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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Subject
Date Range
2011 2019


Research has shown roofing systems with high solar reflectance and thermal emissivity lead to less heat absorption, a consequential reduction in cooling load demand, and a resultant reduction on energy expenditure. Studies on energy savings from cool roof coatings have been conducted for decades and when compared to more traditional roofing systems have demonstrated energy savings ranging from 2-40%, with average savings estimated at 20%. The 20% average is widely used by cool roof industry professionals, designers, and contractors to market and sell the technology in the commercial sector to owners and owner representatives researching new roofs. While the 20% …

Contributors
Haverstic, Preston Todd, Sullivan, Kenneth, Okamura, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2016

Dwindling energy resources and associated environmental costs have resulted in a serious need to design and construct energy efficient buildings. One of the strategies to develop energy efficient structural materials is through the incorporation of phase change materials (PCM) in the host matrix. This research work presents details of a finite element-based framework that is used to study the thermal performance of structural precast concrete wall elements with and without a layer of phase change material. The simulation platform developed can be implemented for a wide variety of input parameters. In this study, two different locations in the continental United …

Contributors
Hembade, Lavannya, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2012

This study explores an innovative framework for a self-sustained traffic operations system using vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications alone. The proposed framework is envisioned as the foundation to an alternative or supplemental traffic operation and management system, which could be particularly helpful under abnormal traffic conditions caused by unforeseen disasters and special events. Its two major components, a distributed traffic monitoring and platoon information aggregation system and a platoon-based automated intersection control system, are investigated in this study. The distributed traffic monitoring and platoon information aggregation system serves as the foundation. Specifically, each equipped vehicle, through the distributed protocols developed, keeps track …

Contributors
Li, Peiheng, Lou, Yingyan, Zhou, Xuesong, et al.
Created Date
2017

Composite materials are now beginning to provide uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems such as airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. These structural systems are often subjected to impact loads and there is a pressing need for accurate prediction of deformation, damage and failure. There are numerous material models that have been developed to analyze the dynamic impact response of polymer matrix composites. However, there are key features that are missing in those models that prevent them from providing accurate predictive capabilities. In this dissertation, a general purpose orthotropic elasto-plastic …

Contributors
Hoffarth, Canio, Rajan, Subramaniam, Goldberg, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2016

Modern intelligent transportation systems (ITS) make driving more efficient, easier, and safer. Knowledge of real-time traffic conditions is a critical input for operating ITS. Real-time freeway traffic state estimation approaches have been used to quantify traffic conditions given limited amount of data collected by traffic sensors. Currently, almost all real-time estimation methods have been developed for estimating laterally aggregated traffic conditions in a roadway segment using link-based models which assume homogeneous conditions across multiple lanes. However, with new advances and applications of ITS, knowledge of lane-based traffic conditions is becoming important, where the traffic condition differences among lanes are recognized. …

Contributors
Zhou, Zhuoyang, Mirchandani, Pitu, Askin, Ronald, et al.
Created Date
2015

Transportation systems in the U.S. are in a poor state of disrepair. A significant investment is needed to replace or rehabilitate current transportation infrastructure. Currently, transportation investments are lackluster with the recession of 2008 heavily impacting transportation spending, inciting deficits and budgetary cuts at state and federal government levels. As a result, policy makers and public officials are increasingly looking for innovative financing and alternative delivery methods to supplement traditional financing and delivery for transportation projects. Subsequently, the number of public-private partnerships (PPP or P3) has increased substantially over the last two decades. There is a growing need to quantify …

Contributors
Ramsey, David Wayne, El Asmar, Mounir, Kaloush, Kamil, et al.
Created Date
2016

Real-time information systems are being used widely around the world to mitigate the adverse impacts of congestion and events that contribute to network delay. It is important that transportation modeling tools be able to accurately model the impacts of real-time information provision. Such planning tools allow the simulation of the impacts of various real-time information systems, and the design of traveler information systems that can minimize impacts of congestion and network disruptions. Such modeling tools would also be helpful in planning emergency response services as well as evacuation scenarios in the event of a natural disaster. Transportation modeling tools currently …

Contributors
You, Daehyun, Pendyala, Ram M, Kaloush, Kamil E, et al.
Created Date
2014

In this thesis, the author described a new genetic algorithm based on the idea: the better design could be found at the neighbor of the current best design. The details of the new genetic algorithm are described, including the rebuilding process from Micro-genetic algorithm and the different crossover and mutation formation. Some popular examples, including two variable function optimization and simple truss models are used to test this algorithm. In these study, the new genetic algorithm is proved able to find the optimized results like other algorithms. Besides, the author also tried to build one more complex truss model. After …

Contributors
Ding, Xiaosu, Hjelmstad, keith, Neithalath, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2015

Road networks are valuable assets that deteriorate over time and need to be preserved to an acceptable service level. Pavement management systems and pavement condition assessment have been implemented widely to routinely evaluate the condition of the road network, and to make recommendations for maintenance and rehabilitation in due time and manner. The problem with current practices is that pavement evaluation requires qualified raters to carry out manual pavement condition surveys, which can be labor intensive and time consuming. Advances in computing capabilities, image processing and sensing technologies has permitted the development of vehicles equipped with such technologies to assess …

Contributors
Medina Campillo, Jose Roberto, Kaloush, Kamil E, Underwood, Benjamin S, et al.
Created Date
2018

The computation of the fundamental mode in structural moment frames provides valuable insight into the physical response of the frame to dynamic or time-varying loads. In standard practice, it is not necessary to solve for all n mode shapes in a structural system; it is therefore practical to limit the system to some determined number of r significant mode shapes. Current building codes, such as the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), require certain class of structures to obtain 90% effective mass participation as a way to estimate the accuracy of a solution for base shear motion. A parametric study …

Contributors
Grantham, Jonathan Karl, Fafitis, Apostolos, Attard, Thomas, et al.
Created Date
2014

Institutions of higher education, particularly those with large student enrollments, constitute special generators that contribute in a variety of ways to the travel demand in a region. Despite the importance of university population travel characteristics in understanding and modeling activity-travel patterns and mode choice behavior in a region, such populations remain under-studied. As metropolitan planning organizations continue to improve their regional travel models by incorporating processes and parameters specific to major regional special generators, university population travel characteristics need to be measured and special submodels that capture their behavior need to be developed. The research presented herein begins by documenting …

Contributors
Volosin, Sarah Elia, Pendyala, Ram M, Kaloush, Kamil E, et al.
Created Date
2014

This dissertation research contributes to the advancement of activity-based travel forecasting models along two lines of inquiry. First, the dissertation aims to introduce a continuous-time representation of activity participation in tour-based model systems in practice. Activity-based travel demand forecasting model systems in practice today are largely tour-based model systems that simulate individual daily activity-travel patterns through the prediction of day-level and tour-level activity agendas. These tour level activity-based models adopt a discrete time representation of activities and sequence the activities within tours using rule-based heuristics. An alternate stream of activity-based model systems mostly confined to the research arena are activity …

Contributors
Garikapati, Venu Madhav, Pendyala, Ram M, Zhou, Xuesong, et al.
Created Date
2014

Owner organizations in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry are presented with a wide variety of project delivery approaches. Implementation of these approaches, while enticing due to their potential to save money, reduce schedule delays, or improve quality, is extremely difficult to accomplish and requires a concerted change management effort. Research in the field of organizational behavior cautions that perhaps more than half of all organizational change efforts fail to accomplish their intended objectives. This study utilizes an action research approach to analyze change message delivery within owner organizations, model owner project team readiness and adoption of change, and …

