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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Contributor
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Date Range
2011 2019


Background: Smartphone diet tracking applications (apps) are increasing in popularity but may not adequately address the important concerns of proper intake and of diet quality. Two novel weight loss apps were designed based on the popular dietary frameworks: MyPlate and FoodLists. MyPlate, the dietary guidelines put forth by the U.S. government, encourages a balanced diet from five primary food groups, but does not specify intake limits. The Food Lists set upper intake limits on all food groups except vegetables, and these guidelines extend to include fats, sweets, and alcohol. Objective: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine …

Contributors
Scholtz, Cameron, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2016

Contemporary urban food security in the US is influenced by complex, multidimensional, and multi-scale factors. However, most assessment methods and intervention efforts in food security research are: 1) narrowly focused on environmental factors (i.e. the presence or absence of quality food outlets), 2) divorced from the human dimension and, 3) ultimately disempower communities to affect change at the local level. New approaches are needed to capture the lived experiences and unique perspectives of people potentially most vulnerable to food insecurity, while also empowering people to become change agents in their lives and in the wider community. This thesis argues that …

Contributors
Talbot, Kathleen Lynn, Eakin, Hallie, Wiek, Arnim, et al.
Created Date
2012

Low income, pregnant adolescents have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth, delivery of low birth weight babies and excessive gestational weight gain that increases the risk of postpartum overweight and obesity. Inadequate dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that may differentially impact maternal health and fetal outcomes for pregnant adults and adolescents. To evaluate the effectiveness of a social media intervention on improving prenatal health knowledge and dietary intake, 22 racially diverse pregnant women (59% Black and 36% White) were recruited and adolescent (n=10) outcomes compared to those of adults (n=12) across the intervention. …

Contributors
Ellis, Megan, Whisner, Corrie M, Bruening, Meg, et al.
Created Date
2016

In the United States, seasonal influenza is responsible for enormous medical costs and lost earnings as well as thousands of deaths. Medical masks are effective non-pharmaceutical preventions for minimizing the spread of illness in the event of an influenza outbreak. However, people in the United States rarely wear face masks the way many people in Asian countries do. In a previous study of public response to the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, 71% of United States respondents supported the recommendation to wear a mask during the flu outbreak, while only 8% of respondents reported they wore a mask in public …

Contributors
Hung, Yu-Wen, Herring, Donald, Velasquez, Joseph, et al.
Created Date
2018

This study tested the preliminary effectiveness of a health belief and text messaging intervention for parents of five- to eight-year-old children to determine whether health beliefs and influenza vaccine receipt differ when compared to a text messaging control group. Children are almost four times more likely to be infected with influenza than adults (Belshe Piedra, & Block, 2009), shed the greatest quantities of influenza virus, and have been recognized as vectors for spread of disease (Neuzil, Mellen, Wright, Mitchel, Jr., & Griffin, 2002b). The influenza immunization rate for school-age children is less than 56% (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention …

Contributors
Wiseman, Patricia Ann, Reifsnider, Elizabeth, Cesarotti, Evelyn, et al.
Created Date
2015

The purpose of this pilot randomized control trial was to test the initial efficacy of a 10 week social cognitive theory (SCT)-based intervention to reduce workplace sitting time (ST). Participants were currently employed adults with predominantly sedentary occupations (n=24) working in the Greater Phoenix area in 2012-2013. Participants wore an activPAL (AP) inclinometer to assess postural allocation (i.e., sitting vs. standing) and Actigraph accelerometer (AG) to assess sedentary time for one week prior to beginning and immediately following the completion of the 10 week intervention. Self-reported measures of sedentary time were obtained via two validated questionnaires for overall (International Physical …

Contributors
Gordon, Amanda, Buman, Matthew, Der Ananian, Cheryl, et al.
Created Date
2013

