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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


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2010 2019


Biogenic silica nanostructures, derived from diatoms, possess highly ordered porous hierarchical nanostructures and afford flexibility in design in large part due to the availability of a great variety of shapes, sizes, and symmetries. These advantages have been exploited for study of transport phenomena of ions and molecules towards the goal of developing ultrasensitive and selective filters and biosensors. Diatom frustules give researchers many inspiration and ideas for the design and production of novel nanostructured materials. In this doctoral research will focus on the following three aspects of biogenic silica: 1) Using diatom frustule as protein sensor. 2) Using diatom nanostructures …

Contributors
Lin, Kai-Chun, Ramakrishna, B.L., Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2014

Analysing and measuring of biological or biochemical processes are of utmost importance for medical, biological and biotechnological applications. Point of care diagnostic system, composing of biosensors, have promising applications for providing cheap, accurate and portable diagnosis. Owing to these expanding medical applications and advances made by semiconductor industry biosensors have seen a tremendous growth in the past few decades. Also emergence of microfluidics and non-invasive biosensing applications are other marker propellers. Analyzing biological signals using transducers is difficult due to the challenges in interfacing an electronic system to the biological environment. Detection limit, detection time, dynamic range, specificity to the …

Contributors
Shah, Sahil S., Christen, Jennifer B, Allee, David, et al.
Created Date
2014

Carrier lifetime is one of the few parameters which can give information about the low defect densities in today's semiconductors. In principle there is no lower limit to the defect density determined by lifetime measurements. No other technique can easily detect defect densities as low as 10-9 - 10-10 cm-3 in a simple, contactless room temperature measurement. However in practice, recombination lifetime τr measurements such as photoconductance decay (PCD) and surface photovoltage (SPV) that are widely used for characterization of bulk wafers face serious limitations when applied to thin epitaxial layers, where the layer thickness is smaller than the minority …

Contributors
Elhami Khorasani, Arash, Alford, Terry, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2013

In this project, current-voltage (I-V) and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements are used to (a) characterize the electrical properties of Nb/p-type Si Schottky barriers, (b) identify the concentration and physical character of the electrically active defects present in the depletion region, and (c) use thermal processing to reduce the concentration or eliminate the defects. Barrier height determinations using temperature-dependent I-V measurements indicate that the barrier height decreases from 0.50 eV to 0.48 eV for anneals above 200 C. The electrically-active defect concentration measured using DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) drops markedly after anneals at 250 C. A significant increase …

Contributors
Krishna Murthy, Madhu, Newman, Nathan, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2018

Silicon carbide (SiC) has always been considered as an excellent material for high temperature and high power devices. Since SiC is the only compound semiconductor whose native oxide is silicon dioxide (SiO2), it puts SiC in a unique position. Although SiC metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) technology has made significant progress in recent years, there are still a number of issues to be overcome before more commercial SiC devices can enter the market. The prevailing issues surrounding SiC MOSFET devices are the low channel mobility, the low quality of the oxide layer and the high interface state density at the SiC/SiO2 …

Contributors
Kao, Wei-Chieh, Goryll, Michael, Chowdhury, Srabanti, et al.
Created Date
2015

Three-dimensional (3D) inductors with square, hexagonal and octagonal geometries have been designed and simulated in ANSYS HFSS. The inductors have been designed on Silicon substrate with through-hole via with different width, spacing and thickness. Spice modeling has been done in Agilent ADS and comparison has been made with results of custom excel based calculator and HFSS simulation results. Single ended quality factor was measured as 12.97 and differential ended quality factor was measured as 15.96 at a maximum operational frequency of 3.65GHz. The single ended and differential inductance was measured as 2.98nH and 2.88nH respectively at this frequency. Based on …

Contributors
Abbey, Hemanshu, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, Kiaei, Sayfe, et al.
Created Date
2012

Zinc oxide (ZnO), a naturally n-type semiconductor has been identified as a promising candidate to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode in solar cells, because of its wide bandgap (3.37 eV), abundant source materials and suitable refractive index (2.0 at 600 nm). Spray deposition is a convenient and low cost technique for large area and uniform deposition of semiconductor thin films. In particular, it provides an easier way to dope the film by simply adding the dopant precursor into the starting solution. In order to reduce the resistivity of undoped ZnO, many works have been done by …

Contributors
Zhou, Bin, Tao, Meng, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2013

In very small electronic devices the alternate capture and emission of carriers at an individual defect site located at the interface of Si:SiO2 of a MOSFET generates discrete switching in the device conductance referred to as a random telegraph signal (RTS) or random telegraph noise (RTN). In this research work, the integration of random defects positioned across the channel at the Si:SiO2 interface from source end to the drain end in the presence of different random dopant distributions are used to conduct Ensemble Monte-Carlo ( EMC ) based numerical simulation of key device performance metrics for 45 nm gate length …

