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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Language
  • English
Date Range
2010 2020


Vibrational spectroscopy is a ubiquitous characterization tool in elucidating atomic structure at the bulk and nanoscale. The ability to perform high spatial resolution vibrational spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has the potential to affect a variety of materials science problems. Since 2014, instrumentation development has pushed for incremental improvements in energy resolution, with the current best being 4.2 meV. Although this is poor in comparison to what is common in photon or neutron vibrational spectroscopies, the spatial resolution offered by vibrational EELS is equal to or better than the best of these …

Contributors
Venkatraman, Kartik, Crozier, Peter, Rez, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2020

The origins of carrier mobility (μe) were thoroughly investigated in hydrogenated indium oxide (IO:H) and zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films. A carrier transport model was developed for IO:H which studied the effects of ionized impurity scattering, polar optical phonon scattering, and grain boundary scattering. Ionized impurity scattering dominated at temperatures below ~240 K. A reduction in scattering charge Z from +2 to +1 as atomic %H increased from ~3 atomic %H to ~5 atomic %H allowed μe to attain >100 cm^2/Vs at ~5 atomic %H. In highly hydrogenated IO:H, ne significantly decreased as temperature increased from …

Contributors
Husein, Sebastian S.T., Bertoni, Mariana I., Stückelberger, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2020

Two dimensional (2D) Janus Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a new class of atomically thin polar materials. In these materials, the top and the bottom atomic layer are made of different chalcogen atoms. To date, several theoretical studies have shown that a broken mirror symmetry induces a colossal electrical field in these materials, which leads to unusual quantum properties. Despite these new properties, the current knowledge in their synthesis is limited only through two independent studies; both works rely on high-temperature processing techniques and are specific to only one type of 2D Janus material - MoSSe. Therefore, there is an …

Contributors
Sayyad, Mohammed Yasir, Tongay, Sefaattin, Crozier, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2020

Photocatalytic water splitting over suspended nanoparticles represents a potential solution for achieving CO2-neutral energy generation and storage. To design efficient photocatalysts, a fundamental understanding of the material’s structure, electronic properties, defects, and how these are controlled via synthesis is essential. Both bulk and nanoscale materials characterization, in addition to various performance metrics, can be combined to elucidate functionality at multiple length scales. In this work, two promising visible light harvesting systems are studied in detail: Pt-functionalized graphitic carbon nitrides (g-CNxHys) and TiO2-supported CeO2-x composites. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is used to sense variations in the local concentration of amine moieties …

Contributors
Haiber, Diane, Crozier, Peter, Chan, Candace, et al.
Created Date
2019

Lithium titanium oxide (LTO), is a crystalline (spinel) anode material that has recently been considered as an alternative to carbon anodes in conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIB), mainly due to the inherent safety and durability of this material. In this paper commercial LTO anode 18650 cells with lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) cathodes have been cycled to simulate EV operating condition (temperature and drive profiles) in Arizona. The capacity fade of battery packs (pack #1 and pack#2), each consisting 6 such cells in parallel was studied. While capacity fades faster at the higher temperature (40°C), fading is significantly reduced at the lower …

Contributors
Wadikar, Harshwardhan, Crozier, Peter, Wang, Qing H, et al.
Created Date
2019

In this dissertation, micro-galvanic corrosion effects and passivation behavior of single-phase binary alloys have been studied in order to formulate new insights towards the development of “stainless-like” lightweight alloys. As a lightweight material of interest, Mg-xAl alloys were studied using aqueous free corrosion, atmospheric corrosion, dissolution rate kinetics, and ionic liquid dissolution. Polarization and “accelerated” free corrosion studies in aqueous chloride were used to characterize the corrosion behavior and morphology of alloys. Atmospheric corrosion experiments revealed surface roughness and pH evolution behavior in aqueous environment. Dissolution in absence of water using choline-chloride:urea ionic liquid allowed for a simpler dissolution mechanism …

Contributors
Aiello, Ashlee, Sieradzki, Karl, Buttry, Daniel, et al.
Created Date
2018

Solid electrolytes have great potential to address the safety issues of Li-ion batteries, but better synthesis methods are still required for ceramics electrolytes such as lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) and lithium lanthanum zirconate (LLZO). Pellets made from ceramic nanopowders using conventional sintering can be porous due to the agglomeration of nanoparticles (NPs). Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique for preparing oxide ceramic nanowires (NWs) and was used to prepare electrospun LLTO and LLZO NWs. Pellets prepared from the electrospun LLTO NWs had higher density, less void space, and higher Li+ conductivity compared to those comprised of LLTO prepared with …

Contributors
Yang, Ting, Chan, Candace K, Crozier, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2017

Nanocrystalline (nc) thin films exhibit a wide range of enhanced mechanical properties compared to their coarse-grained counterparts. Furthermore, the mechanical behavior and microstructure of nc films is intimately related. Thus, precise control of the size, aspect ratio and spatial distribution of grains can enable the synthesis of thin films with exceptional mechanical properties. However, conventional bottom-up techniques for synthesizing thin films are incapable of achieving the microstructural control required to explicitly tune their properties. This dissertation focuses on developing a novel technique to synthesize metallic alloy thin films with precisely controlled microstructures and subsequently characterizing their mechanical properties using in …