Contributors
Lines, Brian, Sullivan, Kenneth, Wiezel, Avi, et al.
Created Date
2014

The alkali activation of aluminosilicate materials as binder systems derived from industrial byproducts have been extensively studied due to the advantages they offer in terms enhanced material properties, while increasing sustainability by the reuse of industrial waste and byproducts and reducing the adverse impacts of OPC production. Fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag are commonly used for their content of soluble silica and aluminate species that can undergo dissolution, polymerization with the alkali, condensation on particle surfaces and solidification. The following topics are the focus of this thesis: (i) the use of microwave assisted thermal processing, in addition …

Contributors
Chowdhury, Ussala, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramanium D., et al.
Created Date
2013

Traffic congestion is a major externality in modern transportation systems with negative economic, environmental and social impacts. Freeway bottlenecks are one of the key elements besides the demand for travel by automobiles that determine the extent of congestion. The primary objective of this research is to provide a better understanding of factors for variations in bottleneck discharge rates. Specifically this research seeks to (i) develop a methodology comparable to the rigorous methods to identify bottlenecks and measure capacity drop and its temporal (day to day) variations in a region, (ii) understand the variations in discharge rate of a freeway weaving …

Contributors
KANDALA, SRINIVASA SRIVATSAV, Ahn, Soyoung, Pendyala, Ram, et al.
Created Date
2014

The higher education sector is always changing and seeks for robust methodologies to make education more effective and produce higher quality products which are the future professionals. While each student has different preference in learning, numerous forms of instructional strategies are adopted to engage students in varied ways. Existing literature has studied the impacts of various teaching strategies on students’ performance. Previous studies did not figure out if personal characteristics such as honestly, emotionality, etc. have any impacts on the students’ academic performance. This master thesis uses the detailed information gathered through surveying construction students and analyses such data to …

Contributors
Dadvar, Atefeh, Sullivan, Kenneth, Smithwick, Jake, et al.
Created Date
2017

Alternative Project Delivery Methods (APDMs), namely Design Build (DB) and Construction Manager at Risk (CMAR), grew out of the need to find a more efficient project delivery approach than the traditional Design Bid Build (DBB) form of delivery. After decades of extensive APDM use, there have been many studies focused on the use of APDMs and project outcomes. Few of these studies have reached a level of statistical significance to make conclusive observations about APDMs. This research effort completes a comprehensive study for use in the horizontal transportation construction market, providing a better basis for decisions on project delivery method …

Contributors
Bingham, Evan Dale, Gibson Jr., G. Edward, El Asmar, Mounir, et al.
Created Date
2014

A simplified bilinear moment-curvature model are derived based on the moment-curvature response generated from a parameterized stress-strain response of strain softening and or strain-hardening material by Dr. Barzin Mobasher and Dr. Chote Soranakom. Closed form solutions are developed for deflection calculations of determinate beams subjected to usual loading patterns at any load stage. The solutions are based on a bilinear moment curvature response characterized by the flexural crack initiation and ultimate capacity based on a deflection hardening behavior. Closed form equations for deflection calculation are presented for simply supported beams under three point bending, four point bending, uniform load, concentrated …

Contributors
Wang, Xinmeng, Mobasher, Barzin, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2015

The structural design of pavements in both highways and airfields becomes complex when one considers environmental effects and ground water table variation. Environmental effects have been incorporated on the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) but little has been done to incorporate environmental effects on airfield design. This work presents a developed code produced from this research study called ZAPRAM, which is a mechanistically based pavement model based upon Limiting Strain Criteria in airfield HMA pavement design procedures. ZAPRAM is capable of pavement and airfield design analyses considering environmental effects. The program has been coded in Visual Basic and implemented …

Contributors
Salim, Ramadan, Zapata, Claudia, Witczak, Matthew, et al.
Created Date
2011

In this era of high-tech computer advancements and tremendous programmable computer capabilities, construction cost estimation still remains a knowledge-intensive and experience driven task. High reliance on human expertise, and less accuracy in the decision support tools render cost estimation error prone. Arriving at accurate cost estimates is of paramount importance because it forms the basis of most of the financial, design, and executive decisions concerning the project at subsequent stages. As its unique contribution to the body of knowledge, this paper analyzes the deviations and behavior of costs associated with different construction activities involved in commercial office tenant improvement (TI) …

Contributors
Ghosh, Arunabho, Grau, David, Ayer, Steven, et al.
Created Date
2016

The main objective of this study is to investigate the mechanical behaviour of cementitious based composites subjected dynamic tensile loading, with effects of strain rate, temperature, addition of short fibres etc. Fabric pullout model and tension stiffening model based on finite difference model, previously developed at Arizona State University were used to help study the bonding mechanism between fibre and matrix, and the phenomenon of tension stiffening due to the addition of fibres and textiles. Uniaxial tension tests were conducted on strain-hardening cement-based composites (SHCC), textile reinforced concrete (TRC) with and without addition of short fibres, at the strain rates …

Contributors
Yao, Yiming, Barzin, Mobasher, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2013

The public has expressed a growing desire for more sustainable and green technologies to be implemented in society. Bio-cementation is a method of soil improvement that satisfies this demand for sustainable and green technology. Bio-cementation can be performed by using microbes or free enzymes which precipitate carbonate within the treated soil. These methods are referred to as microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) and enzyme induced carbonate precipitation (EICP). The precipitation of carbonate is the formation of crystalline minerals that fill the void spaces within a body of soil. This thesis investigates the application of EICP in a soil collected from …

Contributors
Ross, Johnathan, Kavazanjian, Edward, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2018

In enzyme induced carbonate precipitation (EICP), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation is catalyzed by plant-derived urease enzyme. In EICP, urea hydrolyzes into ammonia and inorganic carbon, altering geochemical conditions in a manner that promotes carbonate mineral precipitation. The calcium source in this process comes from calcium chloride (CaCl2) in aqueous solution. Research work conducted for this dissertation has demonstrated that EICP can be employed for a variety of geotechnical purposes, including mass soil stabilization, columnar soil stabilization, and stabilization of erodible surficial soils. The research presented herein also shows that the optimal ratio of urea to CaCl2 at ionic strengths of …

Contributors
Hamdan, Nasser, Kavazanjian Jr., Edward, Rittmann, Bruce, et al.
Created Date
2015

Nanotechnology has been applied to many areas such as medicine, manufacturing, catalysis, food, cosmetics, and energy since the beginning 21st century. However, the application of nanotechnology to geotechnical engineering has not received much attention. This research explored the technical benefits and the feasibility of applying nanoparticles in geotechnical engineering. Specific studies were conducted by utilizing high-pressure devices, axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA), microfluidics, time-lapse technology, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to develop experiments. The effects of nanoparticle on modifying interfacial tension, wettability, viscosity, sweep efficiency and surface attraction forces were investigated. The results show that nanoparticles mixed in water can significantly …

Contributors
Zheng, Xianglei, Jang, Jaewon, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2016

Asphalt concrete is a non-homogenous viscoelastic material; its behavior depends on the properties of the asphalt binder and the aggregate skeleton. The two major distresses in flexible pavements, fatigue cracking and rutting, have different mechanisms in that the way binders and mixtures behavior are related differ. Further complicating the issues is that distresses in asphalt pavement are dependent on climate, pavement structure, and traffic loads, in addition to factors such as properties of the asphalt mixture itself. Hence, to characterize the multiscale mechanics associated with binder to mixture behaviors, researchers characterized the fatigue and rutting resistance of asphalt binders and …

Contributors
Salim, Ramadan A, Underwood, Shane, Kaloush, Kamil, et al.
Created Date
2019