Contributors
Ashraf, Nabil Shovon, Vasileska, Dragica, Schroder, Dieter, et al.
Created Date
2011

The past two decades have been monumental in the advancement of microchips designed for a diverse range of medical applications and bio-analysis. Owing to the remarkable progress in micro-fabrication technology, complex chemical and electro-mechanical features can now be integrated into chip-scale devices for use in biosensing and physiological measurements. Some of these devices have made enormous contributions in the study of complex biochemical processes occurring at the molecular and cellular levels while others overcame the challenges of replicating various functions of human organs as implant systems. This thesis presents test data and analysis of two such systems. First, an ISFET …

Contributors
Mamun, Samiha, Christen, Jennifer Blain, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2011

In mesoscopic physics, conductance fluctuations are a quantum interference phenomenon that comes from the phase interference of electron wave functions scattered by the impurity disorder. During the past few decades, conductance fluctuations have been studied in various materials including metals, semiconductors and graphene. Since the patterns of conductance fluctuations is related to the distributions and configurations of the impurity scatterers, each sample has its unique pattern of fluctuations, which is considered as a sample fingerprint. Thus, research on conductance fluctuations attracts attention worldwide for its importance in both fundamental physics and potential technical applications. Since early experimental measurements of conductance …

Contributors
Liu, Bobo, Ferry, David K, Akis, Richard, et al.
Created Date
2015

This dissertation presents my work on development of deformable electronics using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based fabrication technologies. In recent years, deformable electronics are coming to revolutionize the functionality of microelectronics seamlessly with their application environment, ranging from various consumer electronics to bio-medical applications. Many researchers have studied this area, and a wide variety of devices have been fabricated. One traditional way is to directly fabricate electronic devices on flexible substrate through low-temperature processes. These devices suffered from constrained functionality due to the temperature limit. Another transfer printing approach has been developed recently. The general idea is to fabricate functional devices …

Contributors
Tang, Rui, Yu, Hongyu, Jiang, Hanqing, et al.
Created Date
2014

In the past decades, single-cell metabolic analysis has been playing a key role in understanding cellular heterogeneity, disease initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Therefore, it is critical to develop technologies for individual cellular metabolic analysis using various configurations of microfluidic devices. Compared to bulk-cell analysis which is widely used by reporting an averaged measurement, single-cell analysis is able to present the individual cellular responses to the external stimuli. Particularly, oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) are two key parameters to monitor heterogeneous metabolic profiles of cancer cells. To achieve multi-parameter metabolic measurements on single cells, several technical …

Contributors
Song, Ganquan, Meldrum, Deirdre R., Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2017

In this thesis, the methods of aluminum electroplating in an ionic liquid for silicon solar cell front side metallization were studied. It focused on replacing the current silver screen printing with an alternative metallization technology using a low-cost Earth-abundant metal for mass production, due to the high cost and limited availability of silver. A conventional aluminum electroplating method was employed for silicon solar cells fabrication on both p-type and n-type substrates. The highest efficiency of 17.9% was achieved in the n-type solar cell with a rear junction, which is comparable to that of the same structure cell with screen printed …

Contributors
Wang, Laidong, Tao, Meng, Vasileska, Dragica, et al.
Created Date
2018

Total dose sensing systems (or radiation detection systems) have many applications, ranging from survey monitors used to supervise the generated radioactive waste at nuclear power plants to personal dosimeters which measure the radiation dose accumulated in individuals. This dissertation work will present two different types of novel devices developed at Arizona State University for total dose sensing applications. The first detector technology is a mechanically flexible metal-chalcogenide glass (ChG) based system which is fabricated on low cost substrates and are intended as disposable total dose sensors. Compared to existing commercial technologies, these thin film radiation sensors are simpler in form …

Contributors
Mahmud, Adnan, Barnaby, Hugh J., Kozicki, Michael N, et al.
Created Date
2017

To date, the most popular and dominant material for commercial solar cells is crystalline silicon (or wafer-Si). It has the highest cell efficiency and cell lifetime out of all commercial solar cells. Although the potential of crystalline-Si solar cells in supplying energy demands is enormous, their future growth will likely be constrained by two major bottlenecks. The first is the high electricity input to produce crystalline-Si solar cells and modules, and the second is the limited supply of silver (Ag) reserves. These bottlenecks prevent crystalline-Si solar cells from reaching terawatt-scale deployment, which means the electricity produced by crystalline-Si solar cells …

Contributors
Sun, Wen-Cheng, Tao, Meng, Vasileska, Dragica, et al.
Created Date
2016

Early detection and treatment of disease is paramount for improving human health and wellness. Micro-scale devices promote new opportunities for the rapid, cost-effective, and accurate identification of altered biological states indicative of disease early-onset; these devices function at a scale more sensitive to numerous biological processes. The application of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) in biomedical settings has recently emerged and flourished over course of the last two decades, requiring a deep understanding of material biocompatibility, biosensing sensitively/selectively, biological constraints for artificial tissue/organ replacement, and the regulations in place to ensure device safety. Capitalizing on the inherent physical differences between cancerous and …

