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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Contributor
Date Range
2010 2019


This handbook is aimed to develop a violist’s technique as they move from Georg Philipp Telemann’s Concerto for Viola, Strings, and Basso Continuo in G Major, TWV 51: G9 and begin the Carl Stamitz's Viola Concerto in D Major, Op. 1. Ten etudes and related exercises introduce and highlight various techniques, providing a comprehensive and methodical transition from one concerto to the next. These etudes are based on fragments of the Stamitz Concerto in an effort to directly relate technical development with performance skills. Dissertation/Thesis

Contributors
CHIEN, SHAO-CHUAN SYLVIA, Buck, Nancy, Rockmaker, Jody, et al.
Created Date
2018

A New Home is a multi-movement musical composition written for a chamber orchestra of flute, oboe, clarinet in B-flat, bassoon, horn in F, trumpet in C, trombone, bass trombone, percussion (1), pianoforte, and strings. The duration of the entire piece is approximately fourteen minutes (movement 1: four minutes; mvt. 2: four minutes and thirty seconds; mvt. 3: five minutes and thirty seconds). As an exercise in compositional experimentation, some of the musical techniques explored throughout the piece are harmonic planing or parallelism, ostinati, modality, chromatic dissonance, thematic transformation, mixed meter, and syncopation, as well as issues of orchestral blend, balance, …

Contributors
Jones, Zachary William, Rogers, Rodney, Feisst, Sabine, et al.
Created Date
2016

Four new duets by different composers were commissioned for this project that utilize the clarinet and bass clarinet with tenor saxophone and bassoon. The pieces are Three Southwest Landscapes by Dan Caputo, Gestures by Michael Lanci, Connotations and Denotations by Jeffery Brooks, and Lyddimy by Thomas Breadon, Jr. The present document includes background information and a performance guide for each of the pieces. The guide gives recommendations to aid musicians wishing to perform these works. Also included are transcripts of interviews conducted with each composer and performer, as well as full scores of each piece. In addition to the document …

Contributors
Miller, Audrey Jakub, Spring, Robert, Gardner, Joshua T, et al.
Created Date
2014

Norwegian composer Ola Gjeilo (b. 1978) is highly regarded as an accomplished and prolific composer of choral music. His creative output includes works for chorus, solo piano, and wind symphony. His unique style infuses elements of cinematic music, jazz and improvisation, with particularly intriguing selections of text. This study examines the factors that influence Gjeilo's compositional techniques, and the musical interpretations of conductor Charles Bruffy in his preparation for The Phoenix Chorale's recording Northern Lights: Choral Works by Ola Gjeilo. The eleven works discussed in this study are: The Ground, Evening Prayer, Ubi caritas, Prelude, Northern Lights, The Spheres, Tota …

Contributors
Garrison, Ryan Derrick, Reber, William, Saucier, Catherine, et al.
Created Date
2013

The purpose of this study was to collect specific data concerning the use of financial resources from extant adult community bands that are members of the Association of Concerts Bands (ACB). An adult community band is defined as an ensemble consisting primarily of amateur adult woodwind, brass, and percussion performers, the majority of whom are not satisfying school, college, or military requirements through participation. This investigation comprises two main parts: 1) a perusal of the development of adult community bands within the overall history of bands in the United States, including, when possible, financial aspects of their operations; and 2) …

Contributors
Raya, Bryan, Hill, Gary, Caslor, Jason, et al.
Created Date
2017

The purpose of this project is to add to the repertoire of clarinet music written in the Romantic style. While there are some pieces written by composers such as Johannes Brahms, Robert Schumann, Max Reger, and a few others, it pales in comparison to the amount of highly regarded clarinet music written in the twentieth century. For this project, the three viola sonatas of Julius Röntgen have been adapted for clarinet and piano. Though these pieces were composed in 1924 and 1925 at the height of the expressionist movement, they are written in the late-Romantic style, with chromaticism and rhythmic …

Contributors
Thompson, Anthony Martin, Spring, Robert S, Hill, Gary, et al.
Created Date
2017

