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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


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Date Range
2010 2018


This thesis presents a gas sensor readout IC for amperometric and conductometric electrochemical sensors. The Analog Front-End (AFE) readout circuit enables tracking long term exposure to hazardous gas fumes in diesel and gasoline equipments, which may be correlated to diseases. Thus, the detection and discrimination of gases using microelectronic gas sensor system is required. This thesis describes the research, development, implementation and test of a small and portable based prototype platform for chemical gas sensors to enable a low-power and low noise gas detection system. The AFE reads out the outputs of eight conductometric sensor array and eight amperometric sensor …

Contributors
Kim, Hyuntae, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, Vermeire, Bert, et al.
Created Date
2011

Utility scale solar energy is generated by photovoltaic (PV) cell arrays, which are often deployed in remote areas. A PV array monitoring system is considered where smart sensors are attached to the PV modules and transmit data to a monitoring station through wireless links. These smart monitoring devices may be used for fault detection and management of connection topologies. In this thesis, a compact hardware simulator of the smart PV array monitoring system is described. The voltage, current, irradiance, and temperature of each PV module are monitored and the status of each panel along with all data is transmitted to …

Contributors
Peshin, Shwetang, Spanias, Andreas, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, et al.
Created Date
2016

Motion estimation is a core task in computer vision and many applications utilize optical flow methods as fundamental tools to analyze motion in images and videos. Optical flow is the apparent motion of objects in image sequences that results from relative motion between the objects and the imaging perspective. Today, optical flow fields are utilized to solve problems in various areas such as object detection and tracking, interpolation, visual odometry, etc. In this dissertation, three problems from different areas of computer vision and the solutions that make use of modified optical flow methods are explained. The contributions of this dissertation …

Contributors
Kanberoglu, Berkay, Frakes, David, Turaga, Pavan, et al.
Created Date
2018

Image resolution limits the extent to which zooming enhances clarity, restricts the size digital photographs can be printed at, and, in the context of medical images, can prevent a diagnosis. Interpolation is the supplementing of known data with estimated values based on a function or model involving some or all of the known samples. The selection of the contributing data points and the specifics of how they are used to define the interpolated values influences how effectively the interpolation algorithm is able to estimate the underlying, continuous signal. The main contributions of this dissertation are three fold: 1) Reframing edge-directed …

Contributors
Zwart, Christine M., Frakes, David H, Karam, Lina, et al.
Created Date
2013

Approximately 1% of the world population suffers from epilepsy. Continuous long-term electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring is the gold-standard for recording epileptic seizures and assisting in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. However, this process still requires that seizures are visually detected and marked by experienced and trained electroencephalographers. The motivation for the development of an automated seizure detection algorithm in this research was to assist physicians in such a laborious, time consuming and expensive task. Seizures in the EEG vary in duration (seconds to minutes), morphology and severity (clinical to subclinical, occurrence rate) within the same patient and across …

Contributors
Venkataraman, Vinay, Jassemidis, Leonidas, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2012

Human movement is a complex process influenced by physiological and psychological factors. The execution of movement is varied from person to person, and the number of possible strategies for completing a specific movement task is almost infinite. Different choices of strategies can be perceived by humans as having different degrees of quality, and the quality can be defined with regard to aesthetic, athletic, or health-related ratings. It is useful to measure and track the quality of a person's movements, for various applications, especially with the prevalence of low-cost and portable cameras and sensors today. Furthermore, based on such measurements, feedback …

Contributors
Wang, Qiao, Turaga, Pavan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2018

Distributed wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have attracted researchers recently due to their advantages such as low power consumption, scalability and robustness to link failures. In sensor networks with no fusion center, consensus is a process where all the sensors in the network achieve global agreement using only local transmissions. In this dissertation, several consensus and consensus-based algorithms in WSNs are studied. Firstly, a distributed consensus algorithm for estimating the maximum and minimum value of the initial measurements in a sensor network in the presence of communication noise is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, a soft-max approximation together with a non-linear …

Contributors
Zhang, Sai, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2017