INTRODUCTION: Exercise performed at moderate to vigorous intensities has been shown to generate a post exercise hypotensive response. Whether this response is observed with very low exercise intensities is unclear. PURPOSE: To compare post physical activity ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) response to a single worksite walking day and a normal sedentary work day in pre-hypertensive adults. METHODS: Participants were 7 pre-hypertensive (127 + 8 mmHg / 83 + 8 mmHg) adults (3 male, 4 female, age = 42 + 12 yr) who participated in a randomized, cross-over study that included a control and a walking treatment. Only those who indicated …

Contributors
Zeigler, Zachary, Swan, Pamela, Buman, Matthew, et al.
Created Date
2013

Sexual violence, as defined by the Rape, Abuse, Incest National Network (RAINN), is used as an all-encompassing term to include crimes of sexual assault, rape, and sexual abuse (RAINN, 2016). There are numerous negative impacts of sexual violence on a victim. Victims of sexual violence experience negative health impacts, such as physical injuries from the result of sexual violence and unwanted reproductive consequences, such as the risk of sexually transmitted infections or unwanted pregnancy (Shahali et. al, 2016). They also suffer from long-term psychological impacts, such as long-term emotional trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Reddington & Kriesel, 2005). The …

Contributors
Kim, Grace, Maienschein, Jane, Ellison, Karin, et al.
Created Date
2017

Through three investigations, this dissertation examined properties of the family and early care and education center (ECEC) environments related to preschool-aged children’s cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and gross locomotor skills (GLS). Investigation one used a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize the effectiveness of school-based interventions at improving CVF, in preschool-aged children. For investigations two and three product- and process-based measures of GLS were collected from children in ECECs (n=16), using the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER; n=144) and the CHAMPS motor skill protocol (CMSP; n=91), respectively. Investigation two and three examined family factors and ECEC factors for associations with …

Contributors
Szeszulski, Jacob, Lee, Rebecca E, Buman, Matthew P, et al.
Created Date
2019

In October, 2009, participants of the Arizona Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) began receiving monthly Cash Value Vouchers (CVV) worth between six and 10 dollars towards the purchase of fresh fruits and vegetables. Data from the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) showed CVV redemption rates in the first two years of the program were lower than the national average of 77% redemption. In response, the ADHS WIC Food List was expanded to also include canned and frozen fruits and vegetables. More recent data from ADHS suggest that redemption rates are improving, but variably exist …

Contributors
Bertmann, Farryl Mw, Wharton, Christopher, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2013

This work involved the analysis of a public health system, and the design, development and deployment of enterprise informatics architecture, and sustainable community methods to address problems with the current public health system. Specifically, assessment of the Nationally Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was instrumental in forming the design of the current implementation at the Southern Nevada Health District (SNHD). The result of the system deployment at SNHD was considered as a basis for projecting the practical application and benefits of an enterprise architecture. This approach has resulted in a sustainable platform to enhance the practice of public health by …

Contributors
Kriseman, Jeffrey Michael, Dinu, Valentin, Greenes, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2012

This dissertation studies the larger issue of antibiotic resistance with respect to how antibiotics are being introduced into the environment, focusing on two major anthropogenic pathways: animal husbandry for human consumption, and the recycling of wastewater and municipal sludge generated during conventional biological sewage treatment. For animal production on land (agriculture) antibiotics are often used for growth enhancement and increased feed efficiency. For animal production in water (aquaculture) antibiotics are often used as a prophylactic. I found that the same antibiotics are being used in both industries and that the same strains of human pathogens have also been isolated from …

Contributors
Done, Hansa Yi-Yun, Halden, Rolf U, Haydel, Shelley E, et al.
Created Date
2015

College weight gain and obesity are significant problems impacting our society, leading to a considerable number of comorbidities during and after college. Gut microbiota are increasingly recognized for their role in obesity and weight gain. Currently, research exploring the gut microbiome and its associations with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is limited among this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between the gut microbiome, BMI, and dietary intake in a population of healthy college students living in two dorms at Arizona State University (n=90). Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken including 24-hour dietary recalls and …