Contemporary Chinese composers have a rich palette from which to draw inspirations of the distinctive timbres of ancient instruments, the diverse musical types, and the development of musical instruments. Zhou Long, an internationally recognized Chinese-American composer, has created a compositional style that transfers the sounds and techniques of ancient Chinese musical traditions to modern Western instruments. An examination of Zhou Long’s compositions Secluded Orchid and Spirit of Chimes demonstrates his synthesis of Chinese and Western techniques as well as cross-cultural integration. To gain a better understanding of the compositional process of these two piano trios, the author conducted a personal …

Contributors
Li, Xiaolin, Jiang, Danwen, Campbell, Andrew, et al.
Created Date
2017

The following project is an audition preparation handbook for double bass players. The materials and techniques included are designed for use by advanced collegiate bass players seeking work as freelance or contracted musicians. Subjects ranging from finding an opening, becoming mentally and physically prepared, and developing the skills and experience necessary to be successful will be examined. The most frequently requested audition excerpts are included in this document, carefully extracted from the original orchestra parts and notated with efficient fingerings. Elements of style and performance are discussed. Each of the excerpts is recorded on the enclosed CD, performed by the …

Contributors
Rose, Christopher Steven, Rotaru, Catalin, Landschoot, Thomas, et al.
Created Date
2011

A systematic approach to composition has been used by a variety of composers to control an assortment of musical elements in their pieces. This paper begins with a brief survey of some of the important systematic approaches that composers have employed in their compositions, devoting particular attention to Pierre Boulez's Structures Ia . The purpose of this survey is to examine several systematic approaches to composition by prominent composers and their philosophy in adopting this type of approach. The next section of the paper introduces my own systematic approach to composition: the Take-Away System. The third provides several musical applications …

Contributors
Harbin, Douglas Allen, Hackbarth, Glenn, Demars, James, et al.
Created Date
2011

This thesis presents a new arrangement of Richard Peaslee's trombone solo "Arrows of Time" for brass band. This arrangement adapts Peaslee's orchestration - and subsequent arrangement by Dr. Joshua Hauser for wind ensemble - for the modern brass band instrumentation and includes a full score. A brief biography of Richard Peaslee and his work accompanies this new arrangement, along with commentary on the orchestration of "Arrows of Time", and discussion of the evolution and adaptation of the work for wind ensemble by Dr. Hauser. The methodology used to adapt these versions for the brass band completes the background information. Dissertation/Thesis

Contributors
Malloy, Jason Patrick, Ericson, John, Oldani, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2013

Bright Summer, a one-movement piece for orchestra, was composed in Arizona, and completed in February 2013. The piece is approximately twelve minutes long. The motivation for writing this piece was the death of my mother the year before, in 2012. The prevailing mood of this work is bright and pleasant, expressing my mother's cheerful personality when she was alive. It also portrays bright summer days which resemble my mother's spirit. Thus, soundscape plays an important role in this work. It depicts summer breeze, rustling sounds of leaves, and, to translate a Korean saying, "high blue skies." This soundscape opens the …

Contributors
Kim, Jeeyeon, Demars, James, Hackbarth, Glenn, et al.
Created Date
2013

Bruegel is a four movement composition inspired by the paintings and engravings of Flemish artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525-1569). It is scored for Bass Clarinet in Bb, Electric Guitar, One Percussionist (Glockenspiel, Woodblock, Snare, Kick Drum, and Brake Drums), Piano and String Quartet. Each movement explores a painting or engraving from Bruegel’s catalog of works and attempts to embody each piece of art through the use of certain compositional techniques. The Cripples (Movement I) explores layered rhythms and disjunct melodic fragments which play on the idea of Bruegel’s painting of crippled men trampling over each other and stumbling. Small …

Contributors
Villalta, Kevin Anthony, Rogers, Rodney, Rockmaker, Jody, et al.
Created Date
2016

Clarinet multiphonics have become increasingly popular among composers since they were first introduced in the 1950s. However, it is a topic poorly understood by both performers and composers, which sometimes leads to the use of acoustically impossible multiphonics in compositions. Producing multiphonics requires precise manipulations of embouchure force, air pressure, and tongue position. These three factors are invisible to the naked eye during clarinet performance, leading to many conflicting theories about multiphonic production strategies, often based on subjective perception of the performer. This study attempts to observe the latter factor—tongue motion—during multiphonic production in situ using ultrasound. Additionally, a multiphonic …

