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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


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Date Range
2011 2019


The object of this study was a 26 year old residential Photovoltaic (PV) monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) power plant, called Solar One, built by developer John F. Long in Phoenix, Arizona (a hot-dry field condition). The task for Arizona State University Photovoltaic Reliability Laboratory (ASU-PRL) graduate students was to evaluate the power plant through visual inspection, electrical performance, and infrared thermography. The purpose of this evaluation was to measure and understand the extent of degradation to the system along with the identification of the failure modes in this hot-dry climatic condition. This 4000 module bipolar system was originally installed with a …

Contributors
Belmont, Jonathan Mark, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Henderson, Mark, et al.
Created Date
2013

ABSTRACT As the use of photovoltaic (PV) modules in large power plants continues to increase globally, more studies on degradation, reliability, failure modes, and mechanisms of field aged modules are needed to predict module life expectancy based on accelerated lifetime testing of PV modules. In this work, a 26+ year old PV power plant in Phoenix, Arizona has been evaluated for performance, reliability, and durability. The PV power plant, called Solar One, is owned and operated by John F. Long's homeowners association. It is a 200 kWdc, standard test conditions (STC) rated power plant comprised of 4000 PV modules or …

Contributors
Olakonu, Kolapo Olanrewaju, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Srinivasan, Devarajan, et al.
Created Date
2012

Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are currently being explored as a cheaper alternative to the more common silicon (Si) solar cell technology. In addition to the cost advantages, DSSCs show good performance in low light conditions and are not sensitive to varying angles of incident light like traditional Si cells. One of the major challenges facing DSSCs is loss of the liquid electrolyte, through evaporation or leakage, which lowers stability and leads to increased degradation. Current research with solid-state and quasi-solid DSSCs has shown success regarding a reduction of electrolyte loss, but at a cost of lower conversion efficiency output. …

Contributors
Main, Laura, Munukutla, Lakshmi, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, et al.
Created Date
2012

The main objective of this research is to develop an approach to PV module lifetime prediction. In doing so, the aim is to move from empirical generalizations to a formal predictive science based on data-driven case studies of the crystalline silicon PV systems. The evaluation of PV systems aged 5 to 30 years old that results in systematic predictive capability that is absent today. The warranty period provided by the manufacturers typically range from 20 to 25 years for crystalline silicon modules. The end of lifetime (for example, the time-to-degrade by 20% from rated power) of PV modules is usually …

Contributors
Kuitche, Joseph Mathurin, Pan, Rong, TamizhMani, Govindasamy, et al.
Created Date
2014

The automotive industry is committed to moving towards sustainable modes of transportation through electrified vehicles to improve the fuel economy with a reduced carbon footprint. In this context, battery-operated hybrid, plug-in hybrid and all-electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming commercially viable throughout the world. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with various active materials, electrolytes, and separators are currently being used for electric vehicle applications. Specifically, lithium-ion batteries with Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4 - LFP) and Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (Li(NiMnCo)O2 - NMC) cathodes are being studied mainly due to higher cycle life and higher energy density values, respectively. In the present work, …

Contributors
Vaidya, Rutvik Milind, Kannan, Arunachala Mada, Alford, Terry, et al.
Created Date
2017

This is a two-part thesis: Part 1 of this thesis tests and validates the methodology and mathematical models of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61853-2 standard for the measurement of angle of incidence (AOI) effects on photovoltaic modules. Flat-plate photovoltaic modules in the field operate under a wide range of environmental conditions. The purpose of IEC 61853-2 is to characterize photovoltaic modules' performance under specific environmental conditions. Part 1 of this report focuses specifically on AOI. To accurately test and validate IEC 61853-2 standard for measuring AOI, meticulous experimental setup and test procedures were followed. Modules of five different photovoltaic …

Contributors
Knisely, Brett, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Rogers, Bradley, et al.
Created Date
2013

Over the past decade, there has been a revival in applied algal research and attempts at commercialization. However, the main limitation in algal commercialization is the process of cultivation, which is one of the main cost and energy burdens in producing biomass that is economically feasible for different products. There are several parameters that must be considered when growing algae, including the type of growth system and operating mode, preferred organism(s), and many other criteria that affect the process of algal cultivation. The purpose of this dissertation was to assess key variables that affect algal productivity and to improve outdoor …

Contributors
Eustance, Everett, Sommerfeld, Milton R, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2015

This is a two part thesis: Part – I This part of the thesis involves automation of statistical risk analysis of photovoltaic (PV) power plants. Statistical risk analysis on the field observed defects/failures in the PV power plants is usually carried out using a combination of several manual methods which are often laborious, time consuming and prone to human errors. In order to mitigate these issues, an automated statistical risk analysis (FMECA) is necessary. The automation developed and presented in this project generates about 20 different reliability risk plots in about 3-4 minutes without the need of several manual labor …

Contributors
Moorthy, Mathan Kumar, Govindasamy, Tamizhmani, Devarajan, Srinivasan, et al.
Created Date
2015

Battery performance has been studied at different temperature, C rate. Different types of batteries have been used. Capacity and impedance are two factors, which are focused in the thesis. To evaluate battery performance and battery conditions, the SOC (state of charge) determination methods have been studied in the thesis. There are two types of batteries divided in three groups: group I. Ni-Cd battery (2V, 8Ah); group II. Lead-acid battery (2V, 8Ah); and group III. Lead-acid battery (2V, 25Ah). The impedance testing is using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. AC impedance method has been used to test different state of charge (100%, …

Contributors
Chu, Ximo, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Peng, Xihong, et al.
Created Date
2013