Audio signals, such as speech and ambient sounds convey rich information pertaining to a user’s activity, mood or intent. Enabling machines to understand this contextual information is necessary to bridge the gap in human-machine interaction. This is challenging due to its subjective nature, hence, requiring sophisticated techniques. This dissertation presents a set of computational methods, that generalize well across different conditions, for speech-based applications involving emotion recognition and keyword detection, and ambient sounds-based applications such as lifelogging. The expression and perception of emotions varies across speakers and cultures, thus, determining features and classification methods that generalize well to different conditions …

Contributors
Shah, Mohit, Spanias, Andreas, Chakrabarti, Chaitali, et al.
Created Date
2015

Modern machine learning systems leverage data and features from multiple modalities to gain more predictive power. In most scenarios, the modalities are vastly different and the acquired data are heterogeneous in nature. Consequently, building highly effective fusion algorithms is at the core to achieve improved model robustness and inferencing performance. This dissertation focuses on the representation learning approaches as the fusion strategy. Specifically, the objective is to learn the shared latent representation which jointly exploit the structural information encoded in all modalities, such that a straightforward learning model can be adopted to obtain the prediction. We first consider sensor fusion, …

Contributors
Song, Huan, Spanias, Andreas, Thiagarajan, Jayaraman, et al.
Created Date
2018

Advancements in mobile technologies have significantly enhanced the capabilities of mobile devices to serve as powerful platforms for sensing, processing, and visualization. Surges in the sensing technology and the abundance of data have enabled the use of these portable devices for real-time data analysis and decision-making in digital signal processing (DSP) applications. Most of the current efforts in DSP education focus on building tools to facilitate understanding of the mathematical principles. However, there is a disconnect between real-world data processing problems and the material presented in a DSP course. Sophisticated mobile interfaces and apps can potentially play a crucial role …

Contributors
Rajan, Deepta, Spanias, Andreas, Frakes, David, et al.
Created Date
2013

From time immemorial, epilepsy has persisted to be one of the greatest impediments to human life for those stricken by it. As the fourth most common neurological disorder, epilepsy causes paroxysmal electrical discharges in the brain that manifest as seizures. Seizures have the effect of debilitating patients on a physical and psychological level. Although not lethal by themselves, they can bring about total disruption in consciousness which can, in hazardous conditions, lead to fatality. Roughly 1\% of the world population suffer from epilepsy and another 30 to 50 new cases per 100,000 increase the number of affected annually. Controlling seizures …

Contributors
Shafique, Md Ashfaque Bin, Tsakalis, Konstantinos, Rodriguez, Armando, et al.
Created Date
2016

Several music players have evolved in multi-dimensional and surround sound systems. The audio players are implemented as software applications for different audio hardware systems. Digital formats and wireless networks allow for audio content to be readily accessible on smart networked devices. Therefore, different audio output platforms ranging from multispeaker high-end surround systems to single unit Bluetooth speakers have been developed. A large body of research has been carried out in audio processing, beamforming, sound fields etc. and new formats are developed to create realistic audio experiences. An emerging trend is seen towards high definition AV systems, virtual reality gears as …

Contributors
Dharmadhikari, Chinmay Nrusinha, Spanias, Andreas, Turaga, Pavan, et al.
Created Date
2016

Distributed inference has applications in fields as varied as source localization, evaluation of network quality, and remote monitoring of wildlife habitats. In this dissertation, distributed inference algorithms over multiple-access channels are considered. The performance of these algorithms and the effects of wireless communication channels on the performance are studied. In a first class of problems, distributed inference over fading Gaussian multiple-access channels with amplify-and-forward is considered. Sensors observe a phenomenon and transmit their observations using the amplify-and-forward scheme to a fusion center (FC). Distributed estimation is considered with a single antenna at the FC, where the performance is evaluated using …

Contributors
Banavar, Mahesh Krishna, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2010

The ease of use of mobile devices and tablets by students has generated a lot of interest in the area of engineering education. By using mobile technologies in signal analysis and applied mathematics, undergraduate-level courses can broaden the scope and effectiveness of technical education in classrooms. The current mobile devices have abundant memory and powerful processors, in addition to providing interactive interfaces. Therefore, these devices can support the implementation of non-trivial signal processing algorithms. Several existing visual programming environments such as Java Digital Signal Processing (J-DSP), are built using the platform-independent infrastructure of Java applets. These enable students to perform …