Planning efforts conducted during the early stages of a construction project, known as front end planning (FEP), have a large impact on project success and significant influence on the configuration of the final project. As a key component of FEP, front end engineering design (FEED) plays an essential role in the overall success of large industrial projects. The primary objective of this dissertation focuses on FEED maturity and accuracy and its impact on project performance. The author was a member of the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Research Team (RT) 331, which was tasked to develop the FEED Maturity and Accuracy …

Contributors
Yussef, Abdulrahman, Gibson, Jr., G. Edward, El Asmar, Mounir, et al.
Created Date
2019

Research has shown that construction projects in Saudi Arabia have had a perceived poor performance for the past three decades, from 1970-2016. The Saudi construction industry relies on a Contractor Classification System (CCS) to determine contractors’ capabilities, and prevent underperformance. Through this study, a survey was conducted among persons involved in the Saudi Arabian construction industry to identify the perception of the performance of the Saudi Arabian construction industry, and the satisfaction with the CCS. The results of the survey showed that 71.59% of the participants agreed that the CCS does not accurately assess contractors’ capabilities for projects they are …

Contributors
Almutairi, Saud, Kashiwagi, Dean, Kashiwagi, Jacob, et al.
Created Date
2017

Recent studies have identified that contractors in the Saudi construction industry are not the main party that cause risks as owners and other parties have the major share of causing risks. However, with the identification that risks out of contractors’ control are a leading cause of low performance, there is a lack of efficient risk mitigation practices in Saudi to manage these risks. The main aim of this dissertation is to assess the current practices applied by contractors to minimize risk out of their control and develop a risk mitigation model to manage these risks. The main objectives of the …

Contributors
Algahtany, Mohammed, Sullivan, Kenneth, Kashiwagi, Dean, et al.
Created Date
2018

Civil infrastructures undergo frequent spatial changes such as deviations between as-designed model and as-is condition, rigid body motions of the structure, and deformations of individual elements of the structure, etc. These spatial changes can occur during the design phase, the construction phase, or during the service life of a structure. Inability to accurately detect and analyze the impact of such changes may miss opportunities for early detections of pending structural integrity and stability issues. Commercial Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools could hardly track differences between as-designed and as-built conditions as they mainly focus on design changes and rely on project …

Contributors
KALASAPUDI, VAMSI SAI, TANG, PINGBO, CHONG, OSWALD, et al.
Created Date
2017

The need for rapid, specific and sensitive assays that provide a detection of bacterial indicators are important for monitoring water quality. Rapid detection using biosensor is a novel approach for microbiological testing applications. Besides, validation of rapid methods is an obstacle in adoption of such new bio-sensing technologies. In this study, the strategy developed is based on using the compound 4-methylumbelliferyl glucuronide (MUG), which is hydrolyzed rapidly by the action of E. coli β-D-glucuronidase (GUD) enzyme to yield a fluorogenic product that can be quantified and directly related to the number of E. coli cells present in water samples. The …

Contributors
Hesari, Nikou, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Alum, Absar, et al.
Created Date
2015

Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) is attracting increasing attention as a sustainable means of soil improvement. While there are several possible MICP mechanisms, microbial denitrification has the potential to become one of the preferred methods for MICP because complete denitrification does not produce toxic byproducts, readily occurs under anoxic conditions, and potentially has a greater carbonate yield per mole of organic electron donor than other MICP processes. Denitrification may be preferable to ureolytic hydrolysis, the MICP process explored most extensively to date, as the byproduct of denitrification is benign nitrogen gas, while the chemical pathways involved in hydrolytic ureolysis …

Contributors
Hamdan, Nasser, Kavazanjian, Edward, Rittmann, Bruce E, et al.
Created Date
2013

As a developing nation, China is currently faced with the challenge of providing safe, reliable and adequate energy resources to the county's growing urban areas as well as to its expanding rural populations. To meet this demand, the country has initiated massive construction projects to expand its national energy infrastructure, particularly in the form of natural gas pipeline. The most notable of these projects is the ongoing West-East Gas Pipeline Project. This project is currently in its third phase, which will supply clean and efficient natural gas to nearly sixty million users located in the densely populated Yangtze River Delta. …

Contributors
Carlin, Maureen Cassin, Ariaratnam, Samuel T, Chong, Oswald, et al.
Created Date
2014

Public-Private Partnerships (P3) in North America have become a trend in the past two decades and are gaining attention in the transportation industry with some large scale projects being delivered by this approach. This is due to the need for alternative funding sources for public projects and for improved efficiency of these projects in order to save time and money. Several research studies have been done, including mature markets in Europe and Australia, on the cost and schedule performance of transportation projects but no similar study has been conducted in North America. This study focuses on cost and schedule performance …

Contributors
Bansal, Ankit, Chasey, Allan, Gibson, Edd, et al.
Created Date
2012

Infrastructure are increasingly being recognized as too rigid to quickly adapt to a changing climate and a non-stationary future. This rigidness poses risks to and impacts on infrastructure service delivery and public welfare. Adaptivity in infrastructure is critical for managing uncertainties to continue providing services, yet little is known about how infrastructure can be made more agile and flexible towards improved adaptive capacity. A literature review identified approximately fifty examples of novel infrastructure and technologies which support adaptivity through one or more of ten theoretical competencies of adaptive infrastructure. From these examples emerged several infrastructure forms and possible strategies for …

Contributors
Gilrein, Erica, Chester, Mikhail, Garcia, Margaret, et al.
Created Date
2018

Current information on successful leadership and management practices is contradictory and inconsistent, which makes difficult to understand what successful business practices are and what are not. The purpose of this study is to identify a simple process that quickly and logically identifies consistent and inconsistent leadership and management criteria. The hypothesis proposed is that Information Measurement Theory (IMT) along with the Kashiwagi Solution Model (KSM) is a methodology than can differentiate between accurate and inaccurate principles the initial part of the study about authors in these areas show how information is conflictive, and also served to establish an initial baseline …

Contributors
Reynolds, Harry, Kashiwagi, Dean, Sullivan, Kenneth, et al.
Created Date
2011

The demand for new highway infrastructure, the need to repair aging infrastructure, and the drive to optimize public expenditures on infrastructure have led transportation agencies toward alternative contracting methods (ACMs) such as design-build (DB) and construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC). U.S. transportation agencies have substantial experience with traditional design-bid-build delivery. To promote ACMs, the Federal Highway Administration and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCRHP) have published ACM guidance documents. However, the published material and research tend to focus on pre-award activities. The need for guidance on ACM post-award activities is confirmed in NCHRP’s request for a guidebook focusing on ACM …

Contributors
Papajohn, Dean, El Asmar, Mounir, Gibson, G. Edward, et al.
Created Date
2019

The performance of the Alpha Sprayed Polyurethane Foam (SPF) roofing system is perceived as not an economical option when compared to a 20-year modified bitumen roofing system. Today, the majority of roofs are being replaced, rather than newly installed. The coating manufacturer, Neogard, implemented the Alpha roofing program to identify the best contractors in the industry and to measure their roof performance. The Alpha roof system has shown consistent high performance on over 230 million square feet of surveyed roof. The author proposes to identify if the Alpha roof system is renewable, has proven performance that competes with the traditional …

Contributors
Zulanas IV, Charles Joseph, Kashiwagi, Dean T, Kashiwagi, Jacob S, et al.
Created Date
2017