Contributors
Liang, Jack Yi Jing, Gardner, Joshua, Spring, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2018

The modern day tubist has an expanded collection of solo tuba repertoire that continues to grow in quantity and in difficulty, making it necessary to utilize all the tools available to improve musicianship and performance ability. In this capacity, the use of transcribed material serves as a vital method of cross training in order to develop skills which assist the performance of modern tuba literature. Rather than focusing on transcriptions solely to engage with musical eras that the tuba would not otherwise have access to, the tubist can use transcribed material as supplementary or even prerequisite repertoire. This project examines …

Contributors
Netzer, Travis, Swoboda, Deanna, Ericson, John, et al.
Created Date
2016

ABSTRACT Edouard Vuillermoz (1869-1939) was a horn player and teacher who studied and later taught at the Paris Conservatory during the early twentieth century. As did many of the professors from the Conservatory, Vuillermoz published works for the horn. Unfortunately, his name has largely faded into obscurity and most of his works are no longer in print, yet one has remained in the repertoire and is still available for purchase today—Dix Pièces Mélodiques. Published in 1927 by Alphonse-Leduc, Vuillermoz desired for his students a set of etudes that would teach mastery of transposition, but he was not a composer. The …

Contributors
Buxbaum, Juli Ann, Ericson, John Q, Rockmaker, Jody, et al.
Created Date
2018

The organ is in a continued state of evolution, tonally and mechanically, designed by the builder to meet certain expectations related to the musical aesthetics of the time. Organ building in the United States has been influenced by both European organ building traditions and American innovations. During the early twentieth century, Ernest M. Skinner emerged as one of the greatest organ builders in America. Throughout his life, Skinner's quest was to create an "ideal organ," capable of playing a variety of music. Skinner's vision was rooted in the Romantic Movement and influenced by the dynamic gradations and rich, colorful sonorities …

Contributors
Gerber, James Theodore, Marshall, Kimberly, Pagano, Caio, et al.
Created Date
2012

As with many concertante, Fantasy focuses on the interplay between the soloist and the orchestra. Contrast is a fundamental principle for creating the formal design of the composition. Adjacent sections are related to one another by the contrast of any or all of the following: register, timbre, and texture. Fantasy derives inspiration from the musical languages of Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Moravec, and Debussy. Dissertation/Thesis

Contributors
Kemp, Tyler, Rockmaker, Jody, DeMars, James, et al.
Created Date
2018

Since 1999, a small group of groundbreaking orchestral works for turntables and orchestra has surfaced on the concert stage. These compositions explore the possibilities of the turntables and invite an intriguing fusion of musical cultures of the classically trained musician and the hip-hop DJ. Since DJ turntablists typically follow an improvised tradition and do not read music, the composer must find an effective means of notating the turntables and collaborate with the turntablist in the execution of the work. As interest in turntables composition grows, there is a need for discussion and a compositional guide with advice based on present …

Contributors
Ouper, Jeffrey Thomas, Hackbarth, Glenn, Standley, Eileen, et al.
Created Date
2014

From Marathon to Athens was inspired by the legend of Pheidippides, a Greek messenger who ran approximately twenty-six miles between the cities of Marathon and Athens in ancient Greece to deliver an important wartime message. According to the legend, he died shortly after completing the journey. The marathon races of today were inspired by his story, though it may be more myth than reality. There is a great deal of inherent drama in the undertaking of such a feat, whether it be a marathon or any other test of strength and endurance. There is the rush of adrenaline when it …

Contributors
Osteen-Petreshock, Kimberly, Hackbarth, Glenn, Rockmaker, Jody, et al.
Created Date
2010

Light Emerging is a symphonic dance suite in five movements. The work’s approximate length is 25 minutes; it is scored for flute, oboe, clarinet in Bb, bassoon, horn in F, trumpet in C with loop pedal, trombone, percussion, electronic percussion, piano, strings, and fixed media. Each movement of the dance suite is written to be performed as a standalone piece or together as one multimovement work. The music showcases open quintal sonorities layered in conflicting substructures, which contract into denser brooding passages and transform into tonal fanfares. Attempting to capture the essence of how humanity uniquely experiences light and assigns …