Contributors
Hu, Shuang, Spanias, Andreas, Tsakalis, Kostas, et al.
Created Date
2012

Distributed estimation uses many inexpensive sensors to compose an accurate estimate of a given parameter. It is frequently implemented using wireless sensor networks. There have been several studies on optimizing power allocation in wireless sensor networks used for distributed estimation, the vast majority of which assume linear radio-frequency amplifiers. Linear amplifiers are inherently inefficient, so in this dissertation nonlinear amplifiers are examined to gain efficiency while operating distributed sensor networks. This research presents a method to boost efficiency by operating the amplifiers in the nonlinear region of operation. Operating amplifiers nonlinearly presents new challenges. First, nonlinear amplifier characteristics change across …

Contributors
Santucci, Robert W., Spanias, Andreas, Tepedelenlioðlu, Cihan, et al.
Created Date
2013

Feature representations for raw data is one of the most important component in a machine learning system. Traditionally, features are \textit{hand crafted} by domain experts which can often be a time consuming process. Furthermore, they do not generalize well to unseen data and novel tasks. Recently, there have been many efforts to generate data-driven representations using clustering and sparse models. This dissertation focuses on building data-driven unsupervised models for analyzing raw data and developing efficient feature representations. Simultaneous segmentation and feature extraction approaches for silicon-pores sensor data are considered. Aggregating data into a matrix and performing low rank and sparse …

Contributors
Sattigeri, Prasanna, Spanias, Andreas, Thornton, Trevor, et al.
Created Date
2014

Recent advances in camera architectures and associated mathematical representations now enable compressive acquisition of images and videos at low data-rates. While most computer vision applications of today are composed of conventional cameras, which collect a large amount redundant data and power hungry embedded systems, which compress the collected data for further processing, compressive cameras offer the advantage of direct acquisition of data in compressed domain and hence readily promise to find applicability in computer vision, particularly in environments hampered by limited communication bandwidths. However, despite the significant progress in theory and methods of compressive sensing, little headway has been made …

Contributors
Kulkarni, Kuldeep Sharad, Turaga, Pavan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2012

In the last few years, significant advances in nanofabrication have allowed tailoring of structures and materials at a molecular level enabling nanofabrication with precise control of dimensions and organization at molecular length scales, a development leading to significant advances in nanoscale systems. Although, the direction of progress seems to follow the path of microelectronics, the fundamental physics in a nanoscale system changes more rapidly compared to microelectronics, as the size scale is decreased. The changes in length, area, and volume ratios due to reduction in size alter the relative influence of various physical effects determining the overall operation of a …

Contributors
Joshi, Punarvasu, Thornton, Trevor J, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2011

For synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation processing, the chirp scaling algorithm (CSA) has gained considerable attention mainly because of its excellent target focusing ability, optimized processing steps, and ease of implementation. In particular, unlike the range Doppler and range migration algorithms, the CSA is easy to implement since it does not require interpolation, and it can be used on both stripmap and spotlight SAR systems. Another transform that can be used to enhance the processing of SAR image formation is the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT). This transform has been recently introduced to the signal processing community, and it has …

Contributors
Northrop, Judith, Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2011

There has been tremendous technological advancement in the past two decades. Faster computers and improved sensing devices have broadened the research scope in computer vision. With these developments, the task of assessing the quality of human actions, is considered an important problem that needs to be tackled. Movement quality assessment finds wide range of application in motor control, health-care, rehabilitation and physical therapy. Home-based interactive physical therapy requires the ability to monitor, inform and assess the quality of everyday movements. Obtaining labeled data from trained therapists/experts is the main limitation, since it is both expensive and time consuming. Motivated by …

Contributors
Som, Anirudh, Turaga, Pavan, Krishnamurthi, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2016

Continuous monitoring of sensor data from smart phones to identify human activities and gestures, puts a heavy load on the smart phone's power consumption. In this research study, the non-Euclidean geometry of the rich sensor data obtained from the user's smart phone is utilized to perform compressive analysis and efficient classification of human activities by employing machine learning techniques. We are interested in the generalization of classical tools for signal approximation to newer spaces, such as rotation data, which is best studied in a non-Euclidean setting, and its application to activity analysis. Attributing to the non-linear nature of the rotation …