Contributors
Hotz, Ricci-Lee, Whisner, Corrie, Bruening, Meredith, et al.
Created Date
2016

As part of the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide are required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards in order to help consumers make healthier decisions when dining out. Previous studies that have evaluated menu-labeling policies show mixed results and the majority have been conducted in urban cities along the east coast. This study was the first to look at the effectiveness of menu labeling in a southwest population. The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if noticing or using calorie menu labels in …

Contributors
Green, Jessie E., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Bruening, Meg, et al.
Created Date
2014

Vaccinations are important for preventing influenza infection. Maximizing vaccination uptake rates (80-90%) is crucial in generating herd immunity and preventing infection incidence. Vaccination of healthcare professionals (HCP) against influenza is vital to infection control in healthcare settings, given their consistent exposure to high-risk patients like: those with compromised immune systems, children, and the elderly (Johnson & Talbot, 2011). Though vaccination is vital in disease prevention, influenza vaccination uptake among HCP is low overall (50% on average) (Pearson et al., 2006). Mandatory vaccination policies result in HCP influenza vaccination uptake rates substantially higher than opt-in influenza vaccination campaigns (90% vs. 60%). …

Contributors
Gur-Arie, Rachel, Maienschein, Jane, Hurlbut, Ben, et al.
Created Date
2016

Unstructured texts containing biomedical information from sources such as electronic health records, scientific literature, discussion forums, and social media offer an opportunity to extract information for a wide range of applications in biomedical informatics. Building scalable and efficient pipelines for natural language processing and extraction of biomedical information plays an important role in the implementation and adoption of applications in areas such as public health. Advancements in machine learning and deep learning techniques have enabled rapid development of such pipelines. This dissertation presents entity extraction pipelines for two public health applications: virus phylogeography and pharmacovigilance. For virus phylogeography, geographical locations …

Contributors
Magge, Arjun, Scotch, Matthew, Gonzalez-Hernandez, Graciela, et al.
Created Date
2019

While women in higher income countries can expect to survive a diagnosis of breast cancer, women in lower- and middle-income countries such as Bangladesh have mortality rates near 50%, suggesting that there are significant barriers to care seeking for breast problems. Given limited literature on barriers to care among native, rural South Asian populations, this study thus sought to understand 1) the impacts of breast problems on women and their families, including the extent of abuse among women with breast problems, and 2) the barriers and facilitators of care for women with breast problems in rural Bangladesh. Sixty-three study participants …

Contributors
Steiness, Heather Lynn Story, Hruschka, Daniel J, Wutich, Amber, et al.
Created Date
2016

Globally, more than 350 000 women die annually from complications during pregnancy and childbirth (UNFPA, 2011). Nearly 99% of these, according to World Health Organization (WHO) trends (2010) occur in the developing world outside of a hospital setting with limited resources including emergency care (WHO, 2012; UNFPA, 2011). The most prevalent cause of death is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), accounting for 25% of deaths according to WHO statistics (2012). Conditions in Afghanistan are reflective of the scope and magnitude of the problem. In Afghanistan, maternal mortality is thought to be among the highest in the world. The Afghan Mortality Survey (AMS) …

Contributors
Cristy, Candice Denise, Grossman, Gary, Parmentier, Mary-Jane, et al.
Created Date
2013

PURPOSE: Lean hypertension (HTN) is characterized by a mechanistically different HTN when compared to obese HTN. The purpose of this study is to assess whether body phenotype influences blood pressure (BP) responses following both acute and chronic exercise. METHODS: Obese (body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2) and lean (BMI < 25 kg/m2) men with pre-hypertension (PHTN) (systolic BP (SBP) 120 - 139 or diastolic BP (DBP) 80 - 89 mm Hg) were asked to participate in a two-phase trial. Phase 1 assessed differences in post-exercise hypotension between groups in response to an acute exercise bout. Phase 2 consisted of …

