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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Contributor
Date Range
2011 2019


Understanding the consequences of changes in social networks is an important an- thropological research goal. This dissertation looks at the role of data-driven social networks on infectious disease transmission and evolution. The dissertation has two projects. The first project is an examination of the effects of the superspreading phenomenon, wherein a relatively few individuals are responsible for a dispropor- tionate number of secondary cases, on the patterns of an infectious disease. The second project examines the timing of the initial introduction of tuberculosis (TB) to the human population. The results suggest that TB has a long evolutionary history with hunter-gatherers. …

Contributors
Nesse, Hans P, Hurtado, Ana Magdalena, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, et al.
Created Date
2019

This dissertation explores the impact of environmental dependent risk on disease dynamics within a Lagrangian modeling perspective; where the identity (defined by place of residency) of individuals is preserved throughout the epidemic process. In Chapter Three, the impact of individuals who refuse to be vaccinated is explored. MMR vaccination and birth rate data from the State of California are used to determine the impact of the anti-vaccine movement on the dynamics of growth of the anti-vaccine sub-population. Dissertation results suggest that under realistic California social dynamics scenarios, it is not possible to revert the influence of anti-vaccine contagion. In Chapter …

Contributors
Moreno Martinez, Victor Manuel, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Kang, Yun, et al.
Created Date
2018

The most advanced social insects, the eusocial insects, form often large societies in which there is reproductive division of labor, queens and workers, have overlapping generations, and cooperative brood care where daughter workers remain in the nest with their queen mother and care for their siblings. The eusocial insects are composed of representative species of bees and wasps, and all species of ants and termites. Much is known about their organizational structure, but remains to be discovered. The success of social insects is dependent upon cooperative behavior and adaptive strategies shaped by natural selection that respond to internal or external …

Contributors
Rodriguez Messan, Marisabel, Kang, Yun, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, et al.
Created Date
2018

This dissertation discusses the Cournot competition and competitions in the exploitation of common pool resources and its extension to the tragedy of the commons. I address these models by using potential games and inquire how these models reflect the real competitions for provisions of environmental resources. The Cournot models are dependent upon how many firms there are so that the resultant Cournot-Nash equilibrium is dependent upon the number of firms in oligopoly. But many studies do not take into account how the resultant Cournot-Nash equilibrium is sensitive to the change of the number of firms. Potential games can find out …

Contributors
Mamada, Robert Hideo, Perrings, Charles, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, et al.
Created Date
2017

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the sixth most common cancer type worldwide, accounts for more than 630,000 new cases and 350,000 deaths annually. Drug-resistance and tumor recurrence are the most challenging problems in head and neck cancer treatment. It is hypothesized that a very small fraction of stem-like cells within HNSCC tumor, called cancer stem cells (CSCs), is responsible for tumor initiation, progression, resistance and recurrence. It has also been shown that IL-6 secreted by head and neck tumor-associated endothelial cells (ECs) enhances the survival, self-renewal and tumorigenic potential of head and neck CSCs. In this study we …

Contributors
Nazari, Fereshteh, Jackson, Trachette L., Jackson, Trachette L., et al.
Created Date
2017

This dissertation will look at large scale collaboration through the lens of online communities to answer questions about what makes a collaboration persist. Results address how collaborations attract contributions, behaviors that could give rise to patterns seen in the data, and the properties of collaborations that drive those behaviors. It is understood that collaborations, online and otherwise, must retain users to remain productive. However, before users can be retained they must be recruited. In the first project, a few necessary properties of the ``attraction'' function are identified by constraining the dynamics of an ODE (Ordinary Differential Equation) model. Additionally, more …

Contributors
Manning, Miles, Janssen, Marcus A, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, et al.
Created Date
2017

Diabetes is a disease characterized by reduced insulin action and secretion, leading to elevated blood glucose. In the 1990s, studies showed that intravenous injection of fatty acids led to a sharp negative response in insulin action that subsided hours after the injection. The molecule associated with diminished insulin signalling response was a byproduct of fatty acids, diacylglycerol. This dissertation is focused on the formulation of a model built around the known mechanisms of glucose and fatty acid storage and metabolism within myocytes, as well as downstream effects of diacylglycerol on insulin action. Data from euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp with fatty acid infusion …