The concept of Creep is a term used to define the tendency of stressed materials to develop an increasing strain through time under a sustained load, thus having an increase in deflection or having an elongation with time in relation to the short term strain. While the subject of compression creep of concrete is well developed, use of concrete under tension loads has been limited at best due to brittleness of concrete. However with the advent of using fiber reinforced concrete, more and more applications where concrete is expected to carry tensile loads due to incorporation of fibers is gaining …

Contributors
Gohel, Megha Rajendrakumar, Mobasher, Barzin, Dharmarajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2017

Crack sealing is considered one of the least expensive and cost effective maintenance activity used on pavements. In some cases, crack sealing suffers from premature failure due to various material, environmental, and construction issues. A survey that was conducted as part of this study showed that the highest sealant failure year occurring on the second year. Therefore, any attempt to increase the sealants’ service life by addressing and improving the sealant properties and their resistance to failure will benefit the effectiveness of this treatment. The goal behind this study was to evaluate the potential improvement in performance of hot applied …

Contributors
Thwaini, Talal, Kaloush, Kamil E., Mamlouk, Michael S., et al.
Created Date
2016

Over the last two decades, Alternative Project Delivery Methods (APDM), such as Design-Build (DB), have become more popular in the construction industry, specifically in the U.S., and the competition for APDM projects has risen among construction companies. The Engineering News Record (ENR) magazine analyzes DB firms and publishes the list of the top 100 every year. According to ENR articles and many scientific papers, the implementation of DB method has grown drastically over the last decade, however, information about growth trends depending on firm size and segment is lacking. Also missing is knowledge the future market trends over the next …

Contributors
Vashani, Hossein, El Asmar, Mounir, Ernzen, James, et al.
Created Date
2014

The activity-based approach to travel demand analysis and modeling, which has been developed over the past 30 years, has received tremendous success in transportation planning and policy analysis issues, capturing the multi-way joint relationships among socio-demographic, economic, land use characteristics, activity participation, and travel behavior. The development of synthesizing population with an array of socio-demographic and socio-economic attributes has drawn remarkable attention due to privacy and cost constraints in collecting and disclosing full scale data. Although, there has been enormous progress in producing synthetic population, there has been less progress in the development of population evolution modeling arena to forecast …

Contributors
Paul, Sanjay, Pendyala, Ram M, Kaloush, Kamil E, et al.
Created Date
2014

Laminated composite materials are used in aerospace, civil and mechanical structural systems due to their superior material properties compared to the constituent materials as well as in comparison to traditional materials such as metals. Laminate structures are composed of multiple orthotropic material layers bonded together to form a single performing part. As such, the layup design of the material largely influences the structural performance. Optimization techniques such as the Genetic Algorithm (GA), Differential Evolution (DE), the Method of Feasible Directions (MFD), and others can be used to determine the optimal laminate composite material layup. In this thesis, sizing, shape and …

Contributors
Mika, Krista Nicole, Rajan, Subramaniam, Neithalath, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2014

The main objective of this study is to investigate the behaviour and applications of strain hardening cement composites (SHCC). Application of SHCC for use in slabs of common configurations was studied and design procedures are prepared by employing yield line theory and integrating it with simplified tri-linear model developed in Arizona State University by Dr. Barzin Mobasher and Dr. Chote Soranakom. Intrinsic material property of moment-curvature response for SHCC was used to derive the relationship between applied load and deflection in a two-step process involving the limit state analysis and kinematically admissible displacements. For application of SHCC in structures such …

Contributors
Aswani, Karan, Mobasher, Barzin, Dharmarajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2014

Entering a new market in the construction industry is a complex task. Although many contractors have experienced the benefits of expanding their market offerings, many more have had unsuccessful experiences causing hardship for the entire organization. Standardized decision-making processes can help to increase the likelihood of success, but few specialty contractors have taken the time to develop a formal procedure. According to this research, only 6 percent of survey respondents and 7 percent of case study participants from the sheet metal industry have a formal decision process. Five sources of data (existing literature, industry survey, semi-structured interviews, factor prioritization workshops, …

Contributors
Sullivan, Jera Jo, El Asmar, Mounir, Gibson, G Edward, et al.
Created Date
2016

Public construction projects in Saudi Arabia have been experiencing performance issues for the past 30 years. There have been many research efforts and publications identifying the problem and potential causes, however, there have been minimal efforts identifying how to mitigate the problem and testing to validate proposed solutions. A literature search has shown that the academic research has had minimal impact in assisting the construction industry to improve its performance. This dissertation aimed to evaluate the impact of construction management research in Saudi construction industry (SCI), and to investigate barriers that hinder the diffusion of implementing the research outcomes in …

Contributors
Alhammadi, Yasir, Kashiwagi, Dean, Badger, William, et al.
Created Date
2017

Energy use within urban building stocks is continuing to increase globally as populations expand and access to electricity improves. This projected increase in demand could require deployment of new generation capacity, but there is potential to offset some of this demand through modification of the buildings themselves. Building stocks are quasi-permanent infrastructures which have enduring influence on urban energy consumption, and research is needed to understand: 1) how development patterns constrain energy use decisions and 2) how cities can achieve energy and environmental goals given the constraints of the stock. This requires a thorough evaluation of both the growth of …

Contributors
Reyna, Janet Lorel, Chester, Mikhail V, Gurney, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2016

A comprehensive study was performed on non-proprietary ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) material and several design methods were suggested based on numerous experimental results. Several sets of compression tests, direct tensile tests, and flexural tests were performed on UHPC to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the mechanical behavior of the fiber reinforced material. In addition to compressive tests, flexural tests, based on ASTM C1609 and EN 14651, were performed. The effect of the strain rate on the UHPC material was also investigated through the high-speed tensile tests at different strain rates. Alongside the usual measurement tools such as …

Contributors
Kianmofrad, Farrokh, Mobasher, Barzin, Rajan, Subramaniam Dharma, et al.
Created Date
2018

The current method of measuring thermal conductivity requires flat plates. For most common civil engineering materials, creating or extracting such samples is difficult. A prototype thermal conductivity experiment had been developed at Arizona State University (ASU) to test cylindrical specimens but proved difficult for repeated testing. In this study, enhancements to both testing methods were made. Additionally, test results of cylindrical testing were correlated with the results from identical materials tested by the Guarded Hot&ndashPlate; method, which uses flat plate specimens. In validating the enhancements made to the Guarded Hot&ndashPlate; and Cylindrical Specimen methods, 23 tests were ran on five …

Contributors
Morris, Derek Michael, Kaloush, Kamil E, Mobasher, Barzin, et al.
Created Date
2011

The accurate prediction of pavement network condition and performance is important for efficient management of the transportation infrastructure system. By reducing the error of the pavement deterioration prediction, agencies can save budgets significantly through timely intervention and accurate planning. The objective of this research study was to develop a methodology for calculating a pavement condition index (PCI) based on historical distress data collected in the databases from Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program and Minnesota Road Research (Mn/ROAD) project. Excel™ templates were developed and successfully used to import distress data from both databases and directly calculate PCIs for test sections. Pavement …

Contributors
Wu, Kan, Kaloush, Kamil E, Zhou, Xuesong, et al.
Created Date
2015

Laboratory assessment of crack resistance and propagation in asphalt concrete is a difficult task that challenges researchers and engineers. Several fracture mechanics based laboratory tests currently exist; however, these tests and subsequent analysis methods rely on elastic behavior assumptions and do not consider the time-dependent nature of asphalt concrete. The C* Line Integral test has shown promise to capture crack resistance and propagation within asphalt concrete. In addition, the fracture mechanics based C* parameter considers the time-dependent creep behavior of the materials. However, previous research was limited and lacked standardized test procedure and detailed data analysis methods were not fully …