Contributors
Podlevsky, Jennie Hewitt Appel, Chae, Junseok, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2018

Distributed inference has applications in a wide range of fields such as source localization, target detection, environment monitoring, and healthcare. In this dissertation, distributed inference schemes which use bounded transmit power are considered. The performance of the proposed schemes are studied for a variety of inference problems. In the first part of the dissertation, a distributed detection scheme where the sensors transmit with constant modulus signals over a Gaussian multiple access channel is considered. The deflection coefficient of the proposed scheme is shown to depend on the characteristic function of the sensing noise, and the error exponent for the system …

Contributors
Dasarathan, Sivaraman, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia, et al.
Created Date
2013

Super-Resolution (SR) techniques are widely developed to increase image resolution by fusing several Low-Resolution (LR) images of the same scene to overcome sensor hardware limitations and reduce media impairments in a cost-effective manner. When choosing a solution for the SR problem, there is always a trade-off between computational efficiency and High-Resolution (HR) image quality. Existing SR approaches suffer from extremely high computational requirements due to the high number of unknowns to be estimated in the solution of the SR inverse problem. This thesis proposes efficient iterative SR techniques based on Visual Attention (VA) and perceptual modeling of the human visual …

Contributors
Sadaka, Nabil Gergi, Karam, Lina J, Spanias, Andreas S, et al.
Created Date
2011

The microelectronics technology has seen a tremendous growth over the past sixty years. The advancements in microelectronics, which shows the capability of yielding highly reliable and reproducible structures, have made the mass production of integrated electronic components feasible. Miniaturized, low-cost, and accurate sensors became available due to the rise of the microelectronics industry. A variety of sensors are being used extensively in many portable applications. These sensors are promising not only in research area but also in daily routine applications. However, many sensing systems are relatively bulky, complicated, and expensive and main advantages of new sensors do not play an …

Contributors
Luo, Tao, Blain Christen, Jennifer, Song, Hongjiang, et al.
Created Date
2015

The high cut-off frequency of deep sub-micron CMOS technologies has enabled the integration of radio frequency (RF) transceivers with digital circuits. However, the challenging point is the integration of RF power amplifiers, mainly due to the low breakdown voltage of CMOS transistors. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) have been introduced to remedy the limited headroom concern in CMOS technologies. The MESFETs presented in this thesis have been fabricated on different SOI-CMOS processes without making any change to the standard fabrication steps and offer 2-30 times higher breakdown voltage than the MOSFETs on the same process. This thesis …

Contributors
Ghajar, Mohammad Reza, Thornton, Trevor, Aberle, James, et al.
Created Date
2012

The partially-depleted (PD) silicon Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) is becoming more and more attractive for analog and RF applications due to its high breakdown voltage. Compared to conventional CMOS high voltage transistors, the silicon MESFET can be fabricated in commercial standard Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) CMOS foundries without any change to the process. The transition frequency of the device is demonstrated to be 45GHz, which makes the MESFET suitable for applications in high power RF power amplifier designs. Also, high breakdown voltage and low turn-on resistance make it the ideal choice for switches in the switching regulator designs. One of …

Contributors
Chen, Bo, Thornton, Trevor, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, et al.
Created Date
2013

Feature representations for raw data is one of the most important component in a machine learning system. Traditionally, features are \textit{hand crafted} by domain experts which can often be a time consuming process. Furthermore, they do not generalize well to unseen data and novel tasks. Recently, there have been many efforts to generate data-driven representations using clustering and sparse models. This dissertation focuses on building data-driven unsupervised models for analyzing raw data and developing efficient feature representations. Simultaneous segmentation and feature extraction approaches for silicon-pores sensor data are considered. Aggregating data into a matrix and performing low rank and sparse …

Contributors
Sattigeri, Prasanna, Spanias, Andreas, Thornton, Trevor, et al.
Created Date
2014

In the last few years, significant advances in nanofabrication have allowed tailoring of structures and materials at a molecular level enabling nanofabrication with precise control of dimensions and organization at molecular length scales, a development leading to significant advances in nanoscale systems. Although, the direction of progress seems to follow the path of microelectronics, the fundamental physics in a nanoscale system changes more rapidly compared to microelectronics, as the size scale is decreased. The changes in length, area, and volume ratios due to reduction in size alter the relative influence of various physical effects determining the overall operation of a …

Contributors
Joshi, Punarvasu, Thornton, Trevor J, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2011

