ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

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Contributor
Date Range
2010 2016

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the universal chemical energy currency in most living cells, used to power many cellular reactions and generated by an enzyme supercomplex known as the ATP synthase, consisting of a hydrophilic F1 subcomplex and a membrane-bound FO subcomplex. Driven by the electrochemical gradient generated by the respiratory or photosynthetic electron transport chain, the rotation of the FO domain drives movements of the central stalk in response to conformational changes in the F1 domain, in which the physical energy is converted into chemical energy through the condensation of ADP and Pi to ATP. The exact mechanism how ATP ...

Contributors
Yang, Jay-How, Fromme, Petra, Redding, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2015

A vast amount of energy emanates from the sun, and at the distance of Earth, approximately 172,500 TW reaches the atmosphere. Of that, 80,600 TW reaches the surface with 15,600 TW falling on land. Photosynthesis converts 156 TW in the form of biomass, which represents all food/fuel for the biosphere with about 20 TW of the total product used by humans. Additionally, our society uses approximately 20 more TW of energy from ancient photosynthetic products i.e. fossil fuels. In order to mitigate climate problems, the carbon dioxide must be removed from the human energy usage by replacement or recycling as ...

Contributors
Vaughn, Michael David, Moore, Thomas, Fromme, Petra, et al.
Created Date
2014

Accurate virus detection is important for diagnosis in a timely manner to facilitate rapid interventions and treatments. RNA viruses affect an extensive amount of the world’s population, particularly in tropical countries where emerging infectious agents often arise. Current diagnostic methods have three main problems: they are time consuming, typically not field-portable, and expensive. My research goal is to develop rapid, field-portable and cost sensitive diagnostic methods for RNA viruses. Herein, two different approaches to detect RNA viruses were proposed: Conjugated gold nanoparticles for detection of viral particles or virus-specific antibodies by monitoring changes in their optical properties, and Tentacle Probes ...

Contributors
Franco, Lina Stella, Mujica, Vladimiro, Blattman, Joseph N, et al.
Created Date
2016

In oxygenic photosynthesis, Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) are two transmembrane protein complexes that catalyze the main step of energy conversion; the light induced charge separation that drives an electron transfer reaction across the thylakoid membrane. Current knowledge of the structure of PSI and PSII is based on three structures: PSI and PSII from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elonagatus and the PSI/light harvesting complex I (PSI-LHCI) of the plant, Pisum sativum. To improve the knowledge of these important membrane protein complexes from a wider spectrum of photosynthetic organisms, photosynthetic apparatus of the thermo-acidophilic red alga, Galdieria sulphuraria and ...

Contributors
Thangaraj, Balakumar, Fromme, Petra, Shock, Everett, et al.
Created Date
2010

Photosynthesis is the primary source of energy for most living organisms. Light harvesting complexes (LHC) play a vital role in harvesting sunlight and passing it on to the protein complexes of the electron transfer chain which create the electrochemical potential across the membrane which drives ATP synthesis. phycobilisomes (PBS) are the most important LHCs in cyanobacteria. PBS is a complex of three light harvesting proteins: phycoerythrin (PE), phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC). This work has been done on a newly discovered cyanobacterium called Leptolyngbya Heron Island (L.HI). This study has three important goals: 1) Sequencing, assembly and annotation of the ...

Contributors
Paul, Robin, Fromme, Petra, Ros, Alexandra, et al.
Created Date
2014

Proteins and peptides fold into dynamic structures that access a broad functional landscape, however, designing artificial polypeptide systems continues to be a great chal-lenge. Conversely, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) engineering is now routinely used to build a wide variety of two dimensional and three dimensional (3D) nanostructures from simple hybridization based rules, and their functional diversity can be significantly ex-panded through site specific incorporation of the appropriate guest molecules. This dis-sertation describes a gentle methodology for using short (8 nucleotide) peptide nucleic acid (PNA) linkers to assemble polypeptides within a 3D DNA nanocage, as a proof of concept for constructing artificial ...

Contributors
Flory, Justin, Fromme, Petra, Yan, Hao, et al.
Created Date
2014

The need for a renewable and sustainable light-driven energy source is the motivation for this work, which utilizes a challenging, yet practical and attainable bio-inspired approach to develop an artificial oxygen evolving complex, which builds upon the principles of the natural water splitting mechanism in oxygenic photosynthesis. In this work, a stable framework consisting of a three-dimensional DNA tetrahedron has been used for the design of a bio-mimic of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex (OEC) found in natural Photosystem II (PSII). PSII is a large protein complex that evolves all the oxygen in the atmosphere, but it cannot be used directly in ...

Contributors
Rendek, Kim, Fromme, Petra, Chen, Julian, et al.
Created Date
2012

Conformational changes in biomolecules often take place on longer timescales than are easily accessible with unbiased molecular dynamics simulations, necessitating the use of enhanced sampling techniques, such as adaptive umbrella sampling. In this technique, the conformational free energy is calculated in terms of a designated set of reaction coordinates. At the same time, estimates of this free energy are subtracted from the potential energy in order to remove free energy barriers and cause conformational changes to take place more rapidly. This dissertation presents applications of adaptive umbrella sampling to a variety of biomolecular systems. The first study investigated the effects ...

Contributors
Spiriti, Justin Matthew, Van Der Vaart, Arjan, Chizmeshya, Andrew, et al.
Created Date
2011

CTB-MPR649-684 is a translational fusion protein consisting of the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and the conserved residues 649-684 of gp41 membrane proximal region (MPR). It is a candidate vaccine component aimed at early steps of the HIV-1 infection by blocking viral mucosal transmission. Bacterially produced CTB-MPR was previously shown to induce HIV-1 transcytosis-blocking antibodies in mice and rabbits. However, the induction of high-titer MPR specific antibodies with HIV-1 transcytosis blocking ability remains a challenge as the immuno-dominance of CTB overshadows the response to MPR. X-ray crystallography was used to investigate the structure of CTB-MPR with the goal of identifying ...

Contributors
Lee, Ho-Hsien, Fromme, Petra, Mor, Tsafrir, et al.
Created Date
2015

ABSTRACT The catalytic chaperone of Rubisco is AAA+ protein Rubisco activase (Rca), which hydrolyzes ATP and thus undergoes conformational change, helping in reactivating Rubisco. Rca reactivates Rubisco plausibly by removing its C- terminal tail from the opening of its active site thus releasing the inhibitor, a sugar phosphate molecule. Rubisco and Rca are regulated by the stromal environment, which includes the ATP/ADP ratio, Mg2+ concentration, redox potential etc. Here the mechanistic regulation of tobacco β-Rca was studied using steady state enzyme kinetics in terms of product inhibition, Mg2+ activation, cooperativity and asymmetry. A continuous Pi measurement assay was developed, and ...

Contributors
Hazra, Suratna, Wachter, Rebekka M, Fromme, Petra, et al.
Created Date
2015

This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries.

For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.