Contributors
Stempihar, Jeffrey John, Kaloush, Kamil, Witczak, Matthew, et al.
Created Date
2013

Project teams expend substantial effort to develop scope definition during the front end planning phase of large, complex projects, but oftentimes neglect to sufficiently plan for small projects. An industry survey administered by the author showed that small projects make up 70-90 percent (by count) of all projects in the industrial construction sector, the planning of these project varies greatly, and that a consistent definition of “small industrial project” did not exist. This dissertation summarizes the motivations and efforts to develop a non-proprietary front end planning tool specifically for small industrial projects, namely the Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI) for …

Contributors
Collins, Wesley, Parrish, Kristen, Gibson, Jr., G. Edward, et al.
Created Date
2015

With the growth of global population, the demand for sustainable infrastructure is significantly increasing. Substructures with appropriate materials are required to be built in or above soil that can support the massive volume of construction demand. However, increased structural requirements often require ground improvement to increase the soil capacity. Moreover, certain soils are prone to liquefaction during an earthquake, which results in significant structural damage and loss of lives. While various soil treatment methods have been developed in the past to improve the soil’s load carrying ability, most of these traditional treatment methods have been found either hazardous and may …

Contributors
Yang, Pu, Neithalath, Narayanan, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2018

Concrete is the most widely used infrastructure material worldwide. Production of portland cement, the main binding component in concrete, has been shown to require significant energy and account for approximately 5-7% of global carbon dioxide production. The expected continued increased use of concrete over the coming decades indicates this is an ideal time to implement sustainable binder technologies. The current work aims to explore enhanced sustainability concretes, primarily in the context of limestone and flow. Aspects such as hydration kinetics, hydration product formation and pore structure add to the understanding of the strength development and potential durability characteristics of these …

Contributors
Vance, Kirk Erik, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2014

High performing and sustainable building certification bodies continue to update their requirements, leading to scope modification of certifications, and an increasing number of viable sources of environmental information for building materials. In conjunction, the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry is seeing increasing demand for such environmental product information. The industry and certifications are moving from using single attribute environmental information about building materials to lifecycle based information to inform their design decisions. This dissertation seeks to understand the current practices, and then focus on strategies to effectively utilize newer sources of environmental product information in high performance building design. …

Contributors
Burke, Rebekah, Parrish, Kristen, Gibson, G. Edward, et al.
Created Date
2018

The main objective of this study is to investigate drying properties and plastic shrinkage cracking resistance of fresh cement-based pastes reinforced with fibers and textiles. Naturally occurring mineral wollastonite has been studied independently as well as in combination with AR-glass textile. A series of blended mixes with Portland cement and wollastonite nano-fibers were developed and tested under low vacuum conditions to simulate severe evaporation conditions and expedite the drying process causing plastic shrinkage cracks. Cumulative moisture loss, evaporation rates, and diffusivity were analyzed by means of a 2-stage diffusion simulation approach, developed previously in Arizona State University. Effect of fiber-matrix …

Contributors
Kachala, Robert, Mobasher, Barzin, Dharmarajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2014

This dissertation presents a new methodology for the sustainable and optimal allocation of water for a river basin management area that maximizes sustainable net economic benefit over the long-term planning horizon. The model distinguishes between short and long-term planning horizons and goals using a short-term modeling component (STM) and a long term modeling component (LTM) respectively. An STM optimizes a monthly allocation schedule on an annual basis in terms of maximum net economic benefit. A cost of depletion based upon Hotelling’s exhaustible resource theory is included in the STM net benefit calculation to address the non-use value of groundwater. An …

Contributors
Oxley, Robert Louis, Mays, Larry, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2015

The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of polypropylene fiber morphology on the tensile response of cementitious composites. Two proprietary polypropylene fibers manufactured by BASF – MAC 2200CB, a crimped monofilament macro fiber and MF40, a bundled multi filament polypropylene made up of 500 filaments,40-micron diameter each were compared. The stiff structure and crimped geometry of MAC 2200 CB was studied in comparison with the multifilament MF40, which provide a higher surface area and a bundled fiber effect. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on individual fibers to study fiber strength and failure pattern at three different …

Contributors
Mehere, Himai Ashok, Mobasher, Barzin, Dharmarajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2017

Concrete is relatively brittle, and its tensile strength is typically only about one-tenth of its compressive strength. Regular concrete is therefore normally uses reinforcement steel bars to increase the tensile strength. It is becoming increasingly popular to use random distributed fibers as reinforcement and polymeric fibers is once such kind. In the case of polymeric fibers, due to hydrophobicity and lack of any chemical bond between the fiber and matrix, the weak interface zone limits the ability of the fibers to effectively carry the load that is on the matrix phase. Depending on the fiber’s surface asperity, shape, chemical nature, …

Contributors
Tiwari, Sanchay Sushil, Mobasher, Barzin, Neithalath, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2018

Highway safety is a major priority for the public and for transportation agencies. Pavement distresses directly affect ride quality, and indirectly contribute to driver distraction, vehicle operation, and accidents. In this study, analysis was performed on highways in the states of Arizona, North Carolina and Maryland for years between 2013 and 2015 in order to investigate the relationship between accident rate and pavement roughness and rutting. Two main types of data were collected: crash data from the accident records and roughness and rut depth data from the pavement management system database in each state. Crash rates were calculated using the …

Contributors
Vinayakamurthy, Mounica, Mamlouk, Michael S, Underwood, Benjamin, et al.
Created Date
2017

This study examines the outcomes of roundabouts in the State of Arizona. Two types of roundabouts are introduced in this study, single-lane roundabouts and double-lane roundabouts. A total of 17 roundabouts across Arizona were chosen upon several selection criteria and according to the availability of data for roundabouts in Arizona. Government officials and local cities’ personnel were involved in this work in order to achieve the most accurate results possible. This thesis focused mainly on the impact of roundabouts on the accident rates, accident severities, and any specific trends that could have been found. Scottsdale, Sedona, Phoenix, Prescott, and Cottonwood …

Contributors
Souliman, Beshoy, Mamlouk, Michael, Kaloush, Kamil, et al.
Created Date
2016

Urbanization and infrastructure development often brings dramatic changes in the surface and groundwater regimes. These changes in moisture content may be particularly problematic when subsurface soils are moisture sensitive such as expansive soils. Residential foundations such as slab-on ground may be built on unsaturated expansive soils and therefore have to resist the deformations associated with change in moisture content (matric suction) in the soil. The problem is more pronounced in arid and semi arid regions with drying periods followed by wet season resulting in large changes in soil suction. Moisture content change causes volume change in expansive soil which causes …

Contributors
Bharadwaj, Anushree, Houston, Sandra L, Welfert, Bruno, et al.
Created Date
2013

Electricity infrastructure vulnerabilities were assessed for future heat waves due to climate change. Critical processes and component relationships were identified and characterized with consideration for the terminal event of service outages, including cascading failures in transmission-level components that can result in blackouts. The most critical dependency identified was the increase in peak electricity demand with higher air temperatures. Historical and future air temperatures were characterized within and across Los Angeles County, California (LAC) and Maricopa County (Phoenix), Arizona. LAC was identified as more vulnerable to heat waves than Phoenix due to a wider distribution of historical temperatures. Two approaches were …

Contributors
Burillo, Daniel, Chester, Mikhail V, Ruddell, Benjamin, et al.
Created Date
2018

