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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


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Date Range
2011 2018


The public has expressed a growing desire for more sustainable and green technologies to be implemented in society. Bio-cementation is a method of soil improvement that satisfies this demand for sustainable and green technology. Bio-cementation can be performed by using microbes or free enzymes which precipitate carbonate within the treated soil. These methods are referred to as microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) and enzyme induced carbonate precipitation (EICP). The precipitation of carbonate is the formation of crystalline minerals that fill the void spaces within a body of soil. This thesis investigates the application of EICP in a soil collected from …

Contributors
Ross, Johnathan, Kavazanjian, Edward, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2018

Nanotechnology has been applied to many areas such as medicine, manufacturing, catalysis, food, cosmetics, and energy since the beginning 21st century. However, the application of nanotechnology to geotechnical engineering has not received much attention. This research explored the technical benefits and the feasibility of applying nanoparticles in geotechnical engineering. Specific studies were conducted by utilizing high-pressure devices, axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA), microfluidics, time-lapse technology, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to develop experiments. The effects of nanoparticle on modifying interfacial tension, wettability, viscosity, sweep efficiency and surface attraction forces were investigated. The results show that nanoparticles mixed in water can significantly …

Contributors
Zheng, Xianglei, Jang, Jaewon, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2016

Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) is attracting increasing attention as a sustainable means of soil improvement. While there are several possible MICP mechanisms, microbial denitrification has the potential to become one of the preferred methods for MICP because complete denitrification does not produce toxic byproducts, readily occurs under anoxic conditions, and potentially has a greater carbonate yield per mole of organic electron donor than other MICP processes. Denitrification may be preferable to ureolytic hydrolysis, the MICP process explored most extensively to date, as the byproduct of denitrification is benign nitrogen gas, while the chemical pathways involved in hydrolytic ureolysis …

Contributors
Hamdan, Nasser, Kavazanjian, Edward, Rittmann, Bruce E, et al.
Created Date
2013

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are central to atmospheric chemistry and have significant impacts on the environment. The reaction of oxygenated VOCs with OH radicals was first studied to understand the fate of oxygenated VOCs. The rate constants of the gas-phase reaction of OH radicals with trans-2-hexenal, trans-2-octenal, and trans-2 nonenal were determined using the relative rate technique. Then the interactions between VOCs and ionic liquid surfaces were studied. The goal was to find a material to selectively detect alcohol compounds. Computational chemistry calculations were performed to investigate the interactions of ionic liquids with different classes of VOCs. The thermodynamic data …

Contributors
Gao, Tingting, Andino, Jean M, Forzani, Erica, et al.
Created Date
2012

The trend towards using recycled materials on new construction projects is growing as the cost for construction materials are ever increasing and the awareness of the responsibility we have to be good stewards of our environment is heightened. While recycled asphalt is sometimes used in pavements, its use as structural fill has been hindered by concern that it is susceptible to large long-term deformations (creep), preventing its use for a great many geotechnical applications. While asphalt/soil blends are often proposed as an alternative to 100% recycled asphalt fill, little data is available characterizing the geotechnical properties of recycled asphalt soil …

Contributors
Schaper, Jeffery Michael, Kavazanjian, Edward, Houston, Sandra L, et al.
Created Date
2011

With the growth of global population, the demand for sustainable infrastructure is significantly increasing. Substructures with appropriate materials are required to be built in or above soil that can support the massive volume of construction demand. However, increased structural requirements often require ground improvement to increase the soil capacity. Moreover, certain soils are prone to liquefaction during an earthquake, which results in significant structural damage and loss of lives. While various soil treatment methods have been developed in the past to improve the soil’s load carrying ability, most of these traditional treatment methods have been found either hazardous and may …

Contributors
Yang, Pu, Neithalath, Narayanan, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2018

The objective of the research is to develop guidelines for identifying when settlement or seismic loading presents a threat to the integrity of geosynthetic elements for both side slope and cover systems in landfills, and advance further investigation for parameters which influence the strains in the barrier systems. A numerical model of landfill with different side slope inclinations are developed by the two-dimensional explicit finite difference program FLAC 7.0, beam elements with a hyperbolic stress-strain relationship, zero moment of inertia, and interface elements on both sides were used to model the geosynthetic barrier systems. The resulting numerical model demonstrates the …

Contributors
Wu, Xuan, Kavazanjian, Edward, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2013