Contributors
Zeigler, Zachary, Swan, Pamela, Gaesser, Glenn, et al.
Created Date
2016

The health situation of indigenous peoples is comparable to that of the world's poorest populations, but with the additional burdens of social and cultural marginalization, geographic and cultural barriers to accessing health services, and, in some areas, appropriation of land and natural resources. Cultural transmission (the transfer of beliefs, ideas, and behaviors from one culture to another) from outsider health institutions should presumably aid in closing this health gap by transferring knowledge, practices, and infrastructure to prevent and treat disease. This study examines the biosocial construction of the disease ecology of tuberculosis (TB) in indigenous communities of the Paraguayan Chaco …

Contributors
VanSteelandt, Amanda, Hurtado, Ana Magdalena, Stone, Anne, et al.
Created Date
2014

Determining the factors associated with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in the household may help in understanding the varying complexities that contribute to obesity among children and help design interventions to impact children's food consumption behaviors. This study examined factors that are associated with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in children's home food environments (HFE). Data was collected from a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1708 households, with at least one child between 3-18 years of age, located in five low-income New Jersey cities. HFE was assessed based on responses to a set of six items that …

Contributors
Berry, Andrea I., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012

Sexual assault at colleges and universities in the United States is a significant health and human rights issue that impacts somewhere between one-in-four and one-in-five students. Despite the alarmingly high burden, overall rates of disclosing to crisis, health, and victim services, and reporting to schools and law enforcement remain low. In order to buffer students from associated short- and long-term harm, and help them reestablish safety and pursue justice, empirically-supported, innovative, and trauma-informed secondary prevention strategies are needed. To address this pressing issue, the current study used a trauma-informed, feminist community research approach to develop and design a prototype of …

Contributors
Villegas-Gold, Michelle Leigh, Hurtado, Ana Magdalena, Gaughan, Monica, et al.
Created Date
2018

According to traditional Chinese medicine, the month following childbirth is an important period marked by an imbalance of two opposing forces that together make up one’s health and wellbeing. A set of specialized practices called zuoyuezi (sitting the month) aid both the woman’s recovery and restoration of the balance, and require the help of someone else, usually the woman’s mother or mother-in-law. While studies conducted on the practice’s psychosocial and physical benefits have produced varied results, zuoyuezi continues to persist in Hong Kong, China, and Taiwan. Since the late twentieth century, professional zuoyuezi centers have become very popular as a …

Contributors
Chou, Cecilia, Maienschein, Jane, Gaughan, Monica, et al.
Created Date
2017

Food system and health characteristics were evaluated across the last Waorani hunter-gatherer group in Amazonian Ecuador and a remote neighboring Kichwa indigenous subsistence agriculture community. Hunter-gatherer food systems like the Waorani foragers may not only be nutritionally, but also pharmaceutically beneficial because of high dietary intake of varied plant phytochemical compounds. A modern diet that reduces these dietary plant defense phytochemicals below levels typical in human evolutionary history may leave humans vulnerable to diseases that were controlled through a foraging diet. Few studies consider the health impact of the recent drastic reduction of plant phytochemical content in the modern global …

Contributors
London, Douglas, Tsuda, Takeyuki, Beezhold, Bonnie L, et al.
Created Date
2012

The increased number of novel pathogens that potentially threaten the human population has motivated the development of mathematical and computational modeling approaches for forecasting epidemic impact and understanding key environmental characteristics that influence the spread of diseases. Yet, in the case that substantial uncertainty surrounds the transmission process during a rapidly developing infectious disease outbreak, complex mechanistic models may be too difficult to be calibrated quick enough for policy makers to make informed decisions. Simple phenomenological models that rely on a small number of parameters can provide an initial platform for assessing the epidemic trajectory, estimating the reproduction number and …