The objective of this thesis is to achieve a detailed understanding of the loss mechanisms in SHJ solar cells. The working principles of these cells and what affects the cell operation, e.g. the IV characteristics at the maximum power point (MPP) and the correspondingly ll factor (FF) are investigated. Dierent loss sources are analyzed separately, and the weight of each in the total loss at the MPP are evaluated. The total series resistance is measured and then compared with the value obtained through summation over each of its components. In other words, series resistance losses due to recombination, vertical and …

Contributors
Leilaeioun, Mohammadmehdi (Ashling), Goodnick, Stephen, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2018

This work explores how flexible electronics and display technology can be applied to develop new biomedical devices for medical, biological, and life science applications. It demonstrates how new biomedical devices can be manufactured by only modifying or personalizing the upper layers of a conventional thin film transistor (TFT) display process. This personalization was applied first to develop and demonstrate the world's largest flexible digital x-ray detector for medical and industrial imaging, and the world's first flexible ISFET pH biosensor using TFT technology. These new, flexible, digital x-ray detectors are more durable than conventional glass substrate x-ray detectors, and also can …

Contributors
Smith, Joseph, Allee, David, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2014

Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology employs the mechanisms of metal ion transport in solid electrolytes (SE) and electrochemical redox reactions in order to form metallic electrodeposits. When a positive bias is applied to an anode opposite to a cathode, atoms at the anode are oxidized to ions and dissolve into the SE. Under the influence of the electric field, the ions move to the cathode and become reduced to form the electrodeposits. These electrodeposits are filamentary in nature and persistent, and since they are metallic can alter the physical characteristics of the material on which they are formed. PMCs can …

Contributors
Yu, Weijie, Kozicki, Michael N, Barnaby, Hugh, et al.
Created Date
2015

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as a potential ingredient for grain boundary passivation of multicrystalline silicon. Sulfur is already established as a good surface passivation material for crystalline silicon (c-Si). Sulfur can be used both from solution and hydrogen sulfide gas. For multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells, increasing efficiency is a major challenge because passivation of mc-Si wafers is more difficult due to its randomly orientated crystal grains and the principal source of recombination is contributed by the defects in the bulk of the wafer and surface. In this work, a new technique for grain boundary passivation for multicrystalline …

Contributors
Saha, Arunodoy, Tao, Meng, Vasileska, Dragica, et al.
Created Date
2014

A Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired carbon-neutral, renewable electrochemical converter to extract electricity from catabolic reaction of micro-organisms. It is a promising technology capable of directly converting the abundant biomass on the planet into electricity and potentially alleviate the emerging global warming and energy crisis. The current and power density of MFCs are low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. Since its debut in 2002, many studies have been performed by adopting a variety of new configurations and structures to improve the power density. The reported maximum areal and volumetric power densities range from 19 mW/m2 to 1.57 …

Contributors
Ren, Hao, Chae, Junseok, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, et al.
Created Date
2016

Photodetectors in the 1.7 to 4.0 μm range are being commercially developed on InP substrates to meet the needs of longer wavelength applications such as thermal and medical sensing. Currently, these devices utilize high indium content metamorphic Ga1-xInxAs (x > 0.53) layers to extend the wavelength range beyond the 1.7 μm achievable using lattice matched GaInAs. The large lattice mismatch required to reach the extended wavelengths results in photodetector materials that contain a large number of misfit dislocations. The low quality of these materials results in a large nonradiative Shockley Read Hall generation/recombination rate that is manifested as an undesirable …

Contributors
Sharma, Ankur Ramesh, Johnson, Shane, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2013

Within the last decade there has been remarkable interest in single-cell metabolic analysis as a key technology for understanding cellular heterogeneity, disease initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Technologies have been developed for oxygen consumption rate (OCR) measurements using various configurations of microfluidic devices. The technical challenges of current approaches include: (1) deposition of multiple sensors for multi-parameter metabolic measurements, e.g. oxygen, pH, etc.; (2) tedious and labor-intensive microwell array fabrication processes; (3) low yield of hermetic sealing between two rigid fused silica parts, even with a compliance layer of PDMS or Parylene-C. In this thesis, several improved microfabrication technologies are …

Contributors
Song, Ganquan, Meldrum, Deirdre R, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2014

ABSTRACT Autonomous smart windows may be integrated with a stack of active components, such as electrochromic devices, to modulate the opacity/transparency by an applied voltage. Here, we describe the processing and performance of two classes of visibly-transparent photovoltaic materials, namely inorganic (ZnO thin film) and fully organic (PCDTBT:PC70BM), for integration with electrochromic stacks. Sputtered ZnO (2% Mn) films on ITO, with transparency in the visible range, were used to fabricate metal-semiconductor (MS), metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS), and p-i-n heterojunction devices, and their photovoltaic conversion under ultraviolet (UV) illumination was evaluated with and without oxygen plasma-treated surface electrodes (Au, Ag, Al, and Ti/Ag). …

Contributors
Azhar, Ebraheem, Yu, Hongbin, Dey, Sandwip, et al.
Created Date
2018