This dissertation presents an investigation of calcium carbonate precipitation via hydrolysis of urea (ureolysis) catalyzed by plant-extracted urease enzyme for soil improvement. In this approach to soil improvement, referred to as enzyme induced carbonate precipitation (EICP), carbonate minerals are precipitated within the soil pores, cementing soil particles together and increasing the dilatancy of the soil. EICP is a bio-inspired solution to improving the properties of cohesionless soil in that no living organisms are engaged in the process, though it uses a biologically-derived material (urease enzyme). Over the past decade, research has commenced on biologically-mediated solutions like microbially induced carbonate precipitation …

Contributors
Almajed, Abdullah A., Kavazanjian, Edward, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2017

ABSTRACT Enzyme-Induced Carbonate Precipitation (EICP) using a plant-derived form of the urease enzyme to induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) shows promise as a method of stabilizing soil for the mitigation of fugitive dust. Fugitive dust is a significant problem in Arizona, particularly in Maricopa County. Maricopa County is an EPA air quality non-attainment zone, due primarily to fugitive dust, which presents a significant health risk to local residents. Conventional methods for fugitive dust control, including the application of water, are either ineffective in arid climates, very expensive, or limited to short term stabilization. Due to these limitations, engineers …

Contributors
Knorr, Brian Mark, Kavazanjian, Edward, Houston, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2014

Design and mitigation of infrastructure on expansive soils requires an understanding of unsaturated soil mechanics and consideration of two stress variables (net normal stress and matric suction). Although numerous breakthroughs have allowed geotechnical engineers to study expansive soil response to varying suction-based stress scenarios (i.e. partial wetting), such studies are not practical on typical projects due to the difficulties and duration needed for equilibration associated with the necessary laboratory testing. The current practice encompasses saturated “conventional” soil mechanics testing, with the implementation of numerous empirical correlations and approximations to obtain an estimate of true field response. However, it has been …

Contributors
Olaiz, Austin Hunter, Houston, Sandra, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2017

A series of experiments were conducted to support validation of a numerical model for the performance of geomembrane liners subject to waste settlement and seismic loading. These experiments included large scale centrifuge model testing of a geomembrane-lined landfill, small scale laboratory testing to get the relevant properties of the materials used in the large scale centrifuge model, and tensile tests on seamed geomembrane coupons. The landfill model in the large scale centrifuge test was built with a cemented sand base, a thin film NafionTM geomembrane liner, and a mixture of sand and peat for model waste. The centrifuge model was …

Contributors
Gutierrez, Angel, Kavazanjian, Edward, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2016

Concern and interest about the environment and ecologic systems have promoted the usage of earth as a construction material. Technology advancement has resulted in the evolution of adobe into compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEB). CSEB’s are prepared by compressing the soil-stabilizer mixture at a particular stress. In order to accomplish the required strength, cement has been used in a regular basis as stabilizing agent. It is of interest to find means to reduce the cement used in their construction without affecting its dry strength and durability. In this study, natural fibers were used along with lower proportions of cement to …

Contributors
Padmini Chikke Gowda, Rakshith, Zapata, Claudia, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2016

Characterization of petroleum spill site source zones directly influences the selection of corrective action plans and frequently affects the success of remediation efforts. For example, simply knowing whether or not nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) is present, or if there is chemical storage in less hydraulically accessible regions, will influence corrective action planning. The overarching objective of this study was to assess if macroscopic source zone features can be inferred from dissolved concentration vs. time data. Laboratory-scale physical model studies were conducted for idealized sources; defined as Type-1) NAPL-impacted high permeability zones, Type-2) NAPL-impacted lower permeability zones, and Type-3) dissolved chemical …

Contributors
Wilson, Sean, Johnson, Paul, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2014

Due to the lack of understanding of soil thermal behavior, rules-of-thumb and generalized procedures are typically used to guide building professionals in the design of ground coupled heat pump systems. This is especially true when sizing the ground heat exchanger (GHE) loop. Unfortunately, these generalized procedures often encourage building engineers to adopt a conservative design approach resulting in the gross over-sizing of the GHE, thus drastically increasing their installation cost. This conservative design approach is particularly prevalent for buildings located in hot and arid climates, where the soils are often granular and where the water table tends to exist deep …

Contributors
D'Angelo, Kurtis, Reddy, T Agami, Bryan, Harvey, et al.
Created Date
2012

Recent research efforts have been directed to improve the quality of pavement design procedures by considering the transient nature of soil properties due to environmental and aging effects on pavement performance. The main purpose of this research study was to investigate the existence of subgrade soil moisture changes that may have arisen due to thermal and hydraulic gradients at the Atlantic City NAPTF and to evaluate their effect on the material stiffness and the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength parameter of the clay subgrade materials. Laboratory data showed that at the same water content, matric suction decreases with increasing temperature; …