Contributors
Burkow, Daniel Harrison, Li, Jiaxu, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, et al.
Created Date
2017

Foraging strategies in social animals are often shaped by change in an organism's natural surrounding. Foraging behavior can hence be highly plastic, time, and condition dependent. The motivation of my research is to explore the effects of dispersal behavior in predators or parasites on population dynamics in heterogeneous environments by developing varied models in different contexts through closely working with ecologists. My models include Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE)-type meta population models and Delay Differential Equation (DDE) models with validation through data. I applied dynamical theory and bifurcation theory with carefully designed numerical simulations to have a better understanding on the …

Contributors
Messan, Komi Segno, Kang, Yun, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, et al.
Created Date
2017

The 2009-10 influenza and the 2014-15 Ebola pandemics brought once again urgency to an old question: What are the limits on prediction and what can be proposed that is useful in the face of an epidemic outbreak? This thesis looks first at the impact that limited access to vaccine stockpiles may have on a single influenza outbreak. The purpose is to highlight the challenges faced by populations embedded in inadequate health systems and to identify and assess ways of ameliorating the impact of resource limitations on public health policy. Age-specific per capita constraint rates play an important role on the …

Contributors
Morales-Rosado, Romarie, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Mubayi, Anuj, et al.
Created Date
2016

In the honey bee antennal lobe, uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs) transiently spike to odor sensory stimuli with odor-specific response latencies, i.e., delays to first spike after odor stimulation onset. Recent calcium imaging studies show that the spatio-temporal response profile of the activated uPNs are dynamic and changes as a result of associative conditioning, facilitating odor-detection of learned odors. Moreover, odor-representation in the antennal lobe undergo reward-mediated plasticity processes that increase response delay variations in the activated ensemble of uniglomerular projection neurons. Octopamine is necessarily involved in these plasticity processes. Yet, the cellular mechanisms are not well understood. I hypothesize that …

Contributors
Smith, Adrian Nicholas, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Sinakevitch, Irina T., et al.
Created Date
2016

Combination therapy has shown to improve success for cancer treatment. Oncolytic virotherapy is cancer treatment that uses engineered viruses to specifically infect and kill cancer cells, without harming healthy cells. Immunotherapy boosts the body's natural defenses towards cancer. The combination of oncolytic virotherapy and immunotherapy is explored through deterministic systems of nonlinear differential equations, constructed to match experimental data for murine melanoma. Mathematical analysis was done in order to gain insight on the relationship between cancer, viruses and immune response. One extension of the model focuses on clinical needs, with the underlying goal to seek optimal treatment regimens; for both …

Contributors
Summer, Ilyssa, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Nagy, John, et al.
Created Date
2016

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of diabetes (29.1 million) cases and manifests in 15-30% of prediabetes (86 million) cases, where 9 out of 10 individuals do not know they have prediabetes. Obesity, observed in 56.9% of diabetes cases, arises from the interactions among genetic, biological, environmental, and behavioral factors that are not well understood. Assessing the strength of these links in conjunction with the identification and evaluation of intervention strategies in vulnerable populations is central to the study of chronic diseases. This research addresses three issues that loosely connect …

Contributors
Murillo, Anarina, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Li, Jiaxu, et al.
Created Date
2016

The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is primarily endemic in five countries, with India and Sudan having the highest burden. The risk factors associated with VL are either unknown in some regions or vary drastically among empirical studies. Here, a dynamical model, motivated and informed by field data from the literature, is analyzed and employed to identify and quantify the impact of region dependent risks on the VL transmission dynamics. Parameter estimation procedures were developed using model-derived quantities and empirical data from multiple resources. The dynamics of VL depend on the estimates of the control reproductive number, RC, interpreted as the average …

Contributors
Barley, Kamal Kevin, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Mubayi, Anuj, et al.
Created Date
2016