Contributors
Sivakumar, Aswin, Turaga, Pavan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2014

Information divergence functions, such as the Kullback-Leibler divergence or the Hellinger distance, play a critical role in statistical signal processing and information theory; however estimating them can be challenge. Most often, parametric assumptions are made about the two distributions to estimate the divergence of interest. In cases where no parametric model fits the data, non-parametric density estimation is used. In statistical signal processing applications, Gaussianity is usually assumed since closed-form expressions for common divergence measures have been derived for this family of distributions. Parametric assumptions are preferred when it is known that the data follows the model, however this is …

Contributors
Wisler, Alan, Berisha, Visar, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2017

Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory model in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory model implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) …

Contributors
Krishnamoorthi, Harish, Spanias, Andreas, Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia, et al.
Created Date
2011

The demand for handheld portable computing in education, business and research has resulted in advanced mobile devices with powerful processors and large multi-touch screens. Such devices are capable of handling tasks of moderate computational complexity such as word processing, complex Internet transactions, and even human motion analysis. Apple's iOS devices, including the iPhone, iPod touch and the latest in the family - the iPad, are among the well-known and widely used mobile devices today. Their advanced multi-touch interface and improved processing power can be exploited for engineering and STEM demonstrations. Moreover, these devices have become a part of everyday student …

Contributors
Liu, Jinru, Spanias, Andreas, Tsakalis, Kostas, et al.
Created Date
2011

Reliable extraction of human pose features that are invariant to view angle and body shape changes is critical for advancing human movement analysis. In this dissertation, the multifactor analysis techniques, including the multilinear analysis and the multifactor Gaussian process methods, have been exploited to extract such invariant pose features from video data by decomposing various key contributing factors, such as pose, view angle, and body shape, in the generation of the image observations. Experimental results have shown that the resulting pose features extracted using the proposed methods exhibit excellent invariance properties to changes in view angles and body shapes. Furthermore, …

Contributors
Peng, Bo, Qian, Gang, Ye, Jieping, et al.
Created Date
2011

Recently, the location of the nodes in wireless networks has been modeled as point processes. In this dissertation, various scenarios of wireless communications in large-scale networks modeled as point processes are considered. The first part of the dissertation considers signal reception and detection problems with symmetric alpha stable noise which is from an interfering network modeled as a Poisson point process. For the signal reception problem, the performance of space-time coding (STC) over fading channels with alpha stable noise is studied. We derive pairwise error probability (PEP) of orthogonal STCs. For general STCs, we propose a maximum-likelihood (ML) receiver, and …

Contributors
Lee, Junghoon, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2014

In many applications, measured sensor data is meaningful only when the location of sensors is accurately known. Therefore, the localization accuracy is crucial. In this dissertation, both location estimation and location detection problems are considered. In location estimation problems, sensor nodes at known locations, called anchors, transmit signals to sensor nodes at unknown locations, called nodes, and use these transmissions to estimate the location of the nodes. Specifically, the location estimation in the presence of fading channels using time of arrival (TOA) measurements with narrowband communication signals is considered. Meanwhile, the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for localization error under different …

Contributors
Zhang, Xue, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2016

Using stereo vision for 3D reconstruction and depth estimation has become a popular and promising research area as it has a simple setup with passive cameras and relatively efficient processing procedure. The work in this dissertation focuses on locally adaptive stereo vision methods and applications to different imaging setups and image scenes. Solder ball height and substrate coplanarity inspection is essential to the detection of potential connectivity issues in semi-conductor units. Current ball height and substrate coplanarity inspection tools are expensive and slow, which makes them difficult to use in a real-time manufacturing setting. In this dissertation, an automatic, stereo …

Contributors
Li, Jinjin, Karam, Lina, Chakrabarti, Chaitali, et al.
Created Date
2017