Building Applied Photovoltaics (BAPV) form an essential part of today's solar economy. This thesis is an effort to compare and understand the effect of fan cooling on the temperature of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) modules by comparing two side-by-side arrays (test array and control array) under identical ambient conditions of irradiance, air temperature, wind speed and wind direction. The lower operating temperature of PV modules due to fan operation mitigates array non uniformity and improves on performance. A crystalline silicon (c-Si) PV module has a light to electrical conversion efficiency of 14-20%. So on a cool sunny day with incident solar …

Contributors
Chatterjee, Saurabh, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Rogers, Bradley, et al.
Created Date
2011

Performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules decrease as the operating temperatures increase. In hot climatic conditions, the operating temperature can reach as high as 85°C for the rooftop modules. Considering a typical power drop of 0.5%/°C for crystalline silicon modules, a performance decrease of approximately 30% could be expected during peak summer seasons due to the difference between module rated temperature of 25°C and operating temperature of 85°C. Therefore, it is critical to accurately predict the temperature of the modules so the performance can be accurately predicted. The module operating temperature is based not only on the ambient and irradiance conditions …

Contributors
Natarajan Rammohan, Balamurali, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Srinivasan, Devarajan, et al.
Created Date
2017

The deposition of airborne dust, especially in desert conditions, is very problematic as it leads to significant loss of power of photovoltaic (PV) modules on a daily basis during the dry period. As such, PV testing laboratories around the world have been trying to set up soil deposition stations to artificially deposit soil layers and to simulate outdoor soiling conditions in an accelerated manner. This thesis is a part of a twin thesis. The first thesis, authored by Shanmukha Mantha, is associated with the designing of an artificial soiling station. The second thesis (this thesis), authored by Darshan Choudhary, is …

Contributors
Choudhary, Darshan, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Rogers, Bradley Barney, et al.
Created Date
2016

The utilization of solar energy requires an efficient means of its storage as fuel. In bio-inspired artificial photosynthesis, light energy can be used to drive water oxidation, but catalysts that produce molecular oxygen from water are required. This dissertation demonstrates a novel complex utilizing earth-abundant Ni in combination with glycine as an efficient catalyst with a modest overpotential of 0.475 ± 0.005 V for a current density of 1 mA/cm<super>2</super> at pH 11. The production of molecular oxygen at a high potential was verified by measurement of the change in oxygen concentration, yielding a Faradaic efficiency of 60 ± 5%. …

Contributors
Wang, Dong, Allen, James P, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, et al.
Created Date
2014

In the past 10 to 15 years, there has been a tremendous increase in the amount of photovoltaic (PV) modules being both manufactured and installed in the field. Power plants in the hundreds of megawatts are continuously being turned online as the world turns toward greener and sustainable energy. Due to this fact and to calculate LCOE (levelized cost of energy), it is understandably becoming more important to comprehend the behavior of these systems as a whole by calculating two key data: the rate at which modules are degrading in the field; the trend (linear or nonlinear) in which the …

Contributors
Raupp, Christopher, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Srinivasan, Devarajan, et al.
Created Date
2016

In the past, the photovoltaic (PV) modules were typically constructed with glass superstrate containing cerium oxide and EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) encapsulant containing UV absorbing additives. However, in the current industry, the PV modules are generally constructed without cerium oxide in the glass and UV absorbing additives in EVA to increase quantum efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells in the UV regions. This new approach is expected to boost the initial power output of the modules and reduce the long-term encapsulant browning issues. However, this new approach could lead to other durability and reliability issues such as delamination of encapsulant …

Contributors
Arularasu, Pooja, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Mu, Bin, et al.
Created Date
2019

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is the most commonly used encapsulant in photovoltaic modules. However, EVA degrades over time and causes performance losses in PV system. Therefore, EVA degradation is a matter of concern from a durability point of view. This work compares EVA encapsulant degradation in glass/backsheet and glass/glass field-aged PV modules. EVA was extracted from three field-aged modules (two glass/backsheet and one glass/glass modules) from three different manufacturers from various regions (cell edges, cell centers, and non-cell region) from each module based on their visual and UV Fluorescence images. Characterization techniques such as I-V measurements, Colorimetry, Different Scanning Calorimetry, …

Contributors
Patel, Aesha Parimalbhai, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Green, Matthew, et al.
Created Date
2018

Humanity’s demand for energy is increasing exponentially and the dependence on fossil fuels is both unsustainable and detrimental to the environment. To provide a solution to the impending energy crisis, it is reasonable to look toward utilizing solar energy, which is abundant and renewable. One approach to harvesting solar irradiation for fuel purposes is through mimicking the processes of natural photosynthesis in an artificial design to use sunlight and water to store energy in chemical bonds for later use. Thus, in order to design an efficient energy conversion device, the underlying processes of the natural system must be understood. An …

Contributors
Brown, Chelsea Lynn, Moore, Ana L, Gust, Devens, et al.
Created Date
2015

It is well known that the overall performance of a solar cell is limited by the worst performing areas of the device. These areas are usually micro and nano-scale defects inhomogenously distributed throughout the material. Mitigating and/or engineering these effects is necessary to provide a path towards increasing the efficiency of state-of-the-art solar cells. The first big challenge is to identify the nature, origin and impact of such defects across length scales that span multiple orders of magnitude, and dimensions (time, temperature etc.). In this work, I present a framework based on correlative X-ray microscopy and big data analytics to …

Contributors
West, Bradley Mensing, Bertoni, Mariana I, Verebelyi, Darren, et al.
Created Date
2018