Contributors
Pell, Bruce, Kuang, Yang, Chowell-Puente, Gerardo, et al.
Created Date
2016

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of two novel intermittent exercise prescriptions on glucose regulation and ambulatory blood pressure. Methods: Ten subjects (5 men and 5 women, ages 31.5 &plusmn; 5.42 yr, height 170.38 &plusmn; 9.69 cm and weight 88.59 &plusmn; 18.91 kg) participated in this four-treatment crossover trial. All subjects participated in four trials, each taking place over three days. On the evening of the first day, subjects were fitted with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). On the second day, subjects were fitted with an ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABP) and underwent one …

Contributors
Bhammar, Dharini Mukeshkumar, Gaesser, Glenn A, Shaibi, Gabriel, et al.
Created Date
2013

This study aimed to identify the emotional/affective sources of discrepancies between physical activity behavior and a widely used self-perception measure of physical activity motivation. Overweight women (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2, 18-64 years of age; N=37) were recruited from Arizona State University community through flyers and online newsletters. Participants wore a SenseWear accelerometer for 6 nights and 7 days and followed their normal patterns of daily living. Participants then completed a single lab visit and verbally responded to questions from the Behavorial Regulation Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) while being video and audio recorded. Captured emotional responses were evaluated with …

Contributors
Bryant, Sarah Elizabeth, Buman, Matthew P, Chisum, Jack W, et al.
Created Date
2016

Background: Limited physical activity (PA) is a key factor contributing to obesity and independently protects from diseases in youth and later in life. Students spend most of their time in schools sedentary and have limited opportunities to engage in PA. By making changes to the school environment and developing a school culture that actively supports and reinforces PA behavior, Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs are designed to make PA engagement throughout each school day the accepted social norm. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of environmental and behavioral modifications to school-level PA participation for girls and …

Contributors
Lorenz, Kent Arnold, van der Mars, Hans, Hodges Kulinna, Pamela, et al.
Created Date
2014

Monitoring human exposure to chemicals posing public health threats is critically important for risk management and for informing regulatory actions. Chemical threats result from both environmental pollutants and elected substance use (e.g., consumption of drugs, alcohol and tobacco). Measuring chemical occurrence and concentrations in environmental matrices can help to pinpoint human exposure routes. For instance, indoor dust, a sink of indoor environmental contaminants, can serve to assess indoor air contamination and associated human exposures. Urban wastewater arriving at treatment plants contains urine and stool from the general population, the analysis of which can provide information on chemical threats in the …

Contributors
Chen, Jing, Halden, Rolf U, Borges, Chad R, et al.
Created Date
2018

By offering increased access to medical care, telemedicine offers significant opportunity for the process of development under Amartya Sen’s definition, that development is freedom, including freedom from illness, early death, and preventable disease. It advances development by freeing people from these burdens. However, like many emerging technologies, organizing information and understanding the field faces significant challenges. This paper applies Bashshur's three-dimensional model of telemedicine to the classification of telemedicine literature found in databases to assess the value of the model as a tool for classification. By standardizing language and creating a repository of research done to date in a centralized …

Contributors
Blum, Alexander Scott, Parmentier, Mary Jane, Zachary, Gregg, et al.
Created Date
2015

This study aimed to understand the factors that influence Chinese American older adults’ advance care planning (ACP) on end-of-life care. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Health Belief Model (HBM) were primarily applied to explain Chinese American older adults’ intentions toward two behaviors: 1) discussion of end-of-life care plans with family members and 2) completion of an advance directive (AD). Additionally, acculturation and family cohesion were considered to examine their impacts on the TPB and HBM. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews on a sample of 298 community-dwelling Chinese-American adults aged 55 and older living in the …

Contributors
Liu, Yanqin, Roberto, Anthony J., Mongeau, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2018

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related health issues. Recent research shows that a child's age and gender are associated with parental misperception of their child's weight status, but little is known about the interaction of these factors across various age groups. This study examined the association between a wide range of parent, child, and household factors and the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body …