Contributors
Sarkar, Rohit, Rajagopalan, Jagannathan, Peralta, Pedro, et al.
Created Date
2017

Dealloying, the selective electrochemical dissolution of an active component from an alloy, often results in nanoscale bi-continuous solid/void morphologies. These structures are attracting attention for a wide range of applications including catalysis, sensing and actuation. The evolution of these nanoporous structures has been widely studied for the case at low homologous temperature, TH, such as in Ag-Au, Cu-Au, Cu-Pt, etc. Since at low TH the solid-state mobility of the components is of order 10-30 cm2s-1 or less, percolation dissolution is the only mechanism available to support dealloying over technologically relevant time scales. Without the necessity of solid-state mass transport, percolation …

Contributors
Geng, Ke, Sieradzki, Karl, Crozier, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2017

There is a fundamental attractiveness about harnessing renewable energy in an age when sustainability is an ethical norm. Lithium ion batteries and hydrogen fuels are considered the most promising energy source instead of fossil fuels. This work describes the investigation of new cathode materials and devices architectures for lithium ion batteries, and photocatalysts for their usage in water splitting and waste water treatment. LiCoO2 and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 were exfoliated into nanosheets using electrochemical oxidation followed by intercalation of tetraethylammonium cations. The nanosheets were purified using dialysis and electrophoresis. The nanosheets were successfully restacked into functional cathode materials with microwave hydrothermal assistance, …

Contributors
Cheng, Qian, Chan, Candace Kay, Sieradzki, Karl, et al.
Created Date
2016

Operando transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an extension of in-situ TEM in which the performance of the material being observed is measured simultaneously. This is of great value, since structure-performance relationships lie at the heart of materials science. For catalyst materials, like the SiO2-supported Ru nanoparticles studied, the important performance metric, catalyst activity, is measured inside the microscope by determining the gas composition during imaging. This is accomplished by acquisition of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) of the gas in the environmental TEM while catalysis is taking place. In this work, automated methods for rapidly quantifying low-loss and core-loss EELS …

Contributors
Miller, Benjamin, Crozier, Peter, Liu, Jingyue, et al.
Created Date
2016

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a materials degradation phenomena resulting from a combination of stress and a corrosive environment. Among the alphabet soup of proposed mechanism of SCC the most important are film-rupture, film-induced cleavage and hydrogen embrittlement. This work examines various aspects of film-induced cleavage in gold alloys for which the operation of hydrogen embrittlement processes can be strictly ruled out on thermodynamic grounds. This is so because in such alloys SCC occurs under electrochemical conditions within which water is stable to hydrogen gas evolution. The alloy system examined in this work is AgAu since the corrosion processes in …

Contributors
CHEN, XIYING, Sieradzki, Karl, Jiao, Yang, et al.
Created Date
2016

LiNbO3 and ZnO have shown great potential for photochemical surface reactions and specific photocatalytic processes. However, the efficiency of LiNbO3 is limited due to recombination or back reactions and ZnO exhibits a chemical instability in a liquid cell. In this dissertation, both materials were coated with precise thickness of metal oxide layers to passivate the surfaces and to enhance their photocatalytic efficiency. LiNbO3 was coated with plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) ZnO and Al2O3, and molecular beam deposited TiO2 and VO2. On the other hand, PEALD ZnO and single crystal ZnO were passivated with PEALD SiO2 and Al2O3. Metal …

Contributors
Kaur, Manpuneet, Nemanich, Robert, Dey, Sandwip, et al.
Created Date
2016

Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising technique to produce H2 fuels from water using sustainable solar energy. To better design photocatalysts, the understanding of charge transfer at surfaces/interfaces and the corresponding structure change during the reaction is very important. Local structural and chemical information on nanoparticle surfaces or interfaces can be achieved through characterizations on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Emphasis should be put on materials structure changes during the reactions in their “working conditions”. Environmental TEM with in situ light illumination system allows the photocatalysts to be studied under light irradiation when exposed to H2O vapor. A set of ex …

Contributors
Zhang, Liuxian, Crozier, Peter, Smith, David, et al.
Created Date
2015

High temperature CO2 perm-selective membranes offer potential for uses in various processes for CO2 separation. Recently, efforts are reported on fabrication of dense ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes. The membranes provide selective permeation to CO2 and exhibit high permeation flux at high temperature. Research on transport mechanism demonstrates that gas transport for ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane is rate limited by ion transport in ceramic support. Reducing membrane thickness proves effective to improve permeation flux. This dissertation reports strategy to prepare thin ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes to increase CO2 permeance. The work also presents characteristics and gas permeation properties of the membranes. Thin ceramic-carbonate dual-phase …

Contributors
Lu, Bo, Lin, Yuesheng, Crozier, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2014