This work aimed to characterize and optimize the variables that influence the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) preparation using design of experiment (DOE) approach. In the process of GDL preparation, the quantity of carbon support and Teflon were found to have significant influence on the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). Characterization methods like surface roughness, wetting characteristics, microstructure surface morphology, pore size distribution, thermal conductivity of GDLs were examined using laser interferometer, Goniometer, SEM, porosimetry and thermal conductivity analyzer respectively. The GDLs were evaluated in single cell PEMFC under various operating conditions of temperature and relative humidity (RH) using air …

Contributors
Kasat, Harshal Kasat, Kannan, Arunachalana, Phelan, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2016

A clean and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels is solar energy. For efficient use of solar energy to be realized, artificial systems that can effectively capture and convert sunlight into a usable form of energy have to be developed. In natural photosynthesis, antenna chlorophylls and carotenoids capture sunlight and transfer the resulting excitation energy to the photosynthetic reaction center (PRC). Small reorganization energy, &#955; and well-balanced electronic coupling between donors and acceptors in the PRC favor formation of a highly efficient charge-separated (CS) state. By covalently linking electron/energy donors to acceptors, organic molecular dyads and triads that mimic natural photosynthesis …

Contributors
Arero, Jaro, Gust, Devens, Moore, Ana, et al.
Created Date
2014

This is a two part thesis: Part 1 of this thesis determines the most dominant failure modes of field aged photovoltaic (PV) modules using experimental data and statistical analysis, FMECA (Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis). The failure and degradation modes of about 5900 crystalline-Si glass/polymer modules fielded for 6 to 16 years in three different photovoltaic (PV) power plants with different mounting systems under the hot-dry desert climate of Arizona are evaluated. A statistical reliability tool, FMECA that uses Risk Priority Number (RPN) is performed for each PV power plant to determine the dominant failure modes in the modules …

Contributors
Shrestha, Sanjay Mohan, Tamizhmani, Govindsamy, Srinivasan, Devrajan, et al.
Created Date
2014

Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) are a critical and essential part of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). They carry out various important functions such as transportation of reactants to and from the reaction sites. The material properties and structural characteristics of the substrate and the microporous layer strongly influence fuel cell performance. The microporous layer of the GDLs was fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) using the wire rod coating method. GDLs were fabricated with different materials to compose the microporous layer and evaluated the effects on PEMFC power output performance. The consistency …

Contributors
Villacorta, Rashida, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Peng, Xihong, et al.
Created Date
2012

The complicated, unpredictable, and often chaotic hot water usage pattern of typical households severely limits the effectiveness and efficiency of traditional solar hot water heater systems. Similar to large scale concentrating solar power plants, the use of thermal energy storage techniques to store collected solar energy as latent heat has the potential to improve the efficiency of solar hot water systems. Rather than being used to produce steam to generate electricity, the stored thermal energy would be used to heat water on-demand well after the sun sets. The scope of this thesis was to design, analyze, build, and test a …

Contributors
Petre, Andrew Scott Lewis, Rajadas, John N, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, et al.
Created Date
2015

With a recent shift to a more environmentally conscious society, low-carbon and non-carbon producing energy production methods are being investigated and applied all over the world. Of these methods, fuel cells show great potential for clean energy production. A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device which directly converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are a highly researched energy source for automotive and stationary power applications. In order to produce the power required to meet Department of Energy requirements, platinum (Pt) must be used as a catalyst material in PEMFCs. Platinum, however, is …

Contributors
Adame, Anthony, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Peng, Xihong, et al.
Created Date
2012

Low temperature fuel cells are very attractive energy conversion technology for automotive applications due to their qualities of being clean, quiet, efficient and good peak power densities. However, due to high cost and limited durability and reliability, commercialization of this technology has not been possible as yet. The high fuel cell cost is mostly due to the expensive noble catalyst Pt. Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) systems, have potential to make use of non-noble catalysts and thus, provides with a solution of overall lower cost. Therefore, this issue has been addressed in this thesis work. Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells using an alkaline …

Contributors
Shah, Quratulain Jawed, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, et al.
Created Date
2012

Soiling is one of the major environmental factors causing the negative performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules. Dust particles, air pollution particles, pollen, bird droppings and other industrial airborne particles are some natural sources that cause soiling. The thickness of soiling layer has a direct impact on the performance of PV modules. This phenomenon occurs over a period of time with many unpredictable environmental variables indicated above. This situation makes it difficult to calculate or predict the soiling effect on performance. The dust particles vary from one location to the other in terms of particle size, color and chemical composition. These …

Contributors
Mantha, Shanmukha Srinivas, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Phelan, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2016

Measuring and estimating solar resource availability is critical for assessing new sites for solar energy generation. This includes beam radiation, diffuse radiation, and total incident radiation. Total incident radiation is pertinent to solar photovoltaic (PV) output and low-temperature solar thermal applications whereas beam radiation is used for concentrating solar power (CSP). Global horizontal insolation (GHI) data are most commonly available of any solar radiation measurement, yet these data cannot be directly applied to solar power generator estimation because solar PV panels and solar CSP collectors are not parallel to the earth’s surface. In absence of additional measured data, GHI data …

Contributors
Singh, Uday, Johnson, Nathan, Rogers, Bradley, et al.
Created Date
2016

The prevalence of renewable generation will increase in the next several decades and offset conventional generation more and more. Yet this increase is not coming without challenges. Solar, wind, and even some water resources are intermittent and unpredictable, and thereby create scheduling challenges due to their inherent “uncontrolled” nature. To effectively manage these distributed renewable assets, new control algorithms must be developed for applications including energy management, bridge power, and system stability. This can be completed through a centralized control center though efforts are being made to parallel the control architecture with the organization of the renewable assets themselves—namely, distributed …