Contributors
Johnson, Brice, Rogers, Rodney, Rockmaker, Jody, et al.
Created Date
2019

Lux Aeterna is scored for Flute (Piccolo), Bb Clarinet (Bass Clarinet), Oboe, Bassoon (Contra-Bassoon), French Horn, Trumpet in C, Tenor Trombone, Soprano Voice, Alto Voice, Tenor Voice, Bass Voice, 2 Violins, Viola, Cello and Double Bass. The piece lasts 17-18 minutes. The text, in its original Latin, is from the Requiem Mass. The pitch material for the four voices is directly derived from the original Gregorian Chant (B, C#, D, E, F#, G, A). The primary pitch materials for the instrumental ensemble are drawn from the overtone series, with the fundamental of B natural. As found in the natural overtone …

Contributors
Mitchell, Christopher Paul, Rockmaker, Jody, Rockmaker, Jody, et al.
Created Date
2019

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born July 18, 1918 into the Madiba clan in Mvezo, Transkei, South Africa. Mandela was a lawyer by trade and a freedom fighter who envisioned freedom and equality for all South Africans regardless of race. In 1965, Mandela was imprisoned at Robben Island for twenty-seven years for treason and terrorist activities against the South African apartheid regime: he was assigned prison numbers 46664. In 1992, Mandela was released from prison and two years later not only became the first democratically elected president of South Africa, but also its first black president. "Madiba 46664" is an eight-minute …

Contributors
Mabingani, Collette Sipho, Demars, James, Hackbarth, Glenn, et al.
Created Date
2014

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, musicologists have been delving into formerly inaccessible archives and publishing new research on Eastern Bloc composers. Much of the English-language scholarship, however, has focused on already well-known composers from Russia or Poland. In contrast, composers from smaller countries such as the Czech Republic (formerly Czechoslovakia) have been neglected. In this thesis, I shed light on the new music scene in Czechoslovakia from 1948–1989, specifically during the period of “Normalization” (1969–1989). The period of Normalization followed a cultural thaw, and beginning in 1969 the Czechoslovak government attempted to restore control. Many Czech and Slovak …

Contributors
Johnson, Victoria K., Feisst, Sabine, Oldani, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2015

This composition was commissioned by the Orgelpark to be performed in Amsterdam in September 2011 during Gaudeamus Muziekweek. It will be performed by the vocal group VocaalLab Nederland. It is scored for four vocalists, organ, tanpura, and electronic sound. The work is a culmination of my studies in South Indian Carnatic rhythm, North Indian classical singing, and American minimalism. It is a meditation on the idea that the drone and pulse are micro/macro aspects of the same phenomenon of vibration. Cycles are created on the macroscale through a mathematically defined scale of harmonic/pitch relationships. Cycles are created on the microscale …

Contributors
Adler, Jacob, Rockmaker, Jody, Feisst, Sabine, et al.
Created Date
2011

Throughout the history of Western art music, political and religious institutions have exerted powerful influence through their patronage and censorship. This is especially relevant to the organ, an elaborate and expensive instrument which has always depended on institutional support. The fascinating story of Polish organ culture, which has existed since the Middle Ages, reflects the dramatic changes in Polish politics throughout the centuries. An understanding of this country's history helps to construct a comprehensive view of how politics influenced the developments in organ building and organ playing. This paper describes the dynamics of the Church, government and art institutions in …

Contributors
Kubiaczyk-Adler, Ilona, Marshall, Kimberly, Micklich, Albie, et al.
Created Date
2012

The craft of improvisation at the organ has survived a long period of dormancy and is experiencing a strong resurgence in the twenty-first century. This project seeks to establish a precedence for the value of notated music as a resource in learning improvisation, and then, through music analysis, provide examples of how that process can develop. The result of the ideas presented here is a pathway whereby any disciplined organist can learn to imitate composed music, assimilate the musical ideas, and innovate through the act of spontaneous improvisation. Dissertation/Thesis