Novel materials for Li-ion batteries is one of the principle thrust areas for current research in energy storage, more so than most, considering its widespread use in portable electronic gadgets and plug-in electric and hybrid cars. One of the major limiting factors in a Li-ion battery's energy density is the low specific capacities of the active materials in the electrodes. In the search for high-performance anode materials for Li-ion batteries, many alternatives to carbonaceous materials have been studied. Both cubic and amorphous silicon can reversibly alloy with lithium and have a theoretical capacity of 3500 mAh/g, making silicon a potential …

Contributors
Raghavan, Rahul, Chan, Candace K, Crozier, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2013

There has been much interest in photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy in recent years due to its potential for low-–cost, sustainable and renewable production of fuels. Despite the huge potential, there are still a number of technical barriers due to the many constraints needed in order to drive photoelectrochemical reactions such as overall water splitting and the identification of efficient and effective semiconductor materials. To this end, the search for novel semiconductors that can act as light absorbers is still needed. The copper hydroxyphosphate mineral libethenite (CHP), which has a chemical formula of Cu2(OH)PO4, has been recently shown to be …

Contributors
Li, Man, Chan, Candace K, O'Connell, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2013

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful framework for environmental decision making because the broad boundaries called for prevent shifting of burden from one life-cycle phase to another. Numerous experts and policy setting organizations call for the application of LCA to developing nanotechnologies. Early application of LCA to nanotechnology may identify environmentally problematic processes and supply chain components before large investments contribute to technology lock in, and thereby promote integration of environmental concerns into technology development and scale-up (enviro-technical integration). However, application of LCA to nanotechnology is problematic due to limitations in LCA methods (e.g., reliance on data from existing …

Contributors
Wender, Ben A., Seager, Thomas P, Crozier, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2013

As world energy demands increase, research into more efficient energy production methods has become imperative. Heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience are used to promote chemical transformations important for energy production. These concepts are important in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) which have attracted attention because of their potential to provide an efficient and environmentally favorable power generation system. The SOFC is also fuel-flexible with the ability to run directly on many fuels other than hydrogen. Internal fuel reforming directly in the anode of the SOFC would greatly reduce the cost and complexity of the device. Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon and …

Contributors
Cavendish, Rio, Crozier, Peter, Adams, James, et al.
Created Date
2012

The electrochemical behavior of nanoscale solids has become an important topic to applications, such as catalysis, sensing, and nano–electronic devices. The electrochemical behavior of elemental metal and alloy particles was studied in this work both theoretically and experimentally. A systematic thermodynamic derivation for the size–dependent Pourbaix Diagram for elemental metal particles is presented. The stability of Pt particles was studied by in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM). It is shown that small Pt particles dissolve at a lower potential than the corresponding bulk material. For the alloy particles, two size ranges of AuAg particles, ∼4 nm and ∼45 nm …

Contributors
Li, Xiaoqian, Sieradzki, Karl, Crozier, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2012

This work focuses on simulation of electrical resistivity and optical behaviors of thin films, where an Ag or Au thin layer is embedded in zinc oxide. Enhanced conductivity and transparency were earlier achieved with multilayer structured transparent conducting oxide (TCO) sandwich layer with metal (TCO/metal/TCO). Sputtering pattern of metal layer is simulated to obtain the morphology, covered area fraction, and the percolation strength. The resistivity as a function of the metal layer thickness fits the modeled trend of covered area fraction beyond the percolation threshold. This result not only presents the robustness of the simulation, but also demonstrates the influence …

Contributors
Fang, Chia-Ling, Alford, Terry L, Crozier, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2012

There is an inexorable link between structure and stress, both of which require study in order to truly understand the physics of thin films. To further our knowledge of thin films, the relationship between structure and stress development was examined in three separate systems in vacuum. The first was continued copper thin film growth in ultra-high vacuum after adsorption of a sub-monolayer quantity of oxygen. Results showed an increase in compressive stress generation, and theory was proposed to explain the additional compressive stress within the films. The second system explored was the adsorption of carbon monoxide on the platinum {111} …

Contributors
Kennedy, Jordan Kristomas, Friesen, Cody, Sieradzki, Karl, et al.
Created Date
2011

Fuel cells, particularly solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), are important for the future of greener and more efficient energy sources. Although SOFCs have been in existence for over fifty years, they have not been deployed extensively because they need to be operated at a high temperature (∼1000 °C), are expensive, and have slow response to changes in energy demands. One important need for commercialization of SOFCs is a lowering of their operating temperature, which requires an electrolyte that can operate at lower temperatures. Doped ceria is one such candidate. For this dissertation work I have studied different types of doped …

Contributors
Anwar, Shahriar, Adams, James B, Crozier, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2011

Owing to their special characteristics, group III-Nitride semiconductors have attracted special attention for their application in a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Of particular interest are their direct and wide band gaps that span from ultraviolet to the infrared wavelengths. In addition, their stronger bonds relative to the other compound semiconductors makes them thermally more stable, which provides devices with longer life time. However, the lattice mismatch between these semiconductors and their substrates cause the as-grown films to have high dislocation densities, reducing the life time of devices that contain these materials. One possible solution for this problem is to …

Contributors
Diaz Rivas, Rosa Estela, Mahajan, Subhash, Petuskey, William, et al.
Created Date
2010