Contributors
Bader, Wendy L., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Lloyd, Kristen, et al.
Created Date
2013

A secondary data analysis was conducted to investigate the direct and indirect effects of family traditionalism, family cohesion, and parent involvement on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in a sample of pre-adolescent youth (N = 635) and their parents (N = 462). Aim one hypothesized that family cohesion and family traditionalism would be indicators of a higher order construct, operationalized as familismo. Aims two and three hypothesized that family traditionalism, family cohesion, and parent involvement would be protective against youth substance use. Finally, aim four hypothesized that acculturation would decrease the protective effects of family traditionalism and family cohesion on …

Contributors
Martinez, Marcos Jerome, Marsiglia, Flavio F, Kulis, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2015

Sexual risk taking is prevalent in adolescence, particularly among Latino teens, and can have serious consequences in the form of contraction of STIs, HIV, and increased risk of unintended pregnancy. Family contexts characterized by conflict and lack of support are antecedents of adolescent sexual risk taking, but evidence elucidating the mechanisms underlying this association is lacking. The current study sought to test two potential pathways to sexual risk taking within the framework of social developmental theory, among a sample of 189 Mexican origin adolescents and their caregivers interviewed in the 7th, 8th, and 12th grades. Structural equation modeling was utilized …

Contributors
Jensen, Michaeline Rae, Gonzales, Nancy A., Lopez, Vera, et al.
Created Date
2012

The purpose of this study was to investigate the Feasibility of Using a Non-Counter Movement Squat to Assess Lower Body Strength in Adults ages 20-70 years. Feasibility was tested by measuring five feasibility metrics described by Bowen et al. (Bowen et al., 2009): Acceptability, Demand, Implementation, Practicality, and Limited Efficacy. Seven male subjects and fifteen female subjects participated in the study. The subjects had their height, weight, body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and grip strength measured. Subjects performed a warm-up on a cycle ergometer, a Non-Counter Movement Squat Test (NCMST) 1-repetition maximal strength test using a Smith …

Contributors
Stark, Alexander, Ainsworth, Barbara, Ofori, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2019

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a theory-driven and a atheoretical reminder point-of-choice (PoC) prompt interventions on reducing workplace sedentary behavior in office workers with self-reported low usage (<4 hours per day) of their sit-stand workstations in the standing position. The design of this study was a cross-over trial including randomization into either the theory-driven or atheoertical reminder condition, after completion of a no prompt control condition. Participants (N=19) included full-time, primarily female, Caucasian, middle-aged office workers. The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of these two PoC …

Contributors
Larouche, Miranda Leigh, Buman, Matthew P, Ainsworth, Barbara E, et al.
Created Date
2018

In the fifteen years between the discovery of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in 1973 and the passage of alcohol beverage warning labels in 1988, FAS transformed from a medical diagnosis between practitioner and pregnant women to a broader societal risk imbued with political and cultural meaning. I examine how scientific, social, moral, and political narratives dynamically interacted to construct the risk of drinking during pregnancy and the public health response of health warning labels on alcohol. To situate such phenomena I first observe the closest regulatory precedents, the public health responses to thalidomide and cigarettes, which established a federal response …

Contributors
O'Neil, Erica Leigh, Maienschein, Jane, Hurlbut, James, et al.
Created Date
2016

Research related to food deserts, areas with limited access to healthy and affordable food options, has focused primarily on issues of healthy food access, food quality and pricing, dietary outcomes, and increased risk for chronic diseases among residents. However, upstream challenges that might play a major role in the creation and perpetuation of food deserts, namely problems in the supply chain, have been less considered. In this qualitative study, researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with local produce supply chain representatives to understand their perspectives on the barriers to, and potential solutions for, supplying affordable produce to underserved areas in Phoenix, AZ. …

