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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Contributor
Language
  • English
Resource Type
  • Masters Thesis
Date Range
2011 2020


The glycation of plasma proteins leading to the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and subsequent damage is a driving factor in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. The overall research objective was to elucidate the mechanisms by which birds prevent protein glycation in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. This was accomplished through the specific purpose of examining the impact of temperature and glucose concentration on the percent glycation of chicken serum albumin (CSA) in comparison to human serum albumin (HSA). Purified CSA and HSA solutions prepared at four different glucose concentrations (0 mM, 5.56 mM, 11.11 …

Contributors
Zuck, Jessica Ann, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2016

Background: Smartphone diet tracking applications (apps) are increasing in popularity but may not adequately address the important concerns of proper intake and of diet quality. Two novel weight loss apps were designed based on the popular dietary frameworks: MyPlate and FoodLists. MyPlate, the dietary guidelines put forth by the U.S. government, encourages a balanced diet from five primary food groups, but does not specify intake limits. The Food Lists set upper intake limits on all food groups except vegetables, and these guidelines extend to include fats, sweets, and alcohol. Objective: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine …

Contributors
Scholtz, Cameron, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2016

Low income, pregnant adolescents have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth, delivery of low birth weight babies and excessive gestational weight gain that increases the risk of postpartum overweight and obesity. Inadequate dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that may differentially impact maternal health and fetal outcomes for pregnant adults and adolescents. To evaluate the effectiveness of a social media intervention on improving prenatal health knowledge and dietary intake, 22 racially diverse pregnant women (59% Black and 36% White) were recruited and adolescent (n=10) outcomes compared to those of adults (n=12) across the intervention. …

Contributors
Ellis, Megan, Whisner, Corrie M, Bruening, Meg, et al.
Created Date
2016

Objective: It’s not well understood how youth perceive existing fruit and vegetable (FV) marketing materials available in schools. This ancillary study sought to assess the acceptability of FV marketing materials freely available to schools among adolescents in grades 6-12. Methods: Middle and high school adolescents (n=40; 50% female; 52.5% Hispanic) in the Phoenix, AZ area were asked to rank marketing materials (n=35) from favorite to least favorite in four categories: table tents, medium posters, large posters and announcements. Favorites were determined by showing participants two items at a time and having them choose which they preferred; items were displayed to …

Contributors
Pisano, Sydney Alexis, Bruening, Meg, Adams, Marc, et al.
Created Date
2019

ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have suggested a link between nut consumption and weight. The possible effects of regular nut consumption as a method of weight loss has shown minimal results with 2-3 servings of nut products per day. This 8 week study sought to investigate the effect of more modest nut consumption (1 oz./day, 5 days/week) on dietary compensation in healthy overweight individuals. Overweight and obese participants (n = 28) were recruited from the local community and were randomly assigned to either almond (NUT) or control (CON) group in this randomized, parallel-arm study. Subjects were instructed to eat their respective foods …

Contributors
Jahns, Marshall, Johnston, Carol, Hall, Richard, et al.
Created Date
2011

Nut consumption, specifically almonds, have been shown to help maintain weight and influence disease risk factors in adult populations. Limited studies have been conducted examining the effect of a small dose of almonds on energy intake and body weight. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pre-meal almond consumption on energy intake and weight in overweight and obese adults. In this study included 21, overweight or obese, participants who were considered healthy or had a controlled disease state. This 8-week parallel arm study, participants were randomized to consume an isocaloric amount of almonds, (1 oz) serving, …

Contributors
Mcbride, Lindsey Ann, Johnston, Carol, Swan, Pamela, et al.
Created Date
2011

ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this randomized parallel two-arm trial was to examine the effect that an intervention of combining daily almond consumption (2.5 ounces) with a walking program would have on heart rate recovery and resting heart rate when compared to the control group that consumed a placebo (cookie butter) in men and postmenopausal women, aged 20-69, in Phoenix, Arizona. Design: 12 men and women from Phoenix, Arizona completed an 8-week walking study (step goal: 10,000 steps per day). Subjects were healthy yet sedentary, non-smokers, free from gluten or nut allergies, who had controlled blood pressure. At week 5, …