Contributors
Cardwell, Joseph Farrand, Johnson, Nathan, Rogers, Bradley, et al.
Created Date
2015

The past few decades have seen a consistent growth of distributed PV sources. Distributed PV, like other DG sources, can be located at or near load centers and provide benefits which traditional generation may lack. However, distribution systems were not designed to accommodate such power generation sources as these sources might lead to operational as well as power quality issues. A high penetration of distributed PV resources may lead to bi-directional power flow resulting in voltage swells, increased losses and overloading of conductors. Voltage unbalance is a concern in distribution systems and the effect of single-phase residential PV systems on …

Contributors
Mitra, Parag, Heydt, Gerald T, Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2013

With the increasing penetration of converter interfaced renewable generation into power systems, the structure and behavior of the power system is changing, catalyzing alterations and enhancements in modeling and simulation methods. This work puts forth a Hybrid Electromagnetic Transient-Transient Stability simulation method implemented using MATLAB and Simulink, to study power electronic based power systems. Hybrid Simulation enables detailed, accurate modeling, along with fast, efficient simulation, on account of the Electromagnetic Transient (EMT) and Transient Stability (TS) simulations respectively. A critical component of hybrid simulation is the interaction between the EMT and TS simulators, established through a well-defined interface technique, which …

Contributors
Athaide, Denise Maria Christine, Qin, Jiangchao, Ayyanar, Raja, et al.
Created Date
2018

The ability to shift the photovoltaic (PV) power curve and make the energy accessible during peak hours can be accomplished through pairing solar PV with energy storage technologies. A prototype hybrid air conditioning system (HACS), built under supervision of project head Patrick Phelan, consists of PV modules running a DC compressor that operates a conventional HVAC system paired with a second evaporator submerged within a thermal storage tank. The thermal storage is a 0.284m3 or 75 gallon freezer filled with Cryogel balls, submerged in a weak glycol solution. It is paired with its own separate air handler, circulating the glycol …

Contributors
Peyton-Levine, Tobin, Phelan, Patrick, Trimble, Steven, et al.
Created Date
2012

This study evaluates two 16 year old photovoltaic power (PV) plants to ascertain degradation rates and various failure modes which occur in a "hot-dry" climate. The data obtained from this study can be used by module manufacturers in determining the warranty limits of their modules and also by banks, investors, project developers and users in determining appropriate financing or decommissioning models. In addition, the data obtained in this study will be helpful in selecting appropriate accelerated stress tests which would replicate the field failures for the new modules and would predict the lifetime for new PV modules. The two power …

Contributors
Yedidi, Karan Rao, Govindasamy, Tamizhmani, Devarajan, Srinivasan, et al.
Created Date
2013

This study evaluates two photovoltaic (PV) power plants based on electrical performance measurements, diode checks, visual inspections and infrared scanning. The purpose of this study is to measure degradation rates of performance parameters (Pmax, Isc, Voc, Vmax, Imax and FF) and to identify the failure modes in a "hot-dry desert" climatic condition along with quantitative determination of safety failure rates and reliability failure rates. The data obtained from this study can be used by module manufacturers in determining the warranty limits of their modules and also by banks, investors, project developers and users in determining appropriate financing or decommissioning models. …

Contributors
Mallineni, Jaya Krishna, Govindasamy, Tamizhmani, Devarajan, Srinivasan, et al.
Created Date
2013

While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility …

Contributors
Malotte, Christopher Gilbert, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Srinivasan, Devarajan, et al.
Created Date
2012

The Energiewende aims to drastically reduce Germany’s greenhouse gas emissions, without relying on nuclear power, while maintaining a secure and affordable energy supply. Since 2000 the country’s renewable-energy share has increased exponentially, accounting in 2017 for over a third of Germany's gross electricity consumption. This unprecedented achievement is the result of policies, tools, and institutional arrangements intended to steer society to a low-carbon economy. Despite its resounding success in renewable-energy deployment, the Energiewende is not on track to meet its decarbonization goals. Energiewende rules and regulations have generated numerous undesired consequences, and have cost much more than anticipated, a burden …

Contributors
Sturm, Christine, Sarewitz, Daniel, Miller, Clark, et al.
Created Date
2018

A primary motivation of research in photovoltaic technology is to obtain higher efficiency photovoltaic devices at reduced cost of production so that solar electricity can be cost competitive. The majority of photovoltaic technologies are based on p-n junction, with efficiency potential being much lower than the thermodynamic limits of individual technologies and thereby providing substantial scope for further improvements in efficiency. The thesis explores photovoltaic devices using new physical processes that rely on thin layers and are capable of attaining the thermodynamic limit of photovoltaic technology. Silicon heterostructure is one of the candidate technologies in which thin films induce a …

Contributors
Ghosh, Kunal, Bowden, Stuart, Honsberg, Christiana, et al.
Created Date
2011

Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power produced to do more with better control, giving greater security, reliability, and design flexibility. This paper explores the performance and cost viability of a hybrid grid-tied microgrid that utilizes Photovoltaic (PV), batteries, and fuel cell (FC) technology. The concept proposes that each community home is equipped with more PV than is required for normal operation. As the homes are part of a microgrid, excess or unused energy from one home …

Contributors
Patterson, Maxx, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Macia, Narciso, et al.
Created Date
2013

Organic reactions in natural hydrothermal settings have relevance toward the deep carbon cycle, petroleum formation, the ecology of deep microbial communities, and potentially the origin of life. Many reaction pathways involving organic compounds under geochemically relevant hydrothermal conditions have now been characterized, but their mechanisms, in particular those involving mineral surface catalysis, are largely unknown. The overall goal of this work is to describe these mechanisms so that predictive models of reactivity can be developed and so that applications of these reactions beyond geochemistry can be explored. The focus of this dissertation is the mechanisms of hydrothermal dehydration and catalytic …