Contributors
Howard, Devon, Marshall, Kimberly, Ryan, Russell, et al.
Created Date
2012

“OUT.” is a song cycle for bass and piano that follows the coming out process of a young homosexual who has been raised in a politically and religiously conservative corner of American culture. This character was taught from a very young age that anything or anyone of a queer nature was inherently wrong and should be avoided and scorned. The story arc captured in this seven-movement work is only a small portion of what the character ultimately goes through as they mature. This portion of their narrative has been isolated with the hope of embodying a queer character of strength, …

Contributors
Greenhalgh, Jedd, Suzuki, Kotoka, Rockmaker, Jody, et al.
Created Date
2019

Preservation Symphony is a short, multi-movement, orchestral composition that explores the versatility of the [016] pitch class set as the dominant unifying force of this cyclical work. The composition is scored for Piccolo, two Flutes, two Oboes, English Horn, two Clarinets, Bass Clarinet, full complement of Brass, Timpani, two Percussionists, and Strings. Movement one is in sonata form; the [016] set is used in structuring its overall formal scheme. The primary focus of the movement is on the tritone [0 6] as a replacement for the traditional tonic and dominant polarity. The movement features a driving force that alternates between …

Contributors
Kemp, Tyler, Rogers, Rodney, Demars, James, et al.
Created Date
2014

Rhythm is a work for percussion ensemble and narrator. The percussion ensemble includes five percussionists who each play multiple instruments. The narrator recites quotes from the book Meter as Rhythm by Dr. Christopher Hasty. The piece is in six parts with a short introduction (mm. 1-5). The structure is delineated by the quotes from Meter as Rhythm. The narrator describes an aspect of rhythm at the beginning of each section and the quote is sonically realized through the percussion ensemble. This piece experiments with different timbres and rhythmic motives. Timbral variety is achieved through grouping instruments into woods, metals, and …

Contributors
Bush, Zachary, Rockmaker, Jody, Rodgers, Rodney, et al.
Created Date
2018

This research paper provides a revised version of viola alta compositions by Hermann Ritter. These original compositions, written for viola alta, were published between 1878 and 1900. Without further reprint, these works are largely unknown by this generation of violists. Yet, these works are precious examples of viola alta repertoire from the late nineteenth century. The viola alta was designed by Hermann Ritter with an instrumental length between 17 and 19 inches. Another version of this instrument was constructed with five strings, adding a high E-string. Higher pitches could then be played with relative ease in lower positions. Compositions for …

Contributors
Chen, Yen-Fang, Buck, Nancy, Rockmaker, Jody, et al.
Created Date
2018

The German pianist and composer Johannes Brahms (1883-1897) wrote more than 122 works for a wide variety of ensembles and genres. Despite this remarkable productivity, and his widely heralded talent for innovation and technique as a composer, few of his works have been arranged for solo guitar, and these have focused primarily on his simpler, more melodic works. Conventional wisdom is that his music is "too dense" to be played on the guitar. As a result, there are no arrangements of orchestral works by Brahms in the standard repertoire for the guitar. In arranging Brahms's Serenade in D Major, movt. …

Contributors
Lanier, William Hudson, Koonce, Frank, Micklich, Albie, et al.
Created Date
2013

Charles-Valentin Alkan’s Grande Sonate Op. 33 ‘Les quatre âges’ is a unique four-movement work for piano solo that programmatically represents a man’s life through four decades, passing from age 20 to 50, with each movement being progressively slower than the previous. Published in 1847, it was destined for obscurity until it was rediscovered and premiered in 1973 by English pianist Ronald Smith. Its absence from the public’s reach can be attributed to multiple reasons including the reclusive nature of the composer during the time of composition and the societal issues surrounding the French Revolution of 1848. Much of Alkan’s music …

Contributors
Hillmann, Joshua Lester, Meir, Baruch, Pagano, Caio, et al.
Created Date
2018

Sonata No. 2 in B-flat Major is a work for trumpet and piano. It is composed in the romantic tradition and is thirty minutes in length. Trumpet chamber repertoire has increased dramatically in the past century, but few new works are representative of the harmonic language or extended forms of the late romantic tradition. The first movement, “Allegro con spirito,” is in sonata form with fantasy qualities allowing the exposition to meld with the development. The primary theme in 3/4 meter develops a neighbor-tone motive; in contrast, the second theme in 4/4 (in the same tempo) is more lyric in …