Contributors
McElaney, Elizabeth Anne, Johnston, Carol S, Lespron, Christy L, et al.
Created Date
2016

In 2002, a scientifically derived food guide pyramid for vegetarians, the Modified Food Guide for Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and Vegans was published and well received. Now that 10 years have passed, new scientific literature regarding the bioavailability of the nutrients of key concern in vegetarian diets has been published, and the graphical format of the nation's food guide has evolved from a pyramid shape into a circular plate. The objective of this research was to examine the post-2002 literature regarding the bioavailability of key nutrients in vegetarian diets; to use this information to update the recommendations made in the 2002 Modified Food …

Contributors
Fladell, Lauren, Johnston, Carol, Vaughan, Linda, et al.
Created Date
2013

Food banks are the foundation of the emergency food network, and while their chief mission is to mitigate hunger, the rise in obesity and other diet-related diseases among clientele has incited the need for better nutritional control with regards to procurement of inventory at food banks. The purpose of this research was to determine if procured inventory at United Food Bank in Mesa, Arizona could meet minimum MyPlate recommendations for a typical food bank client and what implications the results could have for future policy. Inventory data was obtained from United Food Bank for fiscal year 2013-2014 and analyzed utilizing …

Contributors
Lick, Linda L., Bruening, Meredith, Vaughan, Linda, et al.
Created Date
2015

College weight gain and obesity are significant problems impacting our society, leading to a considerable number of comorbidities during and after college. Gut microbiota are increasingly recognized for their role in obesity and weight gain. Currently, research exploring the gut microbiome and its associations with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is limited among this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between the gut microbiome, BMI, and dietary intake in a population of healthy college students living in two dorms at Arizona State University (n=90). Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken including 24-hour dietary recalls and …

Contributors
Hotz, Ricci-Lee, Whisner, Corrie, Bruening, Meredith, et al.
Created Date
2016

Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption continues to lag far behind US Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommendations. Interventions targeting individuals' dietary behaviors address only a small fraction of dietary influences. Changing the food environment by increasing availability of and excitement for FV through local food production has shown promise as a method for enhancing intake. However, the extent to which local production is sufficient to meet recommended FV intakes, or actual intakes, of specific populations remains largely unconsidered. This study was the first of its kind to evaluate the capacity to support FV intake of Arizona's population with statewide production of …

Contributors
Vaudrin, Nicole, Wharton, Christopher, Bruening, Meg, et al.
Created Date
2013

Mexican Americans have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association of hyperglycemia with traditional CVD risk factors in this population has been established, but there is limited data regarding other non-traditional CVD risk factors. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate CVD risk among Mexican Americans by measuring concentrations of lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cholesterol in low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions. Eighty overweight/obese Mexican-American adults participating in the Maricopa Insulin Resistance Initiative were randomly selected from each of the following four groups (n = 20 per group): nomolipidemic/normoglycemic controls …

Contributors
Neupane, Srijana, Vega-Lopez, Sonia, Shaibi, Gabriel Q, et al.
Created Date
2011

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of what food insecurity among college students. Qualitative research regarding food insecurity on college campuses has been growing as we gain a better understanding of how prevalent this issue is and its broad impact on students. However, to our knowledge there are only a handful of studies that examined the student and university staff experience using mixed methods. Qualitative data is needed to gain a deeper understanding of the student experience. OBJECTIVE: To gain deeper insights about students’ food insecurity experiences from students themselves and the university staff …

Contributors
Brown, Erika, Bruening, Meg, Vega-López, Sonia, et al.
Created Date
2018

According to a 2016 census, eight million adults conform to a vegetarian diet within the United States, and about 50% of these adults follow a vegan diet. The census determined that plant-based diets are quickly growing in popularity particularly in young adults between the ages of 18 to 34 years. Many Americans are aware of the health benefits of a plant-based diet, however, the dietary risks associated with these diets are not well emphasized. Health concerns such as vitamin deficiencies and altered metabolism are heightened in vegetarian populations. One Particular nutrient that is commonly lacking in the vegetarian diet is …

Contributors
Ugarte, Noel, Johnston, Carol S, Whisner, Corrie, et al.
Created Date
2019