Contributors
Bockisch, Christiana, Gould, Ian R, Hartnett, Hilairy E, et al.
Created Date
2018

A robust, fast and accurate protection system based on pilot protection concept was developed previously and a few alterations in that algorithm were made to make it faster and more reliable and then was applied to smart distribution grids to verify the results for it. The new 10 sample window method was adapted into the pilot protection program and its performance for the test bed system operation was tabulated. Following that the system comparison between the hardware results for the same algorithm and the simulation results were compared. The development of the dual slope percentage differential method, its comparison with …

Contributors
Iyengar, Varun Raghavan, Karady, George G, Ayyanar, Raja, et al.
Created Date
2014

This is a two-part thesis. Part 1 presents an approach for working towards the development of a standardized artificial soiling method for laminated photovoltaic (PV) cells or mini-modules. Construction of an artificial chamber to maintain controlled environmental conditions and components/chemicals used in artificial soil formulation is briefly explained. Both poly-Si mini-modules and a single cell mono-Si coupons were soiled and characterization tests such as I-V, reflectance and quantum efficiency (QE) were carried out on both soiled, and cleaned coupons. From the results obtained, poly-Si mini-modules proved to be a good measure of soil uniformity, as any non-uniformity present would not …

Contributors
Rajasekar, Vidyashree, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Srinivasan, Devarajan, et al.
Created Date
2015

Photovoltaic (PV) modules undergo performance degradation depending on climatic conditions, applications, and system configurations. The performance degradation prediction of PV modules is primarily based on Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) procedures. In order to further strengthen the ALT process, additional investigation of the power degradation of field aged PV modules in various configurations is required. A detailed investigation of 1,900 field aged (12-18 years) PV modules deployed in a power plant application was conducted for this study. Analysis was based on the current-voltage (I-V) measurement of all the 1,900 modules individually. I-V curve data of individual modules formed the basis for …

Contributors
Singh, Jaspreet, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Srinivasan, Devarajan, et al.
Created Date
2011

Just for a moment! Imagine you live in Arizona without air-conditioning systems! Air-conditioning and refrigeration systems are one of the most crucial systems in anyone’s house and car these days. Energy resources are becoming more scarce and expensive. Most of the currently used refrigerants have brought an international concern about global warming. The search for more efficient cooling/refrigeration systems with environmental friendly refrigerants has become more and more important so as to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure sustainable and affordable energy systems. The most widely used air-conditioning and refrigeration system, based on the vapor compression cycle, is driven by …

Contributors
ALELYANI, Sami Mohammed, Phelan, Patrick E, Wang, Liping, et al.
Created Date
2018

Over the past decade, proton exchange membrane fuel cells have gained much momentum due to their environmental advantages and commutability over internal combustion engines. To carefully study the dynamic behavior of the fuel cells, a dynamic test stand to validate their performance is necessary. Much attention has been given to HiL (Hardware-in-loop) testing of the fuel cells, where the simulated FC model is replaced by a real hardware. This thesis presents an economical approach for closed loop HiL testing of PEM fuel cell. After evaluating the performance of the standalone fuel cell system, a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle model …

Contributors
Goyal, Govind, Ra'ouf Mayyas, Abdel, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, et al.
Created Date
2014

Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for large systems. Similarly, traditional approaches to control do not use advanced methodologies and suffer from poor performance and limited operating range. In this document a linear model is derived for an inverter connected to the Thevenin equivalent of a microgrid. This model is then compared to a nonlinear simulation model and analyzed using the open and closed loop systems in both the time and frequency domains. The modeling error is …

Contributors
Steenis, Joel, Ayyanar, Raja, Mittelmann, Hans, et al.
Created Date
2013

With ever increasing use of natural gas to generate electricity, installed natural gas fired microturbines are found in residential areas to generate electricity locally. This research work discusses a generalized methodology for assessing optimal capacity and locations for installing natural gas fired microturbines in a distribution residential network. The overall objective is to place microturbines to minimize the system power loss occurring in the electrical distribution network; in such a way that the electric feeder does not need any up-gradation. The IEEE 123 Node Test Feeder is selected as the test bed for validating the developed methodology. Three-phase unbalanced electric …

Contributors
Kamdar, Krutak, Karady, George, Ayyanar, Raja, et al.
Created Date
2014

Alternative energy technologies must become more cost effective to achieve grid parity with fossil fuels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are an innovative third generation photovoltaic technology, which is demonstrating tremendous potential to become a revolutionary technology due to recent breakthroughs in cost of fabrication. The study here focused on quality improvement measures undertaken to improve fabrication of DSSCs and enhance process efficiency and effectiveness. Several quality improvement methods were implemented to optimize the seven step individual DSSC fabrication processes. Lean Manufacturing's 5S method successfully increased efficiency in all of the processes. Six Sigma's DMAIC methodology was used to identify …

Contributors
Fauss, Brian David, Munukutla, Lakshmi V., Polesky, Gerald, et al.
Created Date
2012

The project aims at utilization of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) byproducts like biochar to grow microalgae. HTL is a promising method to convert wet algal biomasses into biofuels. The initial microalgae liquefaction at a temperature of 300 °C for 30 minute, converted 31.22 % of the Galdieria sulphuraria and 41.00 % of the Kirchneriella cornutum into biocrude. Upon changing the reactor from a 100 ml to a 250 ml reactor, the yield in biocrude increased to 31.48 % for G. sulphuraria and dropped to 38.05 % for K. cornutum. Further, energy recoveries based on calorific values of HTL products were seen …