A key factor in the success of social animals is their organization of work. Mathematical models have been instrumental in unraveling how simple, individual-based rules can generate collective patterns via self-organization. However, existing models offer limited insights into how these patterns are shaped by behavioral differences within groups, in part because they focus on analyzing specific rules rather than general mechanisms that can explain behavior at the individual-level. My work argues for a more principled approach that focuses on the question of how individuals make decisions in costly environments. In Chapters 2 and 3, I demonstrate how this approach provides …

Contributors
Udiani, Oyita Udiani, Kang, Yun, Fewell, Jennifer H, et al.
Created Date
2016

The immune system plays a dual role during neoplastic progression. It can suppress tumor growth by eliminating cancer cells, and also promote neoplastic expansion by either selecting for tumor cells that are fitter to survive in an immunocompetent host or by establishing the right conditions within the tumor microenvironment. First, I present a model to study the dynamics of subclonal evolution of cancer. I model selection through time as an epistatic process. That is, the fitness change in a given cell is not simply additive, but depends on previous mutations. Simulation studies indicate that tumors are composed of myriads of …

Contributors
Chowell, Diego, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Anderson, Karen S, et al.
Created Date
2016

Statistical Methods have been widely used in understanding factors for clinical and public health data. Statistical hypotheses are procedures for testing pre-stated hypotheses. The development and properties of these procedures as well as their performance are based upon certain assumptions. Desirable properties of statistical tests are to maintain validity and to perform well even if these assumptions are not met. A statistical test that maintains such desirable properties is called robust. Mathematical models are typically mechanistic framework, used to study dynamic interactions between components (mechanisms) of a system, and how these interactions give rise to the changes in behavior (patterns) …

Contributors
Gonzalez, Beverly, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Mubayi, Anuj, et al.
Created Date
2015

The Mathematical and Theoretical Biology Institute (MTBI) is a summer research program for undergraduate students, largely from underrepresented minority groups. Founded in 1996, it serves as a 'life-long' mentorship program, providing continuous support for its students and alumni. This study investigates how MTBI supports student development in applied mathematical research. This includes identifying of motivational factors to pursue and develop capacity to complete higher education. The theoretical lens of developmental psychologists Lev Vygotsky (1978, 1987) and Lois Holzman (2010) that sees learning and development as a social process is used. From this view student development in MTBI is attributed to …

Contributors
Evangelista, Arlene Morales, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Holmes, Raquell M, et al.
Created Date
2015

Analysis of social networks has the potential to provide insights into wide range of applications. As datasets continue to grow, a key challenge is the lack of a widely applicable algorithmic framework for detection of statistically anomalous networks and network properties. Unlike traditional signal processing, where models of truth or empirical verification and background data exist and are often well defined, these features are commonly lacking in social and other networks. Here, a novel algorithmic framework for statistical signal processing for graphs is presented. The framework is based on the analysis of spectral properties of the residuals matrix. The framework …

Contributors
Bliss, Nadya Travinin, Laubichler, Manfred, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, et al.
Created Date
2015

In the field of infectious disease epidemiology, the assessment of model robustness outcomes plays a significant role in the identification, reformulation, and evaluation of preparedness strategies aimed at limiting the impact of catastrophic events (pandemics or the deliberate release of biological agents) or used in the management of disease prevention strategies, or employed in the identification and evaluation of control or mitigation measures. The research work in this dissertation focuses on: The comparison and assessment of the role of exponentially distributed waiting times versus the use of generalized non-exponential parametric distributed waiting times of infectious periods on the quantitative and …

Contributors
Morale Butler, Emmanuel Jesús, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Aparicio, Juan P, et al.
Created Date
2014

Extraordinary medical advances have led to significant reductions in the burden of infectious diseases in humans. However, infectious diseases still account for more than 13 million annual deaths. This large burden is partly due to some pathogens having found suitable conditions to emerge and spread in denser and more connected host populations, and others having evolved to escape the pressures imposed by the rampant use of antimicrobials. It is then critical to improve our understanding of how diseases spread in these modern landscapes, characterized by new host population structures and socio-economic environments, as well as containment measures such as the …

Contributors
Patterson-Lomba, Oscar, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Towers, Sherry, et al.
Created Date
2014