As part of the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide are required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards in order to help consumers make healthier decisions when dining out. Previous studies that have evaluated menu-labeling policies show mixed results and the majority have been conducted in urban cities along the east coast. This study was the first to look at the effectiveness of menu labeling in a southwest population. The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if noticing or using calorie menu labels in …

Contributors
Green, Jessie E., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Bruening, Meg, et al.
Created Date
2014

Although many studies have looked into the relationship between depression and eating behaviors, most have not looked into the interaction between depressive mood, weight status, and eating behaviors; specifically the consumption of added sugars. This longitudinal study examined the relationship between depressive mood and added sugar consumption among college freshmen, and how weight status play a role in this relationship. A web-based survey assessing depressive mood score and added-sugar foods consumption, and height and weight measurements were obtained. A total of 511 participants (aged 18.5±0.4 years; 70.5% females) were recruited at Arizona State University from August 2015 through January 2016. …

Contributors
Chen, Yufei, Bruening, Meredith, Hekler, Eric, et al.
Created Date
2017

Background: Previous research suggests a healthy eater schema (i.e., identifying yourself as a healthy eater) may be a useful concept to target in interventions. A "stealth" intervention that discussed the moral issues related to food worked better at promoting healthful eating than an intervention focused on the health benefits. No research has explored the relationship between moral foundations, a theoretical model focused on delineating core "foundations" for making a moral decision, and healthy eater self-identity or self-efficacy. Purpose: We explored the relationship between moral foundations (i.e., harm/care, fairness/reciprocity, in-group/loyalty, authority/respect, & purity/sanctity) and health eater self-identity and fruit and vegetable …

Contributors
Kiser, Sarah, Hekler, Eric B, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2013

The increase in obesity since the 1980's has been associated with fast-food consumption. In hopes that calorie labeling will be an effective tool to combat obesity, congress included a provision in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) that will require all restaurants with twenty or more locations to post calorie information for each menu item. Current research has provided mixed results regarding the effectiveness of calorie labeling, but overall seems to suggest that calorie labeling may only be effective among certain populations. In September, 2012 McDonald's began to post calorie labels on their menu boards before …

Contributors
Brown, Alan, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Bruening, Meredith, et al.
Created Date
2013

Background: The shortage of available dietetic internship (DI) positions for qualified applicants threatens the future of dietetics. Only about half of all applicants will obtain a slot. Additional internship positions are needed and can be offered only if more practitioners become preceptors. Objective: To examine the perceptions associated with the role of DI preceptor among nutrition and dietetic practitioners and identify barriers and motivators to becoming a DI preceptor in Arizona. Design: An online survey adapted from previous published instruments was administered between July and September 2011 to dietetic and nutrition professionals eligible to precept dietetic interns. Participants: RD, DTR, …

Contributors
Wooden, Alissa Anne, Winham, Donna M, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra N, et al.
Created Date
2012

Salad bars are promoted as a means to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among school-age children; however, no study has assessed barriers to having salad bars. Further, it is not known if barriers differ across school level. This cross-sectional study investigated the barriers to having salad bars across school level among schools without salad bars in Arizona (n=177). Multivariate binominal regression models were used to determine differences between the barriers and school level, adjusting for years at current job, enrollment of school, free-reduced eligibility rate and district level clustering. The top five barriers were not enough staff (51.4%), lack of …

Contributors
Kebric, Kelsey Anne, Bruening, Meg, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2016

Dietary protein is known to increase postprandial thermogenesis more so than carbohydrates or fats, probably related to the fact that amino acids have no immediate form of storage in the body and can become toxic if not readily incorporated into body tissues or excreted. It is also well documented that subjects report greater satiety on high- versus low-protein diets and that subject compliance tends to be greater on high-protein diets, thus contributing to their popularity. What is not as well known is how a high-protein diet affects resting metabolic rate over time, and what is even less well known is …

Contributors
Moore, Amy, Johnston, Carol, Appel, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2012

