Yet there remains fairly limited knowledge of the penetration of private (home air conditioning) and distribution of public (cooling centers and commercial space) cooled space across cities. Furthermore, the deployment of government-sponsored cooling centers is likely to be inadequately informed with respect to the location of existing cooling resources (residential air conditioning and air conditioned public space), raising questions of the equitability of access to heat refuges. We explore the distribution of private and public cooling resources and access inequities at the ...

Contributors
Fraser, Andrew M., Chester, Mikhail V., Eisenman, David, et al.
Created Date
2016-07-15

This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University’s Tempe campus.

Contributors
Middel, Ariane, Selover, Nancy, Hagen, Bjorn, et al.
Created Date
2016-05-18

Using National Land Cover Data we analyzed land fragmentation trends from 1992 to 2001 in five southwestern cities associated with Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites.

Contributors
York, Abigail M., Shrestha, Milan, Boone, Christopher G., et al.
Created Date
2011-02-11

The association between a developing urban heat island and local monthly averaged wind speeds is examined in this investigation. Results from a series of statistical analyses show a significant increase in wind speeds in Phoenix, Arizona during the period of rapid heat island development. The increase in winds is found to be much stronger at 0500 MST than at 1400 MST. Increased instability and the development of a strong heat low circulation in the urban environment are suggested as probable causes for the increased wind speeds.

Contributors
Balling, Jr., Robert C., Cerveny, Randall S.
Created Date
1987-06-01

Context With rapidly expanding urban regions, the effects of land cover changes on urban surface temperatures and the consequences of these changes for human health are becoming progressively larger problems. Objectives We investigated residential parcel and neighborhood scale variations in urban land surface temperature, land cover, and residents’ perceptions of landscapes and heat illnesses in the subtropical desert city of Phoenix, AZ USA. Methods We conducted an airborne imaging campaign that acquired high resolution urban land surface temperature data (7 m/pixel) during the day and night. We performed a geographic overlay of these data with high resolution land cover maps, ...

Contributors
Jenerette, Darrel G., Harlan, Sharon L., Buyantuev, Alexander, et al.
Created Date
2015-10-19

This established model is applied here to show the relative effects of four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) percentage of vegetated area, (3) thermal conductivity, and (4) albedo of the urban environment in a series of percentage increases by 5, 10, 15, and 20% from baseline values.

Contributors
Humberto, Silva R., Phelan, Patrick E., Golden, Jay S.
Created Date
2009-07-26

Background: Extreme heat is a public health challenge. The scarcity of directly comparable studies on the association of heat with morbidity and mortality and the inconsistent identification of threshold temperatures for severe impacts hampers the development of comprehensive strategies aimed at reducing adverse heat-health events. Objectives: This quantitative study was designed to link temperature with mortality and morbidity events in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, with a focus on the summer season. Methods: Using Poisson regression models that controlled for temporal confounders, we assessed daily temperature–health associations for a suite of mortality and morbidity events, diagnoses, and temperature metrics. Minimum risk ...

Contributors
Pettiti, Diana B., Hondula, David M., Yang, Shuo, et al.
Created Date
2016-02-01

The relationship between the characteristics of the urban land system and land surface temperature (LST) has received increasing attention in urban heat island and sustainability research, especially for desert cities. This research generally employs medium or coarser spatial resolution data and primarily focuses on the effects of a few classes of land-cover composition and pattern at the neighborhood or larger level using regression models. This study explores the effects of land system architecture—composition and configuration, both pattern and shape, of fine-grain land-cover classes—on LST of single family residential parcels in the Phoenix, Arizona (southwestern USA) metropolitan area. A 1 m ...

Contributors
Li, Xiaoxiao, Kamarianakis, Yiannis, Ouyang, Yun, et al.
Created Date
2017-02-14

The impacts of land-cover composition on urban temperatures, including temperature extremes, are well documented. Much less attention has been devoted to the consequences of land-cover configuration, most of which addresses land surface temperatures. This study explores the role of both composition and configuration—or land system architecture—of residential neighborhoods in the Phoenix metropolitan area, on near-surface air temperature. It addresses two-dimensional, spatial attributes of buildings, impervious surfaces, bare soil/rock, vegetation and the “urbanscape” at large, from 50 m to 550 m at 100 m increments, for a representative 30-day high sun period. Linear mixed-effects models evaluate the significance of land system ...

Contributors
Kamarianakis, Yiannis, Li, Xiaoxiao, Turner II, B. L., et al.
Created Date
2017-12-05