In this thesis, we consider the problem of fast and efficient indexing techniques for time sequences which evolve on manifold-valued spaces. Using manifolds is a convenient way to work with complex features that often do not live in Euclidean spaces. However, computing standard notions of geodesic distance, mean etc. can get very involved due to the underlying non-linearity associated with the space. As a result a complex task such as manifold sequence matching would require very large number of computations making it hard to use in practice. We believe that one can device smart approximation algorithms for several classes of …

Contributors
Anirudh, Rushil, Turaga, Pavan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2012

Many studies on human walking pattern assume that adult gait is characterized by bilateral symmetrical behavior. It is well understood that maintaining symmetry in walking patterns increases energetic eciency. We present a framework to provide a quantitative assessment of human walking patterns, especially assessments related to symmetric and asymmetric gait patterns purely based on glide reflection. A Gliding symmetry score is calculated from the data obtained from Motion Capture(MoCap) system. Six primary joints (Shoulder, Elbow, Palm, Hip, Knee, Foot) are considered for this study. Two dierent abnormalities were chosen and studied carefully. All the two gaits were mimicked in controlled …

Contributors
Potaraju, Chaitanya Prakash, Turaga, Pavan Kumar, Krishnamurthi, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2017

Autonomous vehicle control systems utilize real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers to provide a position within two-centimeter of truth. GNSS receivers utilize the satellite signal time of arrival estimates to solve for position; and multipath corrupts the time of arrival estimates with a time-varying bias. Time of arrival estimates are based upon accurate direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) code and carrier phase tracking. Current multipath mitigating GNSS solutions include fixed radiation pattern antennas and windowed delay-lock loop code phase discriminators. A new multipath mitigating code tracking algorithm is introduced that utilizes a non-symmetric correlation kernel to reject multipath. …

Contributors
Miller, Steven R., Spanias, Andreas, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, et al.
Created Date
2013

The reduced availability of 3He is a motivation for developing alternative neutron detectors. 6Li-enriched CLYC (Cs2LiYCl6), a scintillator, is a promising candidate to replace 3He. The neutron and gamma ray signals from CLYC have different shapes due to the slower decay of neutron pulses. Some of the well-known pulse shape discrimination techniques are charge comparison method, pulse gradient method and frequency gradient method. In the work presented here, we have applied a normalized cross correlation (NCC) approach to real neutron and gamma ray pulses produced by exposing CLYC scintillators to a mixed radiation environment generated by 137Cs, 22Na, 57Co and …

Contributors
CHANDHRAN, PREMKUMAR, Holbert, Keith E, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2015

Effective modeling of high dimensional data is crucial in information processing and machine learning. Classical subspace methods have been very effective in such applications. However, over the past few decades, there has been considerable research towards the development of new modeling paradigms that go beyond subspace methods. This dissertation focuses on the study of sparse models and their interplay with modern machine learning techniques such as manifold, ensemble and graph-based methods, along with their applications in image analysis and recovery. By considering graph relations between data samples while learning sparse models, graph-embedded codes can be obtained for use in unsupervised, …

Contributors
Natesan Ramamurthy, Karthikeyan, Spanias, Andreas, Tsakalis, Konstantinos, et al.
Created Date
2013

Interictal spikes, together with seizures, have been recognized as the two hallmarks of epilepsy, a brain disorder that 1% of the world's population suffers from. Even though the presence of spikes in brain's electromagnetic activity has diagnostic value, their dynamics are still elusive. It was an objective of this dissertation to formulate a mathematical framework within which the dynamics of interictal spikes could be thoroughly investigated. A new epileptic spike detection algorithm was developed by employing data adaptive morphological filters. The performance of the spike detection algorithm was favorably compared with others in the literature. A novel spike spatial synchronization …

Contributors
Krishnan, Balu, Iasemidis, Leonidas, Tsakalis, Kostantinos, et al.
Created Date
2012

Asymptotic comparisons of ergodic channel capacity at high and low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are provided for several adaptive transmission schemes over fading channels with general distributions, including optimal power and rate adaptation, rate adaptation only, channel inversion and its variants. Analysis of the high-SNR pre-log constants of the ergodic capacity reveals the existence of constant capacity difference gaps among the schemes with a pre-log constant of 1. Closed-form expressions for these high-SNR capacity difference gaps are derived, which are proportional to the SNR loss between these schemes in dB scale. The largest one of these gaps is found to be …