Mathematical modeling of infectious diseases can help public health officials to make decisions related to the mitigation of epidemic outbreaks. However, over or under estimations of the morbidity of any infectious disease can be problematic. Therefore, public health officials can always make use of better models to study the potential implication of their decisions and strategies prior to their implementation. Previous work focuses on the mechanisms underlying the different epidemic waves observed in Mexico during the novel swine origin influenza H1N1 pandemic of 2009 and showed extensions of classical models in epidemiology by adding temporal variations in different parameters that …

Contributors
Cruz-Aponte, Maytee, Wirkus, Stephen A., Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, et al.
Created Date
2014

Olfaction is an important sensory modality for behavior since odors inform animals of the presence of food, potential mates, and predators. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a favorable model organism for the investigation of the biophysical mechanisms that contribute to olfaction because its olfactory system is anatomically similar to but simpler than that of vertebrates. In the Drosophila olfactory system, sensory transduction takes place in olfactory receptor neurons housed in the antennae and maxillary palps on the front of the head. The first stage of olfactory processing resides in the antennal lobe, where the structural unit is the glomerulus. …

Contributors
Luli, Dori, Crook, Sharon, Baer, Steven, et al.
Created Date
2013

Solution methods for certain linear and nonlinear evolution equations are presented in this dissertation. Emphasis is placed mainly on the analytical treatment of nonautonomous differential equations, which are challenging to solve despite the existent numerical and symbolic computational software programs available. Ideas from the transformation theory are adopted allowing one to solve the problems under consideration from a non-traditional perspective. First, the Cauchy initial value problem is considered for a class of nonautonomous and inhomogeneous linear diffusion-type equation on the entire real line. Explicit transformations are used to reduce the equations under study to their corresponding standard forms emphasizing on …

Contributors
Vega-Guzman, Jose M., Sulov, Sergei K, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, et al.
Created Date
2013

A sequence of models is developed to describe urban population growth in the context of the embedded physical, social and economic environments and an urban disease are developed. This set of models is focused on urban growth and the relationship between the desire to move and the utility derived from city life. This utility is measured in terms of the economic opportunities in the city, the level of human constructed amenity, and the level of amenity caused by the natural environment. The set of urban disease models is focused on examining prospects of eliminating a disease for which a vaccine …

Contributors
Murillo, David, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Anderies, John M, et al.
Created Date
2012

In complex consumer-resource type systems, where diverse individuals are interconnected and interdependent, one can often anticipate what has become known as the tragedy of the commons, i.e., a situation, when overly efficient consumers exhaust the common resource, causing collapse of the entire population. In this dissertation I use mathematical modeling to explore different variations on the consumer-resource type systems, identifying some possible transitional regimes that can precede the tragedy of the commons. I then reformulate it as a game of a multi-player prisoner's dilemma and study two possible approaches for preventing it, namely direct modification of players' payoffs through punishment/reward …

Contributors
Kareva, Irina, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Collins, James, et al.
Created Date
2012

Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter involved in attention, goal oriented behavior, movement, reward learning, and short term and working memory. For the past four decades, mathematical and computational modeling approaches have been useful in DA research, and although every modeling approach has limitations, a model is an efficient way to generate and explore hypotheses. This work develops a model of DA dynamics in a representative, single DA neuron by integrating previous experimental, theoretical and computational research. The model consists of three compartments: the cytosol, the vesicles, and the extracellular space and forms the basis of a new mathematical paradigm for …

Contributors
Tello-Bravo, David, Crook, Sharon M, Greenwood, Priscilla E, et al.
Created Date
2012

There have been many studies on the dynamics of infectious diseases considering the age structure of the population. This study analyzes the dynamics when the population is stratified by size. This kind of models are useful in the spread of a disease in fisheries where size matters, for microorganism populations or even human diseases that are driven by weight. A simple size structured SIR model is introduced for which a threshold condition, R0, equilibria and stability are established in special cases. Hethcote's approach is used to derive, from first principles, a parallel ODE size-structure system involving n-size classes.The specific case …

Contributors
Torres-Garcia, Griselle, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Feng, Zhilan, et al.
Created Date
2012