Contributors
Thirthar Palanivelu, Pugazhvel, Zapata, Claudia E, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2017

In geotechnical engineering, measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils can be time consuming and tedious. The various applications that require knowledge of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function are great, and in geotechnical engineering, they range from modeling seepage through landfill covers to determining infiltration of water under a building slab. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function can be measured using various direct and indirect techniques. The instantaneous profile method has been found to be the most promising unsteady state method for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function for fine grained soils over a wide range of suction values. …

Contributors
Jacquemin, Sean Christopher, Zapata, Claudia, Houston, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2011

This dissertation critically evaluated methodologies and devices for assessing and protecting the health of human populations, with particular emphasis on groundwater remediation and the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) to inform population health. A meta-analysis and assessment of laboratory-scale treatability studies for removing chlorinated solvents from groundwater found that sediment microcosms operated as continuous-flow columns are preferable to batch bottles when seeking to emulate with high fidelity the complex conditions prevailing in the subsurface in contaminated aquifers (Chapter 2). Compared to monitoring at the field-scale, use of column microcosms also showed (i) improved chemical speciation, and (ii) qualitative predictability of …

Contributors
Driver, Erin, Halden, Rolf, Conroy-Ben, Otakuye, et al.
Created Date
2018

The dissimilatory reduction of nitrate, or denitrification, offers the potential of a sustainable, cost effective method for the non-disruptive mitigation of earthquake-induced soil liquefaction. Worldwide, trillions of dollars of infrastructure are at risk for liquefaction damage in earthquake prone regions. However, most techniques for remediating liquefiable soils are either not applicable to sites near existing infrastructure, or are prohibitively expensive. Recently, laboratory studies have shown the potential for biogeotechnical soil improvement techniques such as microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) to mitigate liquefaction potential in a non-disruptive manner. Multiple microbial processes have been identified for MICP, but only two have been …

Contributors
O'Donnell, Sean Thomas, Kavazanjian, Edward, Rittmann, Bruce, et al.
Created Date
2016

The understanding of multiphase fluid flow in porous media is of great importance in many fields such as enhanced oil recovery, hydrology, CO2 sequestration, contaminants cleanup, and natural gas production from hydrate bearing sediments. In this study, first, the water retention curve (WRC) and relative permeability in hydrate bearing sediments are explored to obtain fitting parameters for semi-empirical equations. Second, immiscible fluid invasion into porous media is investigated to identify fluid displacement pattern and displacement efficiency that are affected by pore size distribution and connectivity. Finally, fluid flow through granular media is studied to obtain fluid-particle interaction. This study utilizes …

Contributors
MAHABADI, NARIMAN, Jang, Jaewon, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2016

It is estimated that wind induced soil transports more than 500 x 106 metric tons of fugitive dust annually. Soil erosion has negative effects on human health, the productivity of farms, and the quality of surface waters. A variety of different polymer stabilizers are available on the market for fugitive dust control. Most of these polymer stabilizers are expensive synthetic polymer products. Their adverse effects and expense usually limits their use. Biopolymers provide a potential alternative to synthetic polymers. They can provide dust abatement by encapsulating soil particles and creating a binding network throughout the treated area. This research into …

Contributors
Alsanad, Abdullah, Kavazanjian, Edward, Edwards, David, et al.
Created Date
2011

Up to 25 percent of the operating budget for contaminated site restoration projects is spent on site characterization, including long-term monitoring of contaminant concentrations. The sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility of analytical methods have improved to the point where sampling techniques bear the primary responsibility for the accuracy and precision of the data. Most samples represent discrete concentrations in time and space; with sampling points frequently limited in both dimensions, sparse data sets are heavily extrapolated and the quality of data further limited. Methods are presented for characterizing contaminants in water (groundwater and surface waters) and indoor air. These techniques are …

Contributors
Roll, Isaac Benjamin, Halden, Rolf U, Johnson, Paul C, et al.
Created Date
2015

This thesis presents a probabilistic evaluation of multiple laterally loaded drilled pier foundation design approaches using extensive data from a geotechnical investigation for a high voltage electric transmission line. A series of Monte Carlo simulations provide insight about the computed level of reliability considering site standard penetration test blow count value variability alone (i.e., assuming all other aspects of the design problem do not contribute error or bias). Evaluated methods include Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Design procedures, the Federal Highway Administration drilled shaft LRFD design method, the Electric Power Research Institute transmission foundation design procedure and a site specific variability based …

Contributors
Heim, Zackary, Houston, Sandra, Witczak, Matthew, et al.
Created Date
2014