Contributors
Zhang, Yuan, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, Zhang, Junshan, et al.
Created Date
2013

Buck converters are electronic devices that changes a voltage from one level to a lower one and are present in many everyday applications. However, due to factors like aging, degradation or failures, these devices require a system identification process to track and diagnose their parameters. The system identification process should be performed on-line to not affect the normal operation of the device. Identifying the parameters of the system is essential to design and tune an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Three techniques were used to design the PID controller. Phase and gain margin still prevails as one of the easiest methods …

Contributors
Serrano Rodriguez, Victoria Melissa, Tsakalis, Konstantinos, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, et al.
Created Date
2016

The research on the topology and dynamics of complex networks is one of the most focused area in complex system science. The goals are to structure our understanding of the real-world social, economical, technological, and biological systems in the aspect of networks consisting a large number of interacting units and to develop corresponding detection, prediction, and control strategies. In this highly interdisciplinary field, my research mainly concentrates on universal estimation schemes, physical controllability, as well as mechanisms behind extreme events and cascading failure for complex networked systems. Revealing the underlying structure and dynamics of complex networked systems from observed data …

Contributors
Chen, Yuzhong Chen, Lai, Ying-Cheng, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2016

Microbial fuel cells(MFC) use micro-organisms called anode-respiring bacteria(ARB) to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. This process can not only treat wastewater but can also produce useful byproduct hydrogen peroxide(H2O2). Process variables like anode potential and pH play important role in the MFC operation and the focus of this dissertation are pH and potential control problems. Most of the adaptive pH control solutions use signal-based-norms as cost functions, but their strong dependency on excitation signal properties makes them sensitive to noise, disturbances, and modeling errors. System-based-norm( H-infinity) cost functions provide a viable alternative for the adaptation as they are less …

Contributors
Joshi, Rakesh, Tsakalis, Konstantinos, Rodriguez, Armando, et al.
Created Date
2018

As a promising solution to the problem of acquiring and storing large amounts of image and video data, spatial-multiplexing camera architectures have received lot of attention in the recent past. Such architectures have the attractive feature of combining a two-step process of acquisition and compression of pixel measurements in a conventional camera, into a single step. A popular variant is the single-pixel camera that obtains measurements of the scene using a pseudo-random measurement matrix. Advances in compressive sensing (CS) theory in the past decade have supplied the tools that, in theory, allow near-perfect reconstruction of an image from these measurements …

Contributors
Lohit, Suhas Anand, Turaga, Pavan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2015

Fully distributed wireless sensor networks (WSNs) without fusion center have advantages such as scalability in network size and energy efficiency in communications. Each sensor shares its data only with neighbors and then achieves global consensus quantities by in-network processing. This dissertation considers robust distributed parameter estimation methods, seeking global consensus on parameters of adaptive learning algorithms and statistical quantities. Diffusion adaptation strategy with nonlinear transmission is proposed. The nonlinearity was motivated by the necessity for bounded transmit power, as sensors need to iteratively communicate each other energy-efficiently. Despite the nonlinearity, it is shown that the algorithm performs close to the …

Contributors
Lee, Jongmin, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2017

With increased usage of green energy, the number of photovoltaic arrays used in power generation is increasing rapidly. Many of the arrays are located at remote locations where faults that occur within the array often go unnoticed and unattended for large periods of time. Technicians sent to rectify the faults have to spend a large amount of time determining the location of the fault manually. Automated monitoring systems are needed to obtain the information about the performance of the array and detect faults. Such systems must monitor the DC side of the array in addition to the AC side to …

Contributors
Krishnan, Venkatachalam, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2012

Photovoltaics (PV) is an important and rapidly growing area of research. With the advent of power system monitoring and communication technology collectively known as the "smart grid," an opportunity exists to apply signal processing techniques to monitoring and control of PV arrays. In this paper a monitoring system which provides real-time measurements of each PV module's voltage and current is considered. A fault detection algorithm formulated as a clustering problem and addressed using the robust minimum covariance determinant (MCD) estimator is described; its performance on simulated instances of arc and ground faults is evaluated. The algorithm is found to perform …