Contributors
Lacagnina, Gina Elizabeth, Wharton, Christopher, Hughner, Renee, et al.
Created Date
2015

The rate of obesity has increased noticeably in China since the 1980s, brought about by the "After Mao" revolution. This dissertation examines the social determinants of obesity and weight gain among men and women, using 1991-2009 waves of the longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey. The first study emphasizes that rapid technological adoption at home may also have the potential to lead to obesity epidemics. I hypothesize that adopting household technology is a factor in weight gain, independent from daily calorie consumption and energy expenditure in exercise. The results show household technology ownership and weight gain are linked, while changes …

Contributors
Huang, Chih-Chien, Kronenfeld, Jennie, Yabiku, Scott, et al.
Created Date
2014

Social media is becoming increasingly popular as a platform for sharing personal health-related information. This information can be utilized for public health monitoring tasks such as pharmacovigilance via the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. One of the critical steps in information extraction pipelines is Named Entity Recognition (NER), where the mentions of entities such as diseases are located in text and their entity type are identified. However, the language in social media is highly informal, and user-expressed health-related concepts are often non-technical, descriptive, and challenging to extract. There has been limited progress in addressing these challenges, and advanced …

Contributors
Nikfarjam, Azadeh, Gonzalez, Graciela, Greenes, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2016

This study investigated the effect of environmental heat stress on physiological and performance measures during a ~4 mi time trial (TT) mountain hike in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Participants (n = 12; 7M/5F; age 21.6 ± 2.47 [SD]) climbed ‘A’ mountain (~1 mi) four times on a hot day (HOT; wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT] = 31.6°C) and again on a moderate day (MOD; WBGT = 19.0°C). Physiological and performance measures were made before and throughout the course of each hike. Mean pre-hike hydration status (urine specific gravity [USG]) indicated that participants began both HOT and MOD trials in a …

Contributors
Linsell, Joshua, Wardenaar, Floris, Berger, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2019

Suicide is one of the fastest-growing and least-understood causes of death, particularly in low and middle income countries (LMIC). In low-income settings, where the technical capacity for death surveillance is limited, suicides may constitute a significant portion of early deaths, but disappear as they are filtered through reporting systems shaped by social, cultural, and political institutions. These deaths become unknown and unaddressed. This dissertation illuminates how suicide is perceived, contested, experienced, and interpreted in institutions ranging from the local (i.e., family, community) to the professional (i.e., medical, law enforcement) in Nepal, a country purported to have one of the highest …

Contributors
Hagaman, Ashley, Wutich, Amber, Hruschka, Daniel, et al.
Created Date
2017

The entire history of HIV-1 is hidden in its ten thousand bases, where information regarding its evolutionary traversal through the human population can only be unlocked with fine-scale sequence analysis. Measurable footprints of mutation and recombination have imparted upon us a wealth of knowledge, from multiple chimpanzee-to-human transmissions to patterns of neutralizing antibody and drug resistance. Extracting maximum understanding from such diverse data can only be accomplished by analyzing the viral population from many angles. This body of work explores two primary aspects of HIV sequence evolution, point mutation and recombination, through cross-sectional (inter-individual) and longitudinal (intra-individual) investigations, respectively. Cross-sectional …

Contributors
Hepp, Crystal Marie, Rosenberg, Michael S, Hedrick, Philip, et al.
Created Date
2013

Nationally, African Americans suffer disproportionately from diabetes; with 13.2% of African Americans diagnosed with diabetes compared to 7.6% of non-Hispanic whites (CDC, 2014). Nearly one-half of all people with diabetes are non-adherent to their oral medications; adherence to insulin therapy was 60%-80% (Brunton et al., 2011; Cramer, 2004; Rubin, 2005). This study explored the question, "What mechanisms are associated with adherence to diabetes medication, including insulin, for African Americans in the Southwest?" Twenty-three people participated in the study; 17 participated in interviews and six participated in gendered focus groups. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach engaged the African American community …