The transition to college has been identified as a vulnerable period for weight gain and the onset of obesity. Research has shown that the gut microbiota is different in obese compared to lean individuals, but a period of weight gain has never been studied in free-living individuals. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess the association between changes in the intestinal microbiota and weight-related outcomes in healthy college students living in on-campus dormitories at Arizona State University (n=39). Anthropometric measures and fecal samples were collected at the beginning and end of the school year, and microbial relative …

Contributors
Journey, Elizabeth, Whisner, Corrie M, Bruening, Meredith, et al.
Created Date
2017

Birds have plasma glucose levels that are 1.5-2 times greater than mammals of similar body mass in addition to higher free fatty acid concentrations, both of which would typically impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation if observed in mammals. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation can be stimulated in mammals through the use of acetylcholine (ACh), which primarily acts through nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated pathways, with varying reliance on endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). Very few studies have been conducted on small resistance systemic arteries from birds. The hypothesis was that because birds have naturally high glucose and free fatty acid concentrations, ACh-induced vasodilation of isolated …

Contributors
Jarrett, Catherine Lee, Sweazea, Karen L, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012

Many people with or at risk for diabetes have difficulty maintaining normal postprandial blood glucose levels (120-140 mg/dl). Research has shown that vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia. The purpose of this study was to examine a possible mechanism by which vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia, particularly the effect of vinegar ingestion on gut fermentation. In this parallel arm randomized control trial, the effects of daily ingestion of vinegar on gut fermentation markers were observed among adults at risk for type 2 diabetes in Phoenix, Arizona. Subjects (n=14) were randomly assigned to treatments consisting of a vinegar drink (1.5g acetic acid) or a …

Contributors
White, Serena Elsa, Johnston, Carol, Appel, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2013

Community Supported Agriculture programs (CSAs) have become a viable local source of fresh agricultural goods and represent a potentially new way to improve fruit and vegetable consumption among individuals and families. Studies concerning CSAs have focused mainly on characteristics of the typical CSA member and motivations and barriers to join a CSA program. The purpose of this study was to examine whether behavior and attitudinal differences existed between current CSA members and a nonmember control group. Specifically, ecological attitudes, eating out behaviors, composting frequency, and family participation in food preparation were assessed. This study utilized an online survey comprising items …

Contributors
Macmillan Uribe, Alexandra Luisa, Wharton, Christopher, Winham, Donna, et al.
Created Date
2011

Background: The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics states that it is possible for a vegetarian to obtain the recommended amount of nutrients with a properly planned diet but nutrient deficiencies, such as vitamin B12 deficiency, may occur if diet planning is not optimal. An early indicator of B12 deficiency is raised homocysteine concentrations in blood which can cause health issues. Objective: The amino acid methionine is consumed via dietary protein. Methionine is used in the biosynthesis of other proteins. After a removal of a methyl group, it makes homocysteine. Slightly raised homocysteine may promote greater synthesis of glutathione, an important …

Contributors
Manley, Rachel Christine, Johnston, Carol, Levinson, Simin, et al.
Created Date
2019

Background. Despite research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of essential hypertension, instances of this condition continue to rise. Recent findings indicate that the administration of dietary nitrates, in the form of beetroot juice and other nitrate-rich vegetables, may offer anti-hypertensive effects in various study populations. Objective. This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial sought to compare the effects of high-nitrate vegetable salads to the effects of low-nitrate canned vegetables on plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration, peripheral and central-aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse wave velocity, and flow-mediated dilation. Methods. Healthy, post-menopausal women (n=5; 80% Caucasian; 52.6 ± 5.7 years) with mildly elevated blood …

Contributors
Mayra, Selicia, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2017

The purpose of this study was to gather qualitative data on different and novel methods used to self-monitor diet and exercise during a weight loss study. Participants who used either a traditional paper and pencil method or a smart phone weight loss app for diet and exercise tracking were recruited for focus groups. Focus group discussions centered on the liked and disliked aspects of recording, perceived behavior changes, and suggestions for improved self-monitoring. Focus groups were organized based on the method of self-monitoring. The app group tracked calorie intake and expenditure via the "Lose It" app on their smart phones. …

Contributors
Sterner, Danielle, Wharton, Christopher, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012