Electrospinning is a means of fabricating micron-scale diameter fiber networks with enmeshed nanomaterials. Polymeric nanocomposites for water treatment require the manipulation of fiber morphology to expose nanomaterial surface area while anchoring the nanomaterials and maintaining fiber integrity; that is the overarching goal of this dissertation. The first investigation studied the effect of metal oxide nanomaterial loadings on electrospinning process parameters such as critical voltage, viscosity, fiber diameter, and nanomaterial distribution. Increases in nanomaterial loading below 5% (w/v) were not found to affect critical voltage or fiber diameter. Nanomaterial dispersion was conserved throughout the process. Arsenic adsorption tests determined that the …

Contributors
Hoogesteijn von Reitzenstein, Natalia Virginia, Westerhoff, Paul, Hristovski, Kiril, et al.
Created Date
2018

Water resource management is becoming increasingly burdened by uncertain and fluctuating conditions resulting from climate change and population growth which place increased demands on already strained resources. Innovative water management schemes are necessary to address the reality of available water supplies. One such approach is the substitution of trade in virtual water for the use of local water supplies. This study provides a review of existing work in the use of virtual water and water footprint methods. Virtual water trade has been shown to be a successful method for addressing water scarcity and decreasing overall water consumption by shifting high …

Contributors
Adams, Elizabeth Anne, Ruddell, Benjamin L, Allenby, Braden R, et al.
Created Date
2013

This dissertation research is concerned with the study of two important traffic phenomena; merging and lane-specific traffic behavior. First, this research investigates merging traffic behavior through empirical analysis and evaluation of freeway merge ratios. Merges are important components of freeways and traffic behavior around them have a significant impact in the evolution and stability of congested traffic. At merges, drivers from conflicting traffic branches take turns to merge into a single stream at a rate referred to as the “merge ratio”. In this research, data from several freeway merges was used to evaluate existing macroscopic merge models and theoretical principles …

Contributors
Reina, Paulina, Ahn, Soyoung, Pendyala, Ram, et al.
Created Date
2015

This dissertation presents an investigation of calcium carbonate precipitation via hydrolysis of urea (ureolysis) catalyzed by plant-extracted urease enzyme for soil improvement. In this approach to soil improvement, referred to as enzyme induced carbonate precipitation (EICP), carbonate minerals are precipitated within the soil pores, cementing soil particles together and increasing the dilatancy of the soil. EICP is a bio-inspired solution to improving the properties of cohesionless soil in that no living organisms are engaged in the process, though it uses a biologically-derived material (urease enzyme). Over the past decade, research has commenced on biologically-mediated solutions like microbially induced carbonate precipitation …

Contributors
Almajed, Abdullah A., Kavazanjian, Edward, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2017

ABSTRACT Enzyme-Induced Carbonate Precipitation (EICP) using a plant-derived form of the urease enzyme to induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) shows promise as a method of stabilizing soil for the mitigation of fugitive dust. Fugitive dust is a significant problem in Arizona, particularly in Maricopa County. Maricopa County is an EPA air quality non-attainment zone, due primarily to fugitive dust, which presents a significant health risk to local residents. Conventional methods for fugitive dust control, including the application of water, are either ineffective in arid climates, very expensive, or limited to short term stabilization. Due to these limitations, engineers …

Contributors
Knorr, Brian Mark, Kavazanjian, Edward, Houston, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2014

Laterally-loaded short rigid drilled shaft foundations are the primary foundation used within the electric power transmission line industry. Performance of these laterally loaded foundations is dependent on modulus of the subsurface, which is directly measured by the Pressuremeter (PMT). The PMT test provides the lateral shear modulus at intermediate strains, an equivalent elastic modulus for lateral loading, which mimics the reaction of transmission line foundations within the elastic range of motion. The PMT test, however, is expensive to conduct and rarely performed. Correlations of PMT to blow counts and other index properties have been developed but these correlations have high …

Contributors
Evans, Ashley Elizabeth, Houston, Sandra, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2018

Vehicle type choice is a significant determinant of fuel consumption and energy sustainability; larger, heavier vehicles consume more fuel, and expel twice as many pollutants, than their smaller, lighter counterparts. Over the course of the past few decades, vehicle type choice has seen a vast shift, due to many households making more trips in larger vehicles with lower fuel economy. During the 1990s, SUVs were the fastest growing segment of the automotive industry, comprising 7% of the total light vehicle market in 1990, and 25% in 2005. More recently, due to rising oil prices, greater awareness to environmental sensitivity, the …

Contributors
Christian, Keith, Pendyala, Ram M, Chester, Mikhail, et al.
Created Date
2013

Given the importance of buildings as major consumers of resources worldwide, several organizations are working avidly to ensure the negative impacts of buildings are minimized. The U.S. Green Building Council's (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system is one such effort to recognize buildings that are designed to achieve a superior performance in several areas including energy consumption and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). The primary objectives of this study are to investigate the performance of LEED certified facilities in terms of energy consumption and occupant satisfaction with IEQ, and introduce a framework to assess the performance of …

Contributors
Chokor, Abbas, El Asmar, Mounir, Chong, Oswald, et al.
Created Date
2015

A large portion of the United States is known to have problematic expansive clay soil. These expansive clay soils can cause damage to major infrastructures such as roads and lightly loaded residential buildings. The shrinking or swelling potential of unsaturated expansive clay soils requires an understanding of unsaturated soil mechanics, such as matric suction profile and the site’s environmental condition, such as climate. In unsaturated soil engineering, the most used climatic parameter is Thornthwaite Moisture Index (TMI). Since its inception, there have been several versions of TMI models in the literature. Historically, TMI is used to predict suction parameters such …

Contributors
Singhar, Sai, Houston, Sandra, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2018

The Colorado River Basin (CRB) is the primary source of water in the southwestern United States. A key step to reduce the uncertainty of future streamflow projections in the CRB is to evaluate the performance of historical simulations of General Circulation Models (GCMs). In this study, this challenge is addressed by evaluating the ability of nineteen GCMs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Five (CMIP5) and four nested Regional Climate Models (RCMs) in reproducing the statistical properties of the hydrologic cycle and temperature in the CRB. To capture the transition from snow-dominated to semiarid regions, analyses are conducted by …

Contributors
Gautam, Jenita, Mascaro, Giuseppe, Vivoni, Enrique, et al.
Created Date
2018

The increasingly recurrent extraordinary flood events in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico have led to significant stakeholder interest in understanding the hydrologic response of the Santa Catarina watershed to extreme events. This study analyzes a flood mitigation strategy proposed by stakeholders through a participatory workshop and are assessed using two hydrological models: The Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) and the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS). The stakeholder-derived flood mitigation strategy consists of placing new hydraulic infrastructure in addition to the current flood controls in the basin. This is done by simulating three scenarios: (1) evaluate the …

Contributors
Cazares-Rodriguez, Jorge, Vivoni, Enrique, Wang, Zhihua, et al.
Created Date
2016

Heating of asphalt during production and construction causes the volatilization and oxidation of binders used in mixes. Volatilization and oxidation causes degradation of asphalt pavements by increasing the stiffness of the binders, increasing susceptibility to cracking and negatively affecting the functional and structural performance of the pavements. Degradation of asphalt binders by volatilization and oxidation due to high production temperature occur during early stages of pavement life and are known as Short Term Aging (STA). Elevated temperatures and increased exposure time to elevated temperatures causes increased STA of asphalt. The objective of this research was to investigate how elevated mixing …

Contributors
Lolly, Rubben Kofi, Kaloush, Kamil, Bearup, Wylie, et al.
Created Date
2013