Contributors
Wardian, Jana, Marsiglia, Flavio F, Sun, Fei, et al.
Created Date
2015

Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Studies have reported more than 70% of pregnant women gain excessive weight which may pose increased maternal and fetal risks. Little is known about the relationships of GWG to behavioral factors (i.e., physical activity, sleep, social support) and maternal mental health (i.e., stress, anxiety, depression) during pregnancy. This descriptive, cross-sectional study explored the relationships of GWG to behavioral factors and maternal mental health during pregnancy. Secondarily, this study described the preferences, uses of, and interests in alternative approaches as well as the mental health differences between users …

Contributors
Matthews, Jennifer L., Huberty, Jennifer L, Leiferman, Jenn, et al.
Created Date
2015

Accounting for over a third of all emerging and re-emerging infections, viruses represent a major public health threat, which researchers and epidemiologists across the world have been attempting to contain for decades. Recently, genomics-based surveillance of viruses through methods such as virus phylogeography has grown into a popular tool for infectious disease monitoring. When conducting such surveillance studies, researchers need to manually retrieve geographic metadata denoting the location of infected host (LOIH) of viruses from public sequence databases such as GenBank and any publication related to their study. The large volume of semi-structured and unstructured information that must be reviewed …

Contributors
Tahsin, Tasnia, Gonzalez, Graciela, Scotch, Matthew, et al.
Created Date
2019

At first glance, trends in increased hunger and obesity in the United States (US) would seem to represent the result of different causal mechanisms. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported that nearly 50 million Americans had experienced hunger in 2009. A year later, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published a report showing that 68% of the US population was either overweight or obese. Researchers have found that these contrasting trends are actually interrelated. Being so, it is imperative that communities and individuals experiencing problems with food security are provided better access to healthy food options. In …

Contributors
Rawson, Brooke Elise, Vargas, Perla A, Booze, Randy, et al.
Created Date
2011

Traumatic events have deleterious effects biologically, emotionally, socially, and cognitively. Events may include violence, neglect, and abuse and are best understood through a lifecourse perspective. Preventable and treatable, traumatic exposure promotes the development of trauma symptoms including avoidance, hyperarousal, increased fear, intrusive experiences, and aggression/violence. Trauma symptomology is thought to be an underlying cause of child maltreatment and intergenerational cycles of abuse/neglect. Traumatic symptoms may interfere with the ability to work, function, and care for young children and may accompany a Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Although these experiences are known to be harmful, little research has focused on experiences …

Contributors
Kawam, Elisa, Krysik, Judy, Shafer, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2015

This study utilized targeted messages and expert and referent sources in an effort to promote physical activity behavior in college students. College students aged 18-25, excluding collegiate athletes, were randomized into three conditions using their current physical activity level. Two of the conditions received targeted messages highlighting three primary components of social cognitive theory - self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goals - while the third condition received no messages. In addition, the experimental conditions received the messages from either an expert (i.e., a personal trainer) or a referent (i.e., a close friend). In this way, this experiment analyzed whether receiving social …

Contributors
Marmo, Jennifer, Roberto, Anthony J., Mongeau, Paul A., et al.
Created Date
2012

Having accurate measurements of sedentary behaviors is important to understand relationships between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and to evaluate changes in interventions and health promotion programs designed to reduce sedentary behaviors. This dissertation included three projects that examined measurement properties of wearable monitors used to measure sedentary behaviors. Project one examined the validity of three monitors: the ActiGraph GT3X+, activPAL™, and SenseWear 2. None of the monitors were equivalent with the criterion measure of oxygen uptake to estimate the energy cost of sedentary and light-intensity activities. The ActivPAL™ had the best accuracy as compared with the other monitors. In …

Contributors
Florez Pregonero, Argemiro Alberto, Ainsworth, Barbara E, Buman, Matthew P, et al.
Created Date
2017