The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator is one of the most important models in Quantum Mechanics. Analogous to the classical mass vibrating back and forth on a spring, the quantum oscillator system has attracted substantial attention over the years because of its importance in many advanced and difficult quantum problems. This dissertation deals with solving generalized models of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation which are called generalized quantum harmonic oscillators, and these are characterized by an arbitrary quadratic Hamiltonian of linear momentum and position operators. The primary challenge in this work is that most quantum models with timedependence are not solvable explicitly, yet …

Contributors
Lopez, Raquel, Suslov, Sergei K, Radunskaya, Ami, et al.
Created Date
2012

This dissertation is intended to tie together a body of work which utilizes a variety of methods to study applied mathematical models involving heterogeneity often omitted with classical modeling techniques. I posit three cogent classifications of heterogeneity: physiological, behavioral, and local (specifically connectivity in this work). I consider physiological heterogeneity using the method of transport equations to study heterogeneous susceptibility to diseases in open populations (those with births and deaths). I then present three separate models of behavioral heterogeneity. An SIS/SAS model of gonorrhea transmission in a population of highly active men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) is presented to study the impact of …

Contributors
Morin, Benjamin Richard, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Hiebeler, David, et al.
Created Date
2012

Diseases have been part of human life for generations and evolve within the population, sometimes dying out while other times becoming endemic or the cause of recurrent outbreaks. The long term influence of a disease stems from different dynamics within or between pathogen-host, that have been analyzed and studied by many researchers using mathematical models. Co-infection with different pathogens is common, yet little is known about how infection with one pathogen affects the host's immunological response to another. Moreover, no work has been found in the literature that considers the variability of the host immune health or that examines a …

Contributors
Edme, Soho, Wirkus, Stephen, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, et al.
Created Date
2011

The concept of vaccination dates back further than Edward Jenner's first vaccine using cowpox pustules to confer immunity against smallpox in 1796. Nevertheless, it was Jenner's success that gave vaccines their name and made vaccinia virus (VACV) of particular interest. More than 200 years later there is still the need to understand vaccination from vaccine design to prediction of vaccine efficacy using mathematical models. Post-exposure vaccination with VACV has been suggested to be effective if administered within four days of smallpox exposure although this has not been definitively studied in humans. The first and second chapters analyze post-exposure prophylaxis of …

Contributors
Holechek, Susan Anthoanet, Jacobs, Bertram L, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, et al.
Created Date
2011

This study contributes to the ongoing discussion of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT). It investigates the case of Rico, a high school mathematics teacher who had become known to his colleagues and his students as a superbly effective mathematics teacher. His students not only developed excellent mathematical skills, they also developed deep understanding of the mathematics they learned. Moreover, Rico redesigned his curricula and instruction completely so that they provided a means of support for his students to learn mathematics the way he intended. The purpose of this study was to understand the sources of Rico's effectiveness. The data for …

Contributors
Lage Ramírez, Ana Elisa, Thompson, Patrick W., Carlson, Marilyn P., et al.
Created Date
2011

Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. With the development of drugs, vaccines and antibiotics, it was believed that for the first time in human history diseases would no longer be a major cause of mortality. Newly emerging diseases, re-emerging diseases and the emergence of microorganisms resistant to existing treatment have forced us to re-evaluate our optimistic perspective. In this study, a simple mathematical framework for super-infection is considered in order to explore the transmission dynamics of drug-resistance. Through its theoretical analysis, we identify the conditions necessary for the coexistence between sensitive strains and drug-resistant strains. Farther, in …

Contributors
Urdapilleta, Alicia, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, Wang, Xiaohong, et al.
Created Date
2011

In the traditional setting of quantum mechanics, the Hamiltonian operator does not depend on time. While some Schrödinger equations with time-dependent Hamiltonians have been solved, explicitly solvable cases are typically scarce. This thesis is a collection of papers in which this first author along with Suslov, Suazo, and Lopez, has worked on solving a series of Schrödinger equations with a time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian that has applications in problems of quantum electrodynamics, lasers, quantum devices such as quantum dots, and external varying fields. In particular the author discusses a new completely integrable case of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in R^n with …

Contributors
Cordero-Soto, Ricardo Javier, Suslov, Sergei, Castillo-Chavez, Carlos, et al.
Created Date
2011