This dissertation describes development of a procedure for obtaining high quality, optical grade sand coupons from frozen sand specimens of Ottawa 20/30 sand for image processing and analysis to quantify soil structure along with a methodology for quantifying the microstructure from the images. A technique for thawing and stabilizing frozen core samples was developed using optical grade Buehler® Epo-Tek® epoxy resin, a modified triaxial cell, a vacuum/reservoir chamber, a desiccator, and a moisture gauge. The uniform epoxy resin impregnation required proper drying of the soil specimen, application of appropriate confining pressure and vacuum levels, and epoxy mixing, de-airing and curing. …

Contributors
Czupak, Zbigniew David, Kavazanjian, Edward, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2011

Laboratory testing was conducted to quantify strain concentrations adjacent to seams and scratches in high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes. The tensile strain profile of remnants meeting the ASTM criteria for wide-width tensile testing from samples of field seams recovered for construction quality assurance testing was evaluated using digital image correlation (DIC). Strains adjacent to scratches on laboratory prepared samples loaded in tension were also measured using DIC. The tensile strain in the zone adjacent to a seam and the tensile strain adjacent to a scratch were compared to the tensile strains calculated using theoretical strain concentration factors. The relationship between …

Contributors
Andresen, Jake, Kavazanjian, Edward, Houston, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2017

The importance of unsaturated soil behavior stems from the fact that a vast majority of infrastructures are founded on unsaturated soils. Research has recently been concentrated on unsaturated soil properties. In the evaluation of unsaturated soils, researchers agree that soil water retention characterized by the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) is among the most important factors when assessing fluid flow, volume change and shear strength for these soils. The temperature influence on soil moisture flow is a major concern in the design of important engineering systems such as barriers in underground repositories for radioactive waste disposal, ground-source heat pump (GSHP) …

Contributors
Elkeshky, Maie Mohamed, Zapata, Claudia E, Houston, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2011

The influence of temperature on soil engineering properties is a major concern in the design of engineering systems such as radioactive waste disposal barriers, ground source heat pump systems and pavement structures. In particular, moisture redistribution under pavement systems might lead to changes in unbound material stiffness that will affect pavement performance. Accurate measurement of thermal effects on unsaturated soil hydraulic properties may lead to reduction in design and construction costs. This thesis presents preliminary results of an experimental study aimed at determining the effect of temperature on the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function …

Contributors
LU, YUTONG, Zapata, Claudia E, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2015

The effect of earthquake-induced liquefaction on the local void ratio distribution of cohesionless soil is evaluated using x-ray computed tomography (CT) and an advanced image processing software package. Intact, relatively undisturbed specimens of cohesionless soil were recovered before and after liquefaction by freezing and coring soil deposits created by pluviation and by sedimentation through water. Pluviated soil deposits were liquefied in the small geotechnical centrifuge at the University of California at Davis shared-use National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) facility. A soil deposit created by sedimentation through water was liquefied on a small shake table in …

Contributors
Gutierrez, Angel, Kavazanjian, Edward, Houston, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2013

A method for evaluating the integrity of geosynthetic elements of a waste containment system subject to seismic loading is developed using a large strain finite difference numerical computer program. The method accounts for the effect of interaction between the geosynthetic elements and the overlying waste on seismic response and allows for explicit calculation of forces and strains in the geosynthetic elements. Based upon comparison of numerical results to experimental data, an elastic-perfectly plastic interface model is demonstrated to adequately reproduce the cyclic behavior of typical geomembrane-geotextile and geomembrane-geomembrane interfaces provided the appropriate interface properties are used. New constitutive models are …

Contributors
Arab, Mohamed G., Kavazanjian, Edward, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2011

This dissertation focuses on the application of urban metabolism metrology (UMM) to process streams of the natural and built water environment to gauge public health concerning exposure to carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and abuse of narcotics. A survey of sources of exposure to N-nitrosamines in the U.S. population identified contaminated food products (1,900 ± 380 ng/day) as important drivers of attributable cancer risk (Chapter 2). Freshwater sediments in the proximity of U.S. municipal wastewater treatment plants were shown for the first time to harbor carcinogenic N-nitrosamine congeners, including N-nitrosodibutylamine (0.2-3.3 ng/g dw), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (0.2-4.7 ng/g dw), and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (3.4-19.6 ng/g dw) were, …

Contributors
Gushgari, Adam Jon, Halden, Rolf U, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2018