Contributors
Mathew, Melvin, Deng, Shuguang, Lammers, Peter J, et al.
Created Date
2017

Organic optoelectronic devices have remained a research topic of great interest over the past two decades, particularly in the development of efficient organic photovoltaics (OPV) and organic light emitting diodes (OLED). In order to improve the efficiency, stability, and materials variety for organic optoelectronic devices a number of emitting materials, absorbing materials, and charge transport materials were developed and employed in a device setting. Optical, electrical, and photophysical studies of the organic materials and their corresponding devices were thoroughly carried out. Two major approaches were taken to enhance the efficiency of small molecule based OPVs: developing material with higher open …

Contributors
Fleetham, Tyler, Li, Jian, Alford, Terry, et al.
Created Date
2014

This is a two-part thesis: Part 1 characterizes soiling losses using various techniques to understand the effect of soiling on photovoltaic modules. The higher the angle of incidence (AOI), the lower will be the photovoltaic (PV) module performance. Our research group has already reported the AOI investigation for cleaned modules of five different technologies with air/glass interface. However, the modules that are installed in the field would invariably develop a soil layer with varying thickness depending on the site condition, rainfall and tilt angle. The soiled module will have the air/soil/glass interface rather than air/glass interface. This study investigates the …

Contributors
Boppana, Sravanthi, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Srinivasan, Devarajan, et al.
Created Date
2015

Testing was conducted for a solar assisted water heater and conventional all electric water heater for the purpose of investigating the advantages of utilizing solar energy to heat up water. The testing conducted simulated a four person household living in the Phoenix, Arizona region. With sensors and a weather station, data was gathered and analyzed for the water heaters. Performance patterns were observed that correlated to ambient conditions and functionality of the solar assisted water heater. This helped better understand how the solar water heater functioned and how it may continue to function. The testing for the solar assisted water …

Contributors
Martinez, Luis Enrique, Rajadas, John, Kannan, Arunachala, et al.
Created Date
2016

Increasing demand for reducing the stress on fossil fuels has motivated automotive industries to shift towards sustainable modes of transport through electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Most fuel efficient cars of year 2016 are hybrid vehicles as reported by environmental protection agency. Hybrid vehicles operate with internal combustion engine and electric motors powered by batteries, and can significantly improve fuel economy due to downsizing of the engine. Whereas, Plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) have an additional feature compared to hybrid vehicles i.e. recharging batteries through external power outlets. Among hybrid powertrains, lithium-ion batteries have emerged as a major electrochemical storage source for …

Contributors
Badami, Pavan, Kannan, Arunachala Mada, Huang, Huei Ping, et al.
Created Date
2016

Increased global demand for energy has led to prolific use of fossil fuels, which produce and release greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. This increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide affects the global weather system and has been cited as a cause for global warming. For humans to continue to meet demands for energy while reducing greenhouse emission, a sustainable, carbon-neutral energy source must be developed. The sun provides energy for the majority of life on earth, as well as the energy stored in the chemical bonds of fossil fuels. This dissertation investigates systems inspired by the biological mechanism of solar …

Contributors
Schmitz, Robert A., Gust, John D, Jones, Anne K, et al.
Created Date
2014

Potential induced degradation (PID) due to high system voltages is one of the major degradation mechanisms in photovoltaic (PV) modules, adversely affecting their performance due to the combined effects of the following factors: system voltage, superstrate/glass surface conductivity, encapsulant conductivity, silicon nitride anti-reflection coating property and interface property (glass/encapsulant; encapsulant/cell; encapsulant/backsheet). Previous studies carried out at ASU's Photovoltaic Reliability Laboratory (ASU-PRL) showed that only negative voltage bias (positive grounded systems) adversely affects the performance of commonly available crystalline silicon modules. In previous studies, the surface conductivity of the glass surface was obtained using either conductive carbon layer extending from the …

Contributors
Tatapudi, Sai Ravi Vasista, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Srinivasan, Devarajan, et al.
Created Date
2012

Infant mortality rate of field deployed photovoltaic (PV) modules may be expected to be higher than that estimated by standard qualification tests. The reason for increased failure rates may be attributed to the high system voltages. High voltages (HV) in grid connected modules induce additional stress factors that cause new degradation mechanisms. These new degradation mechanisms are not recognized by qualification stress tests. To study and model the effect of high system voltages, recently, potential induced degradation (PID) test method has been introduced. Using PID studies, it has been reported that high voltage failure rates are essentially due to increased …

Contributors
Goranti, Sandhya, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Rogers, Bradley, et al.
Created Date
2011

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have attracted immense research activities from the inception of the technology due to its high stability and performance capabilities. The major obstacle from commercialization is the cost of the catalyst material in manufacturing the fuel cell. In the present study, the major focus in PEMFCs has been in reduction of the cost of the catalyst material using graphene, thin film coated and Organometallic Molecular catalysts. The present research is focused on improving the durability and active surface area of the catalyst materials with low platinum loading using nanomaterials to reduce the effective cost of the …

Contributors
Kolli, Sri Harsha, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Nam, Changho, et al.
Created Date
2014

As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery …

Contributors
Strele, Thomas Arthur, Nam, Changho, Kannan, Arunachalanadar M, et al.
Created Date
2016

Photovoltaic (PV) modules are typically rated at three test conditions: STC (standard test conditions), NOCT (nominal operating cell temperature) and Low E (low irradiance). The current thesis deals with the power rating of PV modules at twenty-three test conditions as per the recent International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard of IEC 61853 &ndash; 1. In the current research, an automation software tool developed by a previous researcher of ASU &ndash; PRL (ASU Photovoltaic Reliability Laboratory) is validated at various stages. Also in the current research, the power rating of PV modules for four different manufacturers is carried out according to IEC …