Contributors
Braun, Henry Carlton, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2012

Image understanding has been playing an increasingly crucial role in vision applications. Sparse models form an important component in image understanding, since the statistics of natural images reveal the presence of sparse structure. Sparse methods lead to parsimonious models, in addition to being efficient for large scale learning. In sparse modeling, data is represented as a sparse linear combination of atoms from a "dictionary" matrix. This dissertation focuses on understanding different aspects of sparse learning, thereby enhancing the use of sparse methods by incorporating tools from machine learning. With the growing need to adapt models for large scale data, it …

Contributors
Jayaraman Thiagarajan, Jayaraman, Spanias, Andreas, Frakes, David, et al.
Created Date
2013

Spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging involves a tomo- graphic reconstruction from projections, necessitating acquisition of large amounts of data in order to form a moderately sized image. Since typical SAR sensors are hosted on mobile platforms, it is common to have limitations on SAR data acquisi- tion, storage and communication that can lead to data corruption and a resulting degradation of image quality. It is convenient to consider corrupted samples as missing, creating a sparsely sampled aperture. A sparse aperture would also result from compressive sensing, which is a very attractive concept for data intensive sen- sors such …

Contributors
Werth, Nicholas, Karam, Lina, Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia, et al.
Created Date
2011

For a sensor array, part of its elements may fail to work due to hardware failures. Then the missing data may distort in the beam pattern or decrease the accuracy of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. Therefore, considerable research has been conducted to develop algorithms that can estimate the missing signal information. On the other hand, through those algorithms, array elements can also be selectively turned off while the missed information can be successfully recovered, which will save power consumption and hardware cost. Conventional approaches focusing on array element failures are mainly based on interpolation or sequential learning algorithm. Both of them …

Contributors
Fan, Jie, Spanias, Andreas, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, et al.
Created Date
2016

Many products undergo several stages of testing ranging from tests on individual components to end-item tests. Additionally, these products may be further "tested" via customer or field use. The later failure of a delivered product may in some cases be due to circumstances that have no correlation with the product's inherent quality. However, at times, there may be cues in the upstream test data that, if detected, could serve to predict the likelihood of downstream failure or performance degradation induced by product use or environmental stresses. This study explores the use of downstream factory test data or product field reliability …

Contributors
Mosley, James Holton, Morrell, Darryl, Morrell, Darryl, et al.
Created Date
2011

Great advances have been made in the construction of photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules, but array level management remains much the same as it has been in previous decades. Conventionally, the PV array is connected in a fixed topology which is not always appropriate in the presence of faults in the array, and varying weather conditions. With the introduction of smarter inverters and solar modules, the data obtained from the photovoltaic array can be used to dynamically modify the array topology and improve the array power output. This is beneficial especially when module mismatches such as shading, soiling and aging …

Contributors
Buddha, Santoshi Tejasri, Spanias, Andreas, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, et al.
Created Date
2011

The field of education has been immensely benefited by major breakthroughs in technology. The arrival of computers and the internet made student-teacher interaction from different parts of the world viable, increasing the reach of the educator to hitherto remote corners of the world. The arrival of mobile phones in the recent past has the potential to provide the next paradigm shift in the way education is conducted. It combines the universal reach and powerful visualization capabilities of the computer with intimacy and portability. Engineering education is a field which can exploit the benefits of mobile devices to enhance learning and …

Contributors
Ranganath, Suhas, Spanias, Andreas, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, et al.
Created Date
2013

Motion capture using cost-effective sensing technology is challenging and the huge success of Microsoft Kinect has been attracting researchers to uncover the potential of using this technology into computer vision applications. In this thesis, an upper-body motion analysis in a home-based system for stroke rehabilitation using novel RGB-D camera - Kinect is presented. We address this problem by first conducting a systematic analysis of the usability of Kinect for motion analysis in stroke rehabilitation. Then a hybrid upper body tracking approach is proposed which combines off-the-shelf skeleton tracking with a novel depth-fused mean shift tracking method. We proposed several kinematic …

Contributors
Du, Tingfang, Turaga, Pavan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2012