Determining the factors associated with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in the household may help in understanding the varying complexities that contribute to obesity among children and help design interventions to impact children's food consumption behaviors. This study examined factors that are associated with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in children's home food environments (HFE). Data was collected from a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1708 households, with at least one child between 3-18 years of age, located in five low-income New Jersey cities. HFE was assessed based on responses to a set of six items that …

Contributors
Berry, Andrea I., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012

Background: Acetic acid in vinegar has demonstrated antiglycemic effects in previous studies; however, the mechanism is unknown. Objective: To determine whether acetic acid dissociates in the addition of sodium chloride and describe a flavorful vinaigrette that maintains the functional properties of acetic acid. Design: Phase I - Ten healthy subjects (23-40 years) taste tested five homemade vinaigrette and five commercial dressings. Perceived saltiness, sweetness, tartness, and overall tasted were scored using a modified labeled affective magnitude scale. Each dressing was tested three times for pH with a calibrated meter. Phase II – Randomized crossover trial testing six dressings against a …

Contributors
Bonsall, Amber Kaila, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2017

Long-term results of dietary weight loss interventions are not promising, with rates of weight loss maintenance at a mere 20%. Psychological factors related to weight maintenance include setting unrealistic weight goals, poor problem-solving skills, low self-efficacy, dichotomous thinking, and external locus of control. The ability to maintain a stable bodyweight over time has been associated with optimal health outcomes, lower stress levels, and higher general well-being. Dichotomous thinking has been associated with overeating and increased bodyweight. Cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger are three dimensions of human eating behavior that appear to be important to understanding weight loss maintenance. Individuals who …

Contributors
Lee, Sohee, Robles-Sotelo, Elias, Vargas, Perla, et al.
Created Date
2018

Diet quality is closely intertwined with overall health status and deserves close examination. Healthcare providers are stretched thin in the current stressed system and would benefit from a validated tool for rapid assessment of diet quality. The Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Participants Short Version (REAP-S) represents one such option. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the REAP-S and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) for scoring the diet quality of omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan diets. Eighty-one healthy male and female subjects with an average age of 30.9 years completed the REAP-S as well …

Contributors
Bliss, Courtney, Johnston, Carol, Tasevska, Natasha, et al.
Created Date
2015

Vegetarian diets can provide an abundance of nutrients when planned with care. However, research suggests that vegetarian diets may have lower protein quality than omnivore diets. Current protein recommendations assume that vegetarians obtain a majority of their protein from animal products, like dairy and eggs. Studies have shown that this assumption may not be valid. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) may not be adequate in vegetarian populations with high protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to analyze dietary protein quality using the DIAAS (Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score) method in both vegetarian and omnivore endurance athletes. 38 omnivores …

Contributors
Zuelke, Corinne, Johnston, Carol, Wharton, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2017

The body is capable of regulating hunger in several ways. Some of these hunger regulation methods are innate, such as genetics, and some, such as the responses to stress and to the smell of food, are innate but can be affected by body conditions such as BMI and physical activity. Further, some hunger regulation methods stem from learned behaviors originating from cultural pressures or parenting styles. These latter regulation methods for hunger can be grouped into the categories: emotion, environment, and physical. The factors that regulate hunger can also influence the incidence of disordered eating, such as eating in the …

Contributors
Goett, Taylor, Johnston, Carol, Lee, Chong, et al.
Created Date
2013

There are limited studies exploring the direct relationship between coconut oil and cholesterol concentrations. Research in animals and a few intervention trials suggest that coconut oil increases the good cholesterol (high density lipoprotein, HDL) and thus reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Preliminary research at Arizona State University (ASU) has found similar results using coconut oil as a placebo, positive changes in HDL cholesterol concentrations were observed. The goal of this randomized, double blind, parallel two arm study, was to further examine the beneficial effects of a 2g supplement of coconut oil taken each day for 8 weeks on cholesterol …

Contributors
Shedden, Rachel Nikita, Johnston, Carol, Lespron, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2017