Design and mitigation of infrastructure on expansive soils requires an understanding of unsaturated soil mechanics and consideration of two stress variables (net normal stress and matric suction). Although numerous breakthroughs have allowed geotechnical engineers to study expansive soil response to varying suction-based stress scenarios (i.e. partial wetting), such studies are not practical on typical projects due to the difficulties and duration needed for equilibration associated with the necessary laboratory testing. The current practice encompasses saturated “conventional” soil mechanics testing, with the implementation of numerous empirical correlations and approximations to obtain an estimate of true field response. However, it has been …

Contributors
Olaiz, Austin Hunter, Houston, Sandra, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2017

Being a remarkably versatile and inexpensive building material, concrete has found tremendous use in development of modern infrastructure and is the most widely used material in the world. Extensive research in the field of concrete has led to the development of a wide array of concretes with applications ranging from building of skyscrapers to paving of highways. These varied applications require special cementitious composites which can satisfy the demand for enhanced functionalities such as high strength, high durability and improved thermal characteristics among others. The current study focuses on the fundamental understanding of such functional composites, from their microstructural design …

Contributors
Arora, Aashay, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2018

A recent joint study by Arizona State University and the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) was conducted to evaluate certain Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) properties in the laboratory. WMA material was taken from an actual ADOT project that involved two WMA sections. The first section used a foamed-based WMA admixture, and the second section used a chemical-based WMA admixture. The rest of the project included control hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture. The evaluation included testing of field-core specimens and laboratory compacted specimens. The laboratory specimens were compacted at two different temperatures; 270 °F (132 °C) and 310 °F (154 °C). …

Contributors
Alossta, Abdulaziz Abdallah, Kaloush, Kamil E, Witczak, Matthew W, et al.
Created Date
2011

A series of experiments were conducted to support validation of a numerical model for the performance of geomembrane liners subject to waste settlement and seismic loading. These experiments included large scale centrifuge model testing of a geomembrane-lined landfill, small scale laboratory testing to get the relevant properties of the materials used in the large scale centrifuge model, and tensile tests on seamed geomembrane coupons. The landfill model in the large scale centrifuge test was built with a cemented sand base, a thin film NafionTM geomembrane liner, and a mixture of sand and peat for model waste. The centrifuge model was …

Contributors
Gutierrez, Angel, Kavazanjian, Edward, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2016

Composite materials are widely used in various structural applications, including within the automotive and aerospace industries. Unidirectional composite layups have replaced other materials such as metals due to composites’ high strength-to-weight ratio and durability. Finite-element (FE) models are actively being developed to model response of composite systems subjected to a variety of loads including impact loads. These FE models rely on an array of measured material properties as input for accuracy. This work focuses on an orthotropic plasticity constitutive model that has three components – deformation, damage and failure. The model relies on the material properties of the composite such …

Contributors
Schmidt, Nathan William, Rajan, Subramaniam, Neithalath, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2016

Concern and interest about the environment and ecologic systems have promoted the usage of earth as a construction material. Technology advancement has resulted in the evolution of adobe into compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEB). CSEB’s are prepared by compressing the soil-stabilizer mixture at a particular stress. In order to accomplish the required strength, cement has been used in a regular basis as stabilizing agent. It is of interest to find means to reduce the cement used in their construction without affecting its dry strength and durability. In this study, natural fibers were used along with lower proportions of cement to …

Contributors
Padmini Chikke Gowda, Rakshith, Zapata, Claudia, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2016

Deformation during hydration of concrete includes curling at joints and terminations. Previous research has explored mix designs, chemical additives, and other material factors to minimize slab distortion due to curling. This research study explores the development and use of externally applied silicone-based compounds after both the placing and cutting of joints. This exploratory study presents the results of controlled testing and a field study results that include distortion of contraction joints as measured with a Spectra LL300N under existing environmental conditions. Specifically, the study presents the results of a side-by-side test of two slabs, a base case, and a silicone-altered …

Contributors
Standage, Richard Mc Rae, Ernzen, James, Sullivan, Kenneth, et al.
Created Date
2019

The construction industry has accepted the uncertainty that is included with every project that is initiated. Because of the existing uncertainty, best practices with risk management are commonly recommended and educated to industry participants. However, the current status of the construction industry's ability to manage risk was found to be limited, unstructured, and inadequate. Furthermore, many barriers block organizations from implementing and improving risk management practices. A significant barrier with improving risk management methods is the lack of evidence that clearly demonstrates the need to improve risk management practices. Logical explanations of the benefits of risk management doesn't provide the …

Contributors
Perrenoud, Anthony, Sullivan, Kenneth T, Weizel, Avi, et al.
Created Date
2014

Asphalt concrete is the most recycled material in the United States and its reclamation allows the positive reuse of the constituent aggregates and asphalt binder, contributing to the long-term sustainability of the transportation infrastructure; decreasing costs, and the total energy and greenhouse emissions embodied into new materials and infrastructure. Although the national trends in Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements (RAP) usage are encouraging, the environmental conditions in Phoenix, Arizona are extreme and needs further consideration. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the viability of using RAP in future pavement maintenance and rehabilitation projects for the City. Agencies in the …

Contributors
ARREDONDO, GONZALO ZELADA, Kaloush, Kamil E., Mamlouk, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2018

All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects. These structural degradations are often imperceptible, but they can severely affect the structural performance of a component, thereby severely decreasing its service life. Although previous studies of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have revealed extensive prior knowledge on the parts of SHM processes, such as the operational evaluation, data processing, and feature extraction, few studies have been conducted from a systematical perspective, the statistical model development. The first part of this …

Contributors
Kim, Inho, Chattopadhyay, Aditi, Jiang, Hanqing, et al.
Created Date
2016

The application of fibers and other materials in asphalt mixes has been studied and applied over the past five decades in order to improve pavement performance around the world. This thesis highlights the characteristics and performance properties of modified asphalt mixes using a blend of polypropylene and aramid fibers, The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding different fiber dosages on the laboratory performance of both asphalt binder and mixture. The laboratory study was conducted on sixteen different dosages and blends of the fibers, with various combinations of polypropylene and aramid, using binder tests as …

Contributors
Alrajhi, Ashraf B. M., Kaloush, Kamil, Mamlouk, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2012

This study employs a finite element method based modeling of cementitious composite microstructure to study the effect of presence of inclusions on the stress distribution and the constitutive response of the composite. A randomized periodic microstructure combined with periodic boundary conditions forms the base of the finite element models. Inclusion properties of quartz and light weight aggregates of size 600μm obtained from literature were made use of to study the effect of their material (including inclusion stiffness, stiffness of interfacial transition zone and matrix stiffening) and geometric properties (volume fraction of inclusion, particle size distribution of inclusion and thickness of …

Contributors
Maroli, Amit, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramanium, et al.
Created Date
2016

With high potential for automobiles to cause air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, there is concern that automobiles accessing or egressing public transportation may cause emissions similar to regular automobile use. Due to limited literature and research that evaluates and discusses environmental impacts from first and last mile portions of transit trips, there is a lack of understanding on this topic. This research aims to comprehensively evaluate the life cycle impacts of first and last mile trips on multimodal transit. A case study of transit and automobile travel in the greater Los Angeles region is evaluated by using a comprehensive …

Contributors
Hoehne, Christopher Glenn, Chester, Mikhail V, Salon, Deborah, et al.
Created Date
2016

ABSTRACT This study examines the methodology for converting protected, permissive, and protected/permissive left-turn operation to flashing yellow arrow left-turn operation. This study addresses construction-related considerations, including negative offsets, lateral traffic signal head position, left-turn accident rates, crash modification factors and crash reductions factors. A total of 85 intersections in Glendale, Arizona were chosen for this study. These intersections included 45 “arterial to arterial” intersections (a major road intersecting with a major road) and 40 “arterial to collector” intersections (a major road intersecting with a minor road). This thesis is a clinical study of the field conversion to flashing yellow arrow …