Contributors
Brand, Spencer Paul, DeMars, James, Rockmaker, Jody, et al.
Created Date
2018

This work explores the blurring and eradication of boundaries – whether the boundaries are musical, social, cultural, linguistical, or political. I wanted to create a work that would explore the boundaries of my own dual identities, such as Mexican or American, or masculine or feminine, and that of my varied interests, such as popular, jazz, and European art music. After half a year of work, Sueño-Vibrant is the dazzling, whirlwind of a result (“vibrant” is pronounced just as it is in English). I worked with poet Marco Piña because we share many similarities in our artistic philosophies, owing to our …

Contributors
Rodriguez, Kristian Silviano, Rockmaker, Jody, Suzuki, Kotoka, et al.
Created Date
2019

This document examines the many ways in which the arts can benefit rural areas. It aims to illuminate potential opportunities found in rural areas for all types of artists, and discusses important points on building arts programs, organizations, and events in these areas. Having a strong arts presence can positively impact the economy, education system, community and well-being in rural areas. The arts help to strengthen community identity, provide exposure to new artistic experiences while preserving local culture, create a more resilient economy, strengthen the education system, and provide a creative outlet for community members. Musicians visiting a rural community …

Contributors
Off, Sarah Nicole, Jiang, Danwen, Schmidt, Margaret, et al.
Created Date
2017

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra created the character of Don Quixote in his book El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha, published in 1605. Since its creation, stories from the book have been reimagined in art, in literature and in music. Frequently, Cervantes – the man and author – and Quixote – the novel’s protagonist and hero – have been inextricably linked in character. Subsequent adaptors of the novel have been influenced by this connection: composers Jules Massenet (1842-1912), Jacques Ibert (1890-1962) and Mitch Leigh (1928-2014) all wrote their own versions of the Quixote saga. Though their approaches to the …

Contributors
Kim, Sehoon, Britton, David, Reber, William, et al.
Created Date
2016

ABSTRACT &eacutetudes; written for violin ensemble, which include violin duets, trios, and quartets, are less numerous than solo &eacutetudes.; These works rarely go by the title "&eacutetude;," and have not been the focus of much scholarly research. Ensemble &eacutetudes; have much to offer students, teachers and composers, however, because they add an extra dimension to the learning, teaching, and composing processes. This document establishes the value of ensemble &eacutetudes; in pedagogy and explores applications of the repertoire currently available. Rather than focus on violin duets, the most common form of ensemble &eacutetude;, it mainly considers works for three and four …

Contributors
Lundell, Eva Rachel, Swartz, Jonathan, Rockmaker, Jody, et al.
Created Date
2011

Despite a quickly growing repertoire list for the brass quintet, the music of the early Argentine tango has remained relatively neglected by brass quintet arrangers and performers. With the goal of bringing a neglected art form to the brass quintet repertoire, three arrangements based on early twentieth century Argentine tango songs are presented here: "Elegante Papirusa" by Tito Roccatagliata, "A La Gran Muñeca" by Jesús Ventura, and "La Cotorrita" by Samuel Castriota. The arrangements follow the style of three early recordings produced by The Victor Talking Machine in 1920 and 1922, as performed by two authentic Argentine orquesta típicas: Orquesta …

Contributors
Camacho, Gustavo, Ericson, John Q, Pilafian, Samuel, et al.
Created Date
2011

This research paper creates a modern score transcription of selected choral works by composer Alexander Chesnokov. The life and works of Alexander Chesnokov are almost completely unknown in the United States. A collection of his works is housed in the New York Public Library (NYPL). Selected transcripts from this collection provide insight into the works and style of Alexander Chesnokov. They may also serve as a study guide and point for further research and explorations into the life and compositions of this Russian composer. The sets of transcriptions within this paper were created from a microfilm copy from the NYPL's …

Contributors
Smolnik, Carric, Gentry, Gregory, Reber, William, et al.
Created Date
2011