Contributors
Vemula, Meena Gupta, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Macia, Narcio F., et al.
Created Date
2012

This study evaluates the potential profitability and environmental benefit available by providing renewable energy from solar- or wind-generated sources to electric vehicle drivers at public charging stations, also known as electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE), in the U.S. Past studies have shown above-average interest in renewable energy by drivers of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), though no study has evaluated the profitability and environmental benefit of selling renewable energy to PEV drivers at public EVSE. Through an online survey of 203 U.S.-wide PEV owners and lessees, information was collected on (1) current PEV and EVSE usage, (2) potential willingness to pay …

Contributors
Nienhueser, Ian Andrew, Qiu, Yueming, Rogers, Bradley, et al.
Created Date
2014

A basic theory and terminology that comprehensively applies to all different types of contacts in silicon solar cells has, thus far, been elusive. While the well established diode model has been applied to many of the complex contacts, the theory is not adequate to intuitively describe the characteristics of novel contacts. This thesis shows that the many desirable characteristics of contacts that are discussed in the literature—carrier selectivity, passivation, and low majority carrier conductance, key among them—originate from the resistance to electrons and holes in the contact. These principles are applied to describe a few popular contact technologies in order …

Contributors
Koswatta, Priyaranga Lakshitha, Holman, Zachary C, King, Richard, et al.
Created Date
2016

With the increasing penetration of Photovoltaic inverters, there is a necessity for recent PV inverters to have smart grid support features for increased power system reliability and security. The grid support features include voltage support, active and reactive power control. These support features mean that inverters should have bidirectional power and communication capabilities. The inverter should be able to communicate with the grid utility and other inverter modules. This thesis studies the real time simulation of smart inverters using PLECS Real Time Box. The real time simulation is performed as a Controller Hardware in the Loop (CHIL) real time simulation. …

Contributors
Thiagarajan, Ramanathan, Ayyanar, Raja, Lei, Qin, et al.
Created Date
2017

This is a two-part thesis assessing the long-term reliability of photovoltaic modules. Part 1: Manufacturing dependent reliability - Adapting FMECA for quality control in PV module manufacturing This part is aimed at introducing a statistical tool in quality assessments in PV module manufacturing. Developed jointly by ASU-PRL and Clean Energy Associates, this work adapts the Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis (FMECA, IEC 60812) to quantify the impact of failure modes observed at the time of manufacturing. The method was developed through analysis of nearly 9000 modules at the pre-shipment evaluation stage in module manufacturing facilities across south east Asia. …

Contributors
Pore, Shantanu Shirish, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Green, Matthew, et al.
Created Date
2017

Photovoltaics (PV) is an important and rapidly growing area of research. With the advent of power system monitoring and communication technology collectively known as the "smart grid," an opportunity exists to apply signal processing techniques to monitoring and control of PV arrays. In this paper a monitoring system which provides real-time measurements of each PV module's voltage and current is considered. A fault detection algorithm formulated as a clustering problem and addressed using the robust minimum covariance determinant (MCD) estimator is described; its performance on simulated instances of arc and ground faults is evaluated. The algorithm is found to perform …

Contributors
Braun, Henry Carlton, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2012

To increase the deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems, a higher level of performance for PV modules should be sought. Soiling, or dust accumulation on the PV modules, is one of the conditions that negatively affect the performance of the PV modules by reducing the light incident onto the surface of the PV module. This thesis presents two studies that focus on investigating the soiling effect on the performance of the PV modules installed in Metro Phoenix area. The first study was conducted to investigate the optimum cleaning frequency for cleaning PV modules installed in Mesa, AZ. By monitoring the soiling …

Contributors
Naeem, Mohammad, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Rogers, Bradley, et al.
Created Date
2014

This is a two-part thesis. Part 1 of this thesis investigates the influence of spatial temperature distribution on the accuracy of performance data of photovoltaic (PV) modules in outdoor conditions and provides physical approaches to improve the spatial temperature distribution of the test modules so an accurate performance data can be obtained in the field. Conventionally, during outdoor performance testing, a single thermocouple location is used on the backsheet or back glass of a test module. This study clearly indicates that there is a large spatial temperature difference between various thermocouple locations within a module. Two physical approaches or configurations …

Contributors
Umachandran, Neelesh, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Wang, Liping, et al.
Created Date
2015

While the implementation of both mild hybrid and start-stop technology is widespread as a factory option in newer vehicles, the adaptation of hybrid technology to older or unequipped vehicles has not been fully realized. As such, a straight forward hybrid conversion system that is easily adapted to different vehicles regardless of drivetrain configuration, has been developed and applied to a test vehicle for less than $2,000. System performance was recorded both before and after hybridization using real world drive cycle tracking charts. The vehicle established a fuel economy baseline of 22.93 mpg, and achieved 26.58 mpg after the conversion. This …

Contributors
Beeney, Tyler, Rogers, Bradley, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, et al.
Created Date
2012

Solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment has grown at unprecedented rates since the early 2000s. As the global PV market increases, so will the volume of decommissioned PV panels. Growing PV panel waste presents a new environmental challenge, but also unprecedented opportunities to create value and pursue new economic avenues. Currently, in the United States, there are no regulations for governing the recycling of solar panels and the recycling process varies by the manufacturer. To bring in PV specific recycling regulations, whether the PV panels are toxic to the landfills, is to be determined. Per existing EPA regulations, PV panels are categorized …