Contributors
Chambers, Susan Elizabeth, Kaloush, Kamil, Mamlouk, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2016

Front end planning (FEP) is an essential and valuable process that helps identify risks early in the capital project planning phases. With effective FEP, risks can potentially be mitigated through development of detailed scope definition and subsequent efficient project resource use. The thesis describes the FEP process that has been developed over the past twenty years by the Construction Industry Institute (CII). Specifically, it details the FEP tools developed for early project planning and the data gathered to analyze the tools used within the CII community. Data from a March 2011 survey are given showing the tools commonly used, how …

Contributors
Bosfield, Roberta, Gibson, G.Edward, Wiezel, Avi, et al.
Created Date
2012

Managed Lanes (MLs) have been increasingly advocated as a way to reduce congestion. This study provides an innovative new tolling strategy for MLs called the travel time refund (TTR). The TTR is an “insurance” that ensures the ML user will arrive to their destination within a specified travel time savings, at an additional fee to the toll. If the user fails to arrive to their destination, the user is refunded the toll amount. To gauge interest in the TTR, a stated preference survey was developed and distributed throughout the Phoenix-metropolitan area. Over 2,200 responses were gathered with about 805 being …

Contributors
Archer, Melissa Elizabeth, Lou, Yingyan, Chester, Mikhail, et al.
Created Date
2015

Resilience is emerging as the preferred way to improve the protection of infrastructure systems beyond established risk management practices. Massive damages experienced during tragedies like Hurricane Katrina showed that risk analysis is incapable to prevent unforeseen infrastructure failures and shifted expert focus towards resilience to absorb and recover from adverse events. Recent, exponential growth in research is now producing consensus on how to think about infrastructure resilience centered on definitions and models from influential organizations like the US National Academy of Sciences. Despite widespread efforts, massive infrastructure failures in 2017 demonstrate that resilience is still not working, raising the question: …

Contributors
Eisenberg, Daniel Alexander, Seager, Thomas P., Park, Jeryang, et al.
Created Date
2018

The resilience of infrastructure essential to public health, safety, and well-being remains a priority among Federal agencies and institutions. National policies and guidelines enacted by these entities call for a holistic approach to resilience and effectively acknowledge the complex, multi-organizational, and socio-technical integration of critical infrastructure. However, the concept of holism is seldom discussed in literature. As a result, resilience knowledge among disciplines resides in near isolation, inhibiting opportunities for collaboration and offering partial solutions to complex problems. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge about how human resilience and the capacity to develop and comprehend increasing levels of complexity can influence, …

Contributors
Thomas, John E., Seager, Thomas P, Clark, Susan, et al.
Created Date
2017

Resilient acquisition of timely, detailed job site information plays a pivotal role in maintaining the productivity and safety of construction projects that have busy schedules, dynamic workspaces, and unexpected events. In the field, construction information acquisition often involves three types of activities including sensor-based inspection, manual inspection, and communication. Human interventions play critical roles in these three types of field information acquisition activities. A resilient information acquisition system is needed for safer and more productive construction. The use of various automation technologies could help improve human performance by proactively providing the needed knowledge of using equipment, improve the situation awareness …

Contributors
Zhang, Cheng, Tang, Pingbo, Cooke, Nancy, et al.
Created Date
2017

As more and more stadia structures nowadays are being built by making use of new high strength building materials which tend to be lighter than the "old" ones, composite systems and also the fact that engineers, contractors and clients want their structures as optimized as possible, in terms of minimal materials used, there is an inevitable side effect that comes with this. The result is that structures are more flexible, and thus they become susceptible to undergone vibration problems due to the action of dynamic loading. Pop/rock concerts, exhibitions, boxing matches, and so forth are staged to supplement the football/sport …

Contributors
Aldaco Lopez, Manuel, Hjelmstad, Keith D, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2014

The objective of the study was to examine the impact construction document deficiencies have on heavy/civil low-bid infrastructure projects. It encompasses the expertise of 202 heavy/civil construction professionals comprised of contactors and public project owners. The study was designed to determine the frequency and timing of when a contractor discovers construction document deficiencies on heavy/civil low bid projects. The information was correlated with further study data of when a contractor ultimately reports the discovered construction document deficiencies to the public project owner. This research data was compiled and analyzed to determine if contractors are withholding construction document deficiencies from public …

Contributors
Pesek, Anthony Edward, Sullivan, Kenneth, Badger, William, et al.
Created Date
2017

The major challenge for any pavement is the freight transport carried by the structure. This challenge is expected to increase in the coming years as freight movements are projected to grow and because these movements account for most of the load related distresses for the pavement. Substantial effort has been devoted to identifying the impacts of these future national freight trends with respect to the environment, economic growth, congestion, and reliability. These are all important aspects relating to the freight question, but an equally important and often overlooked aspect of this issue involves the impact of freight trends on the …

Contributors
Nagarajan, Sathish Kannan, Underwood, Shane, Kaloush, Kamil, et al.
Created Date
2016

Woven fabric composite materials are widely used in the construction of aircraft engine fan containment systems, mostly due to their high strength to weight ratios and ease of implementation. The development of a predictive model for fan blade containment would provide great benefit to engine manufactures in shortened development cycle time, less risk in certification and fewer dollars lost to redesign/recertification cycles. A mechanistic user-defined material model subroutine has been developed at Arizona State University (ASU) that captures the behavioral response of these fabrics, namely Kevlar® 49, under ballistic loading. Previously developed finite element models used to validate the consistency …

Contributors
Fein, Jonathan, Rajan, Subramaniam, Mobasher, Barzin, et al.
Created Date
2012

ABSTRACT The current Saudi Arabian (SA) procurement system leads to many losses in money and benefits in projects. Also, the use of the traditional procurement system in SA has been identified as one of the causes for poor performance in the delivery of construction and the major risk to the SA government. A questionnaire has been developed and carefully designed based on literature review. The purpose of the survey was to identify the validity of the recent claims that the procurement system in SA is broken and to improve the current SA procurement system. The questionnaire was sent out to …

Contributors
Alofi, Ahmed Abdulrahman, Kashiwagi, Dean, Sullivan, Kenneth, et al.
Created Date
2017

Manufacture of building materials requires significant energy, and as demand for these materials continues to increase, the energy requirement will as well. Offsetting this energy use will require increased focus on sustainable building materials. Further, the energy used in building, particularly in heating and air conditioning, accounts for 40 percent of a buildings energy use. Increasing the efficiency of building materials will reduce energy usage over the life time of the building. Current methods for maintaining the interior environment can be highly inefficient depending on the building materials selected. Materials such as concrete have low thermal efficiency and have a …

Contributors
Sharma, Breeann, Neithalath, Narayanan, Mobasher, Barzin, et al.
Created Date
2013

Emerging information and communication technology (ICT) has had an enormous effect on the building architecture, engineering, construction and operation (AECO) fields in recent decades. The effects have resonated in several disciplines, such as project information flow, design representation and communication, and Building Information Modeling (BIM) approaches. However, these effects can potentially impact communication and coordination of the virtual design contents in both design and construction phases. Therefore, and with the great potential for emerging technologies in construction projects, it is essential to understand how these technologies influence virtual design information within the organizations as well as individuals’ behaviors. This research …

Contributors
Alsafouri, Suleiman, Ayer, Steven, Tang, Pingbo, et al.
Created Date
2017