Inductors are fundamental components that do not scale well. Their physical limitations to scalability along with their inherent losses make them the main obstacle in achieving monolithic system-on-chip platform (SoCP). For past decades researchers focused on integrating magnetic materials into on-chip inductors in the quest of achieving high inductance density and quality factor (QF). The state of the art on-chip inductor is made of an enclosed magnetic thin-film around the current carrying wire for maximum flux amplification. Though the integration of magnetic materials results in enhanced inductor characteristics, this approach has its own challenges and limitations especially in power applications. …

Contributors
Khdour, Mahmoud M., Yu, Hongbin, Pan, George, et al.
Created Date
2014

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that stable lipid bilayers can be set up on an array of silicon micropores and can be used as sites for self-inserting ion-channel proteins which can be studied independently of each other. In course of this study an acrylic based holder was designed and machined to ensure leak-free fluidic access to the silicon micropores and physical isolation of the individual array channels. To measure the ion-channel currents, we simulated, designed and manufactured low-noise transimpedance amplifiers and support circuits based on published patch clamp amplifier designs, using currently available surface-mount components. This …

Contributors
Ramakrishnan, Shankar, Goryll, Michael, Thornton, Trevor J, et al.
Created Date
2011

Solid-state nanopore research, used in the field of biomolecule detection and separation, has developed rapidly during the last decade. An electric field generated from the nanopore membrane to the aperture surface by a bias voltage can be used to electrostatically control the transport of charges. This results in ionic current rectification that can be used for applications such as biomolecule filtration and DNA sequencing. In this doctoral research, a voltage bias was applied on the device silicon layer of Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) cylindrical single nanopore to analyze how the perpendicular gate electrical field affected the ionic current through the pore. The …

Contributors
Wang, Xiaofeng, Goryll, Michael, Thornton, Trevor J, et al.
Created Date
2015

Continuous monitoring in the adequate temporal and spatial scale is necessary for a better understanding of environmental variations. But field deployments of molecular biological analysis platforms in that scale are currently hindered because of issues with power, throughput and automation. Currently, such analysis is performed by the collection of large sample volumes from over a wide area and transporting them to laboratory testing facilities, which fail to provide any real-time information. This dissertation evaluates the systems currently utilized for in-situ field analyses and the issues hampering the successful deployment of such bioanalytial instruments for environmental applications. The design and development …

Contributors
Ray, Tathagata, Youngbull, Cody, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2013

The hierarchical silica structure of the Coscinodiscus wailesii diatom was studied due to its intriguing optical properties. To bring the diatom into light harvesting applications, three crucial factors were investigated, including closely-packed diatom monolayer formation, bonding of the diatoms on a substrate, and conversion of silica diatom shells into silicon. The closely-packed monolayer formation of diatom valves on silicon substrates was accomplished using their hydrodynamic properties and the surface tension of water. Valves dispersed on a hydrophobic surface were able to float-up with a preferential orientation (convex side facing the water surface) when water was added. The floating diatom monolayer …

Contributors
Rojsatien, Srisuda, Goryll, Michael, Alford, Terry, et al.
Created Date
2018

There will always be a need for high current/voltage transistors. A transistor that has the ability to be both or either of these things is the silicon metal-silicon field effect transistor (MESFET). An additional perk that silicon MESFET transistors have is the ability to be integrated into the standard silicon on insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process flow. This makes a silicon MESFET transistor a very valuable device for use in any standard CMOS circuit that may usually need a separate integrated circuit (IC) in order to switch power on or from a high current/voltage because it allows …

Contributors
Sochacki, John J., Thornton, Trevor J, Schroder, Dieter, et al.
Created Date
2011

Detection of molecular interactions is critical for understanding many biological processes, for detecting disease biomarkers, and for screening drug candidates. Fluorescence-based approach can be problematic, especially when applied to the detection of small molecules. Various label-free techniques, such as surface plasmon resonance technique are sensitive to mass, making it extremely challenging to detect small molecules. In this thesis, novel detection methods for molecular interactions are described. First, a simple detection paradigm based on reflectance interferometry is developed. This method is simple, low cost and can be easily applied for protein array detection. Second, a label-free charge sensitive optical detection (CSOD) …

Contributors
Guan, Yan, Tao, Nongjian, LaBaer, Joshua, et al.
Created Date
2015

Over the past several decades, there has been a growing interest in the use of fluorescent probes in low-cost diagnostic devices for resource-limited environments. This dissertation details the design, development, and deployment of an inexpensive, multiplexed, and quantitative, fluorescence-based lateral flow immunoassay platform, in light of the specific constraints associated with resource-limited settings. This effort grew out of the need to develop a highly sensitive, field-deployable platform to be used as a primary screening and early detection tool for serologic biomarkers for the high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection. A hrHPV infection is a precursor for developing high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia …

Contributors
Obahiagbon, Uwadiae, Blain Christen, Jennifer M, Anderson, Karen S, et al.
Created Date
2018

This work demonstrates novel nBn photodetectors including mid-wave infrared (MWIR) nBn photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) with charge as the output signal, and visible nBn photodetectors based on CdTe with current output. Furthermore, visible/MWIR two-color photodetectors (2CPDs) are fabricated through monolithic integration of the CdTe nBn photodetector and an InSb photodiode. The MWIR nBn photodetectors have a potential well for holes present in the barrier layer. At low voltages of < −0.2 V, which ensure low dark current <10-5 A/cm2 at 77 K, photogenerated holes are collected in this well with a storage lifetime of 40 s. This …

Contributors
He, Zhaoyu, Zhang, Yong-Hang, Vasileska, Dragica, et al.
Created Date
2016

Engineered nanoporous substrates made using materials such as silicon nitride or silica have been demonstrated to work as particle counters or as hosts for nano-lipid bilayer membrane formation. These mechanically fabricated porous structures have thicknesses of several hundred nanometers up to several micrometers to ensure mechanical stability of the membrane. However, it is desirable to have a three-dimensional structure to ensure increased mechanical stability. In this study, circular silica shells used from Coscinodiscus wailesii, a species of diatoms (unicellular marine algae) were immobilized on a silicon chip with a micrometer-sized aperture using a UV curable polyurethane adhesive. The current conducted …

Contributors
RAMAKRISHNAN, SHANKAR, Goryll, Michael, Blain Christen, Jennifer, et al.
Created Date
2015

Semiconductor manufacturing economics necessitate the development of innovative device measurement techniques for quick assessment of products. Several novel electrical measurement techniques will be proposed for screening silicon device parameters. The studied parameters range from oxide reliability, and carrier lifetime in MOS capacitors to the power MOSFET reverse recovery. It will be shown that positive charge trapping is a dominant process when thick oxides are stressed through the ramped voltage test (RVT). Exploiting the physics behind positive charge generation/trapping at high electric fields, a fast I-V measurement technique is proposed that can be used to effectively distinguish the ultra-thick oxides' intrinsic …

Contributors
Elhami Khorasani, Arash, Alford, Terry L, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2015

This research emphasizes the use of low energy and low temperature post processing to improve the performance and lifetime of thin films and thin film transistors, by applying the fundamentals of interaction of materials with conductive heating and electromagnetic radiation. Single frequency microwave anneal is used to rapidly recrystallize the damage induced during ion implantation in Si substrates. Volumetric heating of the sample in the presence of the microwave field facilitates quick absorption of radiation to promote recrystallization at the amorphous-crystalline interface, apart from electrical activation of the dopants due to relocation to the substitutional sites. Structural and electrical characterization …

Contributors
Vemuri, Rajitha Neeha Priyanka, Alford, Terry L, Theodore, N David, et al.
Created Date
2013

Proteins play a central role to human body and biological activities. As powerful tools for protein detections, many surface plasmon resonance based techniques have been developed to enhance the sensitivity. However, sensitivity is not the only final goal. As a biosensor, four things really matter: sensitivity, specificity, resolution (temporal/spatial) and throughput. This dissertation presents several works on developing novel plasmonic based techniques for protein detections on the last two aspects to extend the application field. A fast electrochemically controlled plasmonic detection technique is first developed with the capability of monitoring electrochemical signal with nanosecond response time. The study reveals that …

Contributors
Wang, Yan, Tao, Nongjian, Chae, Junseok, et al.
Created Date
2018

Electronic devices are gaining an increasing market share in the medical field. Medical devices are becoming more sophisticated, and encompassing more applications. Unlike consumer electronics, medical devices have far more limitations when it comes to area, power and most importantly reliability. The medical devices industry has recently seen the advantages of using Flash memory instead of Read Only Memory (ROM) for firmware storage, and in some cases to replace Electrically Programmable Read Only Memories (EEPROMs) in medical devices for frequent data storage. There are direct advantages to using Flash memory instead of Read Only Memory, most importantly the fact that …

Contributors
Hag, Eslam E., Kozicki, Michael N, Schroder, Dieter K, et al.
Created Date
2010

Mechanical properties of cells are important in maintaining physiological functions of biological systems. Quantitative measurement and analysis of mechanical properties can help understand cellular mechanics and its functional relevance and discover physical biomarkers for diseases monitoring and therapeutics. This dissertation presents a work to develop optical methods for studying cell mechanics which encompasses four applications. Surface plasmon resonance microscopy based optical method has been applied to image intracellular motions and cell mechanical motion. This label-free technique enables ultrafast imaging with extremely high sensitivity in detecting cell deformation. The technique was first applied to study intracellular transportation. Organelle transportation process and …

Contributors
Yang, Yunze, Tao, Nongjian, Wang, Shaopeng, et al.
Created Date
2016