In this work, the vapor transport and aerobic bio-attenuation of compounds from a multi-component petroleum vapor mixture were studied for six idealized lithologies in 1.8-m tall laboratory soil columns. Columns representing different geological settings were prepared using 20-40 mesh sand (medium-grained) and 16-minus mesh crushed granite (fine-grained). The contaminant vapor source was a liquid composed of twelve petroleum hydrocarbons common in weathered gasoline. It was placed in a chamber at the bottom of each column and the vapors diffused upward through the soil to the top where they were swept away with humidified gas. The experiment was conducted in three …

Contributors
Escobar Melendez, Elsy Alejandrina, Johnson, Paul C., Andino, Jean, et al.
Created Date
2012

As a prelude to a study on the post-liquefaction properties and structure of soil, an investigation of ground freezing as an undisturbed sampling technique was conducted to investigate the ability of this sampling technique to preserve soil structure and properties. Freezing the ground is widely regarded as an appropriate technique to recover undisturbed samples of saturated cohesionless soil for laboratory testing, despite the fact that water increases in volume when frozen. The explanation generally given for the preservation of soil structure using the freezing technique was that, as long as the freezing front advanced uni-directionally, the expanding pore water is …

Contributors
Katapa, Kanyembo, Kavazanjian, Edward, Houston, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2011

One of the most economical and viable methods of soil improvement is dynamic compaction. It is a simple process that uses the potential energy of a weight (8 tonne to 36 tonne) dropped from a height of about 1 m to 30 m, depending on the project requirement, on to the soil to be compacted hence densifying it. However, dynamic compaction can only be applied on soil deposits where the degree of saturation is low and the permeability of the soil mass is high to allow for good drainage. Using dynamic compaction on saturated soil is unsuitable because upon application …

Contributors
Borah, Devajani, van Paassen, Leon A., Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2018

Hydrocarbon spill site cleanup is challenging when contaminants are present in lower permeability layers. These are difficult to remediate and may result in long-term groundwater impacts. The research goal is to investigate strategies for long-term reduction of contaminant emissions from sources in low permeability layers through partial source treatment at higher/lower permeability interfaces. Conceptually, this provides a clean/reduced concentration zone near the interface, and consequently a reduced concentration gradient and flux from the lower permeability layer. Treatment by in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) was evaluated using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8). H2O2 studies included lab and field-scale distribution studies …

Contributors
Cavanagh, Bridget, Johnson, Paul C, Westerhoff, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2014

Expansive soils impose challenges on the design, maintenance and long-term stability of many engineered infrastructure. These soils are composed of different clay minerals that are susceptible to changes in moisture content. Expansive clay soils wreak havoc due to their volume change property and, in many cases, exhibit extreme swelling and shrinking potentials. Understanding what type of minerals and clays react in the presence of water would allow for a more robust design and a better way to mitigate undesirable soil volume change. The relatively quick and widely used method of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) allows identifying the type of minerals present …

Contributors
Shafer, Zachery, Zapata, Claudia, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2014

A numerical model for design of the geomembrane elements of waste containment systems has been validated by laboratory testing. Due to the absence of any instrumented case histories of seismic performance of geomembrane liner systems, a large scale centrifuge test of a model geomembrane-lined landfill subject to seismic loading was conducted at the University of California at Davis Centrifuge Test facility as part of National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake the Engineering Simulation Research (NEESR) program. Data collected in the large scale centrifuge test included waste settlement, liner strains and earthquake accelerations at various locations throughout the model. This data …

Contributors
Wu, Xuan, Kavazanjian, Edward, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2017

In a laboratory setting, the soil volume change behavior is best represented by using various testing standards on undisturbed or remolded samples. Whenever possible, it is most precise to use undisturbed samples to assess the volume change behavior but in the absence of undisturbed specimens, remodeled samples can be used. If that is the case, the soil is compacted to in-situ density and water content (or matric suction), which should best represent the expansive profile in question. It is standard practice to subject the specimen to a wetting process at a particular net normal stress. Even though currently accepted laboratory …

Contributors
Rosenbalm, Daniel Curtis, Zapata, Claudia E, Houston, Sandra L, et al.
Created Date
2013

Unsaturated soil mechanics is becoming a part of geotechnical engineering practice, particularly in applications to moisture sensitive soils such as expansive and collapsible soils and in geoenvironmental applications. The soil water characteristic curve, which describes the amount of water in a soil versus soil suction, is perhaps the most important soil property function for application of unsaturated soil mechanics. The soil water characteristic curve has been used extensively for estimating unsaturated soil properties, and a number of fitting equations for development of soil water characteristic curves from laboratory data have been proposed by researchers. Although not always mentioned, the underlying …

Contributors
Bani Hashem, Elham, Houston, Sandra L, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2013