Contributors
Krishnamurthy, Raghav, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Srinivasan, Devarajan, et al.
Created Date
2017

Objective of the study is to get a clear idea on the cyclic performance of duty operation of Batteries. Batteries are an integral part of solar plants and wind energy farms due to the fact that energy storage is vital in these places. Various types of losses related to the performance are clearly analyzed and studied. Assessment of State Of Health and State Of Charge is critical in order to maximize the performance and lifetime of a battery. Batteries were subjected to temperature and charge/discharge rate variations and found that the state of health degradation was severe at high temperature …

Contributors
Ganeshram, Prashanth, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Peng, Xihong, et al.
Created Date
2014

Novel materials for Li-ion batteries is one of the principle thrust areas for current research in energy storage, more so than most, considering its widespread use in portable electronic gadgets and plug-in electric and hybrid cars. One of the major limiting factors in a Li-ion battery's energy density is the low specific capacities of the active materials in the electrodes. In the search for high-performance anode materials for Li-ion batteries, many alternatives to carbonaceous materials have been studied. Both cubic and amorphous silicon can reversibly alloy with lithium and have a theoretical capacity of 3500 mAh/g, making silicon a potential …

Contributors
Raghavan, Rahul, Chan, Candace K, Crozier, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2013

The operating temperature of photovoltaic (PV) modules is affected by external factors such as irradiance, wind speed and ambient temperature as well as internal factors like material properties and design properties. These factors can make a difference in the operating temperatures between cells within a module and between modules within a plant. This is a three-part thesis. Part 1 investigates the behavior of temperature distribution of PV cells within a module through outdoor temperature monitoring under various operating conditions (Pmax, Voc and Isc) and examines deviation in the temperature coefficient values pertaining to this temperature variation. ANOVA, a statistical tool, …

Contributors
PAVGI, ASHWINI, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Phelan, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2016

The building sector is one of the main energy consumers within the USA. Energy demand by this sector continues to increase because new buildings are being constructed faster than older ones are retired. Increase in energy demand, in addition to a number of other factors such as the finite nature of fossil fuels, population growth, building impact on global climate change, and energy insecurity and independence has led to the increase in awareness towards conservation through the design of energy efficient buildings. Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB), a highly efficient building that produces as much renewable energy as it consumes …

Contributors
Ben Salamah, Fahad, Bryan, Harvey, Reddy, T. Agami, et al.
Created Date
2016

Second-generation biofuel feedstocks are currently grown in land-based systems that use valuable resources like water, electricity and fertilizer. This study investigates the potential of near-shore marine (ocean) seawater filtration as a source of planktonic biomass for biofuel production. Mixed marine organisms in the size range of 20µm to 500µm were isolated from the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) seawater filtration system during weekly backwash events between the months of April and August, 2011. The quantity of organic material produced was determined by sample combustion and calculation of ash-free dry weights. Qualitative investigation required density gradient separation with the heavy …

Contributors
Pierre, Christoph Roger, Olson, Larry, Sommerfeld, Milton, et al.
Created Date
2011

To address sustainability issues in wastewater treatment (WWT), Siemens Water Technologies (SWT) has designed a "hybrid" process that couples common activated sludge (AS) and anaerobic digestion (AD) technologies with the novel concepts of AD sludge recycle and biosorption. At least 85% of the hybrid's AD sludge is recycled to the AS process, providing additional sorbent for influent particulate chemical oxygen demand (PCOD) biosorption in contact tanks. Biosorbed PCOD is transported to the AD, where it is converted to methane. The aim of this study is to provide mass balance and microbial community analysis (MCA) of SWT's two hybrid and one …

Contributors
Young, Michelle Nichole, Rittmann, Bruce E., Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2011

As sunlight is an ideal source of energy on a global scale, there are several approaches being developed to harvest it and convert it to a form that can be used. One of these is though mimicking the processes in natural photosynthesis. Artificial photosynthetic systems include dye sensitized solar cells for the conversion of sunlight to electricity, and photoelectrosynthetic cells which use sunlight to drive water oxidation and hydrogen production to convert sunlight to energy stored in fuel. Both of these approaches include the process of the conversion of light energy into chemical potential in the form of a charge-separated …

Contributors
Antoniuk-Pablant, Antaeres, Gust, Devens, Moore, Ana L, et al.
Created Date
2015

Learning from the anatomy of leaves, a new approach to bio-inspired passive evaporative cooling is presented that utilizes the temperature-responsive properties of PNIPAm hydrogels. Specifically, an experimental evaporation rate from the polymer, PNIPAm, is determined within an environmental chamber, which is programmed to simulate temperature and humidity conditions common in Phoenix, Arizona in the summer. This evaporation rate is then used to determine the theoretical heat transfer through a layer of PNIPAm that is attached to an exterior wall of a building within a ventilated cavity in Phoenix. The evaporation of water to the air gap from the polymer layer …

Contributors
Bradford, Katherine, Reddy, T A, Bryan, Harvey, et al.
Created Date
2018

This dissertation examines the nexus of three trends in electricity systems transformations underway worldwide—the scale-up of renewable energy, regionalization, and liberalization. Interdependent electricity systems are being envisioned that require partnership and integration across power disparities. This research explores how actors in the Mediterranean region envisioned a massive scale-up of renewable energy within a single electricity system and market across Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. It asks: How are regional sociotechnical systems envisioned? What are the anticipated consequences of a system for a region with broad disparities and deep sociopolitical differences? What can be learned about energy justice by …

Contributors
Moore, Sharlissa, Hackett, Ed J., Minteer, Ben, et al.
Created Date
2015