The constant scaling of supply voltages in state-of-the-art CMOS processes has led to severe limitations for many analog circuit applications. Some CMOS processes have addressed this issue by adding high voltage MOSFETs to their process. Although it can be a completely viable solution, it usually requires a changing of the process flow or adding additional steps, which in turn, leads to an increase in fabrication costs. Si-MESFETs (silicon-metal-semiconductor-field-effect-transistors) from Arizona State University (ASU) on the other hand, have an inherent high voltage capability and can be added to any silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) CMOS process free of cost. This …

Contributors
Lepkowski, William, Thornton, Trevor, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, et al.
Created Date
2010

Chalcogenide glass (ChG) materials have gained wide attention because of their applications in conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM), phase change memories (PC-RAM), optical rewritable disks (CD-RW and DVD-RW), microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microfluidics, and optical communications. One of the significant properties of ChG materials is the change in the resistivity of the material when a metal such as Ag or Cu is added to it by diffusion. This study demonstrates the potential radiation-sensing capabilities of two metal/chalcogenide glass device configurations. Lateral and vertical device configurations sense the radiation-induced migration of Ag+ ions in germanium selenide glasses via changes in electrical …

Contributors
Dandamudi, Pradeep, Kozicki, Michael N, Barnaby, Hugh J, et al.
Created Date
2013

A single cell is the very fundamental element in an organism; however, it contains the most complicated and stochastic information, such as DNA, RNA, and protein expression. Thus, it is a necessity to study stochastic gene expression in order to discover the biosignatures at the single-cell level. The heterogeneous gene expression of single cells from an isogenic cell population has already been studied for years. Yet to date, single-cell studies have been confined in a fashion of analyzing isolated single cells or a dilution of cells from the bulk-cell populations. These techniques or devices are limited by either the mechanism …

Contributors
Wang, Kuo-Chen, Meldrum, Deirdre R, Chao, Shih-hui, et al.
Created Date
2016

Photovoltaics (PV) is one of the promising options for maintaining sustainable energy supply because it is environmentally friendly, a non-polluting and low-maintenance energy source. Despite the many advantages of PV, solar energy currently accounts for only 1% of the global energy portfolio for electricity generation. This is because the cost of electricity from PV remains about a factor of two higher than the fossil fuel (10¢/kWh). Widely-used commercial methods employed to generate PV energy, such as silicon or thin film-based technologies, are still expensive as they are processed through vacuum-based techniques. Therefore, it is desirable to find an alternative method …

Contributors
Shin, Woo Jung, Tao, Meng, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2019

InAsBi is a narrow direct gap III-V semiconductor that has recently attracted considerable attention because its bandgap is tunable over a wide range of mid- and long-wave infrared wavelengths for optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, InAsBi can be integrated with other III-V materials and is potentially an alternative to commercial II-VI photodetector materials such as HgCdTe. Several 1 μm thick, nearly lattice-matched InAsBi layers grown on GaSb are examined using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Random Rutherford backscattering measurements indicate that the average Bi mole fraction ranges from 0.0503 to 0.0645 for the sample set, and ion channeling measurements indicate that …

Contributors
Shalindar Christraj, Arvind Joshua Jaydev, Johnson, Shane R, Alford, Terry L, et al.
Created Date
2016

Sb-based type-II superlattices (T2SLs) are potential alternative to HgCdTe for infrared detection due to their low manufacturing cost, good uniformity, high structural stability, and suppressed Auger recombination. The emerging InAs/InAsSb T2SLs have minority carrier lifetimes 1-2 orders of magnitude longer than those of the well-studied InAs/InGaSb T2SLs, and therefore have the potential to achieve photodetectors with higher performance. This work develops a novel method to measure the minority carrier lifetimes in infrared materials, and reports a comprehensive characterization of minority carrier lifetime and transport in InAs/InAsSb T2SLs at temperatures below 77 K. A real-time baseline correction (RBC) method for minority …

Contributors
Lin, Zhiyuan, Zhang, Yong-Hang, Vasileska, Dragica, et al.
Created Date
2016

GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on the III-V nitride material system have been under extensive investigation because of their superb performance as high power RF devices. Two dimensional electron gas(2-DEG) with charge density ten times higher than that of GaAs-based HEMT and mobility much higher than Si enables a low on-resistance required for RF devices. Self-heating issues with GaN HEMT and lack of understanding of various phenomena are hindering their widespread commercial development. There is a need to understand device operation by developing a model which could be used to optimize electrical and thermal characteristics of GaN HEMT …

Contributors
Chowdhury, Towhid, Vasileska, Dragica, Goodnick, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2013

InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) can be considered as potential alternatives for conventional HgCdTe photodetectors due to improved uniformity, lower manufacturing costs with larger substrates, and possibly better device performance. This dissertation presents a comprehensive study on the structural, optical and electrical properties of InAs/InAsSb T2SLs grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The effects of different growth conditions on the structural quality were thoroughly investigated. Lattice-matched condition was successfully achieved and material of exceptional quality was demonstrated. After growth optimization had been achieved, structural defects could hardly be detected, so different characterization techniques, including etch-pit-density (EPD) measurements, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and X-ray …

Contributors
Shen, Xiaomeng, Zhang, Yong-Hang, Smith, David J, et al.
Created Date
2015

In the nano-regime many materials exhibit properties that are quite different from their bulk counterparts. These nano-properties have been shown to be useful in a wide range of applications with nanomaterials being used for catalysts, in energy production, as protective coatings, and in medical treatment. While there is no shortage of exciting and novel applications, the world of nanomaterials suffers from a lack of large scale manufacturing techniques. The current methods and equipment used for manufacturing nanomaterials are generally slow, expensive, potentially dangerous, and material specific. The research and widespread use of nanomaterials has undoubtedly been hindered by this lack …

Contributors
Firth, Peter, Holman, Zachary C, Kozicki, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2015

Biosensors aiming at detection of target analytes, such as proteins, microbes, virus, and toxins, are widely needed for various applications including detection of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents, biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and drug screening. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), as a surface-sensitive analytical tool, can very sensitively respond to minute changes of refractive index occurring adjacent to a metal film, offering detection limits up to a few ppt (pg/mL). Through SPR, the process of protein adsorption may be monitored in real-time, and transduced into an SPR angle shift. This unique technique bypasses the time-consuming, labor-intensive labeling processes, such as radioisotope …

Contributors
Wang, Ran, Chae, Junseok, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, et al.
Created Date
2015

Over the past fifty years, the development of sensors for biological applications has increased dramatically. This rapid growth can be attributed in part to the reduction in feature size, which the electronics industry has pioneered over the same period. The decrease in feature size has led to the production of microscale sensors that are used for sensing applications, ranging from whole-body monitoring down to molecular sensing. Unfortunately, sensors are often developed without regard to how they will be integrated into biological systems. The complexities of integration are underappreciated. Integration involves more than simply making electrical connections. Interfacing microscale sensors with …

Contributors
Welch, David, Blain Christen, Jennifer, Muthuswamy, Jitendran, et al.
Created Date
2012

Silicon Carbide (SiC) junction field effect transistors (JFETs) are ideal for switching high current, high voltage loads in high temperature environments. These devices require external drive circuits to generate pulse width modulated (PWM) signals switching from 0V to approximately 10V. Advanced CMOS microcontrollers are ideal for generating the PWM signals but are limited in output voltage due to their low breakdown voltage within the CMOS drive circuits. As a result, an intermediate buffer stage is required between the CMOS circuitry and the JFET. In this thesis, a discrete silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) was used to drive …

Contributors
Summers, Nicholas Burton, Thornton, Trevor J, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2010

This work describes efforts made toward the development of a compact, quantitative fluorescence-based multiplexed detection platform for point-of-care diagnostics. This includes the development of a microfluidic delivery and actuation system for multistep detection assays. Early detection of infectious diseases requires high sensitivity dependent on the precise actuation of fluids. Methods of fluid actuation were explored to allow delayed delivery of fluidic reagents in multistep detection lateral flow assays (LFAs). Certain hydrophobic materials such as wax were successfully implemented in the LFA with the use of precision dispensed valves. Sublimating materials such as naphthalene were also characterized along with the implementation …

Contributors
Arafa, Hany M, Blain Christen, Jennifer M, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2018

This research investigated using impedance as a minimally invasive oral cancer-screening tool by modeling healthy and diseased tissue. This research developed an ultra-structurally based tissue model for oral mucosa that is versatile enough to be easily modified to mimic the passive electrical impedance responses of multiple benign and cancerous tissue types. This new model provides answers to biologically meaningful questions related to the impedance response of healthy and diseased tissues. This model breaks away from the old empirical top down "black box" Thèvinin equivalent model. The new tissue model developed here was created from a bottom up perspective resulting in …

Contributors
Pelletier, Peter Robert, Kozicki, Michael, Towe, Bruce, et al.
Created Date
2012

Zinc telluride (ZnTe) is an attractive II-VI compound semiconductor with a direct bandgap of 2.26 eV that is used in many applications in optoelectronic devices. Compared to the two dimensional (2D) thin-film semiconductors, one-dimensional (1D) nanowires can have different electronic properties for potential novel applications. In this work, we present the study of ZnTe nanowires (NWs) that are synthesized through a simple vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. By controlling the presence or the absence of Au catalysts and controlling the growth parameters such as growth temperature, various growth morphologies of ZnTe, such as thin films and nanowires can be obtained. The characterization …

Contributors
Peng, Jhih-Hong, Yu, Hongbin, Roedel, Ronald, et al.
Created Date
2017