Long term high fat diets (HFD) are correlated with the development of diabetes and kidney disease. However, the impact of short term high fat intake on the etiology of kidney disease has not been well-studied. Therefore, this study examined the impact of a six week HFD (60% fat) on kidney structure and function in young male Sprague-Dawley rats. Previous studies have shown that these animals develop indices of diabetes compared to rats fed a standard rodent chow (5% fat) for six weeks. The hypothesis of this study is that six weeks of HFD will lead to early stages of kidney …

Contributors
Crinigan, Catherine, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2015

Background. Research suggests that non-O blood types are at an increased risk of thrombosis and related health complications in cardiovascular disease (CVD). This is due in part to higher concentrations of von Willebrand factor (VWF), an important factor involved in blood clotting. Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a vegetarian-like diet on blood coagulation and other health parameters in adults with type A blood compared to type O blood over a four week intervention. Given the lack of previous research on blood type and diet, it was hypothesized that no difference in blood coagulation …

Contributors
Brown, Jennifer Marie, Johnston, Carol, Martin, Keith, et al.
Created Date
2013

Curcumin is an active ingredient of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) and is studied extensively for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of turmeric on blood glucose and plasma insulin levels. The study utilized a placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over design with participants serving as their own control. Eight glucose tolerant healthy participants completed the full study. Three-weeks washout period was kept in between six-weeks. Prior to the test meal day, participants were asked to eat a bagel with their evening dinner. During the day of the test meal, participants reported to …

Contributors
Oza, Namrata, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2017

This study examined the effect of consuming pinto, black, and dark red kidney beans with white rice in comparison to a white rice only control meal on the glycemic response of adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). These bean and rice combinations are part of many traditional diets. Seventeen subjects with T2D treated by diet and/or metformin were randomly assigned to 4 treatments: white rice (control), pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, and dark red kidney beans/rice. All treatments were portioned by weight and matched for available carbohydrate content of ∼ 50 grams. Capillary whole blood samples were collected at baseline and …

Contributors
Thompson, Sharon Virginia, Winham, Donna M, Beezhold, Bonnie, et al.
Created Date
2011

ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the effect a daily coconut oil supplement (2 grams) would have on a common serum marker of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein) and an indicator of oxidative stress (TBARS) when compared to the control group receiving a placebo capsule (white flour) in healthy, sedentary adults between the ages of 18-40 in Phoenix, Arizona. Design: This study was designed as secondary analyses of blood samples originally collected to study the effects of coconut oil supplementation on blood lipids and body composition. The original study consisted of 32 healthy, adult volunteers …

Contributors
Norman, Lisa Marie, Johnston, Carol, Shepard, Christina, et al.
Created Date
2017

Obesity prevalence is high in the United States, in part due to increased fat storage following consumption of high fat/carbohydrate (sugar) foods. Following a meal, carbohydrate stimulates its own oxidation, while simultaneously suppressing fat oxidation, ultimately leading to fat storage. Aerobic exercise preceding a meal increases fat oxidation in the postprandial period, which may reduce fat storage. The ideal exercise prescription for optimal postprandial fat oxidation is unknown. The effect of low and moderate intensity continuous exercise (MIE) has been studied extensively, while the effects of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on post-prandial substrate oxidation has not been examined. The purpose …

Contributors
Fleming, Jacob Michael, Johnston, Carol S, Gaesser, Glenn A, et al.
Created Date
2018

Urinary sucrose and fructose has been suggested as a predictive biomarker of total sugars intake based on research involving UK adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between total sugars consumption and 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose (24uSF) in US adult population and to investigate the effect of physical activity on this association. Fifty seven free-living healthy subjects 20 to 68 years old, participated in a 15-day highly controlled feeding study, consuming their habitual diet, provided by the research metabolic kitchen. Dietary sugars were estimated using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR). Subjects collected eight 24-hour …

Contributors
Mohan, Chitra, Tasevska, Natasha, Ainsworth, Barbara, et al.
Created Date
2019

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which vinegar has been shown to reduce postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Fifteen male and female subjects were recruited, ages 20-60y, who had no prior history of gastrointestinal (GI) disease or resections impacting normal GI function, were non-smokers, were non-vegetarian/vegan, were not taking any medications known to alter (glucose) metabolism, and were free of chronic disease including diabetes. Subjects were instructed to …

Contributors
Medved, Emily, Johnston, Carol, Sweazea, Karen, et al.
Created Date
2012

Pediatric obesity is a continuing concern in the United States. Preventative intervention methods in the form of nutrition education, including hands-on cooking lessons may improve personal choices for healthy eating. This study assessed the effectiveness of Arizona State University’s Camp CRAVE, a one-week course promoting healthy eating and teaching basic cooking skills. Children ages 9-13years (mean 10.3years, n=31) participated in a pre- and post-test survey to assess if the one-week course would increase self-efficacy to cook at home and increase knowledge of nutrition. The course showed significant increase in the participants’ nutrition knowledge and preference for healthier food options. There …

Contributors
Bell, Kelly Marie, Johnston, Carol, Shepard, Christina, et al.
Created Date
2017

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the LoseIt Smart Phone app by Fit Now Inc. for nutritional quality among users during an 8 week behavioral modification weight loss protocol. All participants owned smart phones and were cluster randomized to either a control group using paper and pencil record keeping, a memo group using a memo function on their smart phones, or the LoseIt app group which was composed of the participants who owned iPhones. Thirty one participants completed the study protocol: 10 participants from the LoseIt app group, 10 participants from the memo group, and 11 participants from the paper and pencil …

Contributors
Cowan, David Kevin, Johnston, Carol, Wharton, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2011

Birds have shown promise as models of diabetes due to health and longevity despite naturally high plasma glucose concentrations, a condition which in diabetic humans leads to protein glycation and various complications. Research into mechanisms that protect birds from high plasma glucose have shown that some species of birds have naturally low levels of protein glycation. Some hypothesize a diet rich in carotenoids and other antioxidants protects birds from protein glycation and oxidative damage. There is little research, however, into the amount of protein glycation in birds of prey, which consume a high protein, high fat diet. No studies have …

Contributors
Ingram, Tana Dawn, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2017

An understanding of diet habits is crucial in implementing proper management strategies for wildlife. Diet analysis, however, remains a challenge for ruminant species. Microhistological analysis, the method most often employed in herbivore diet studies, is tedious and time consuming. In addition, it requires considerable training and an extensive reference plant collection. The development of DNA barcoding (species identification using a standardized DNA sequence) and the availability of recent DNA sequencing techniques offer new possibilities in diet analysis for ungulates. Using fecal material collected from controlled feeding trials on pygmy goats, (Capra hicus), novel DNA barcoding technology using the P6-loop of …

Contributors
Murphree, Julie Joan, Miller, William H., Steele, Kelly, et al.
Created Date
2012

Background: Individuals in the general populations with a known gluten disorder is believed to be 6% and it is unclear why the gluten free diet (GFD) has risen sharply (28%) in recent years. However, science has revealed that gluten can cause colonic changes in those undiagnosed with a known gluten disorder. The ramifications of these changes are unknown. Three common ingredients found in gluten free products, such as pasta, are corn quinoa and rice. Evidence from the scientific literature has shown that corn and quinoa can produce more colonic hydrogen than refined wheat and rice, indicating that corn and quinoa …

Contributors
Snyder, Darren Lawrence, Johnston, Carol, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2015

Objectives: This study examines weight loss strategies (eating, physical activity (PA), or both) adopted by overweight or obese (OWOB) parents and children in relation to age, income, gender, education, and race/ethnicity in a predominantly low-income and high minority sample. We also examine if OWOB parent-child dyads employed the same strategies to lose weight, and how these strategies vary by demographic variables. Methods: Data was compiled from the New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study (NJCOB). A random digit dial household phone survey was used to select 1,708 households with at least one child aged 3-18 years from five cities in New Jersey. …

Contributors
Dwaik, Noor Fathi, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Tasevska, Natasha, et al.
Created Date
2016

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related health issues. Recent research shows that a child's age and gender are associated with parental misperception of their child's weight status, but little is known about the interaction of these factors across various age groups. This study examined the association between a wide range of parent, child, and household factors and the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body …

Contributors
Bader, Wendy L., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Lloyd, Kristen, et al.
Created Date
2013