## ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.

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2010 2019

## Recent Submissions

The research of this dissertation has involved the nanoscale quantitative characterization of patterned magnetic nanostructures and devices using off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy. The investigation focused on different materials of interest, including monolayer Co nanorings, multilayer Co/Cu/Py (Permalloy, Ni81Fe19) spin-valve nanorings, and notched Py nanowires, which were fabricated via a standard electron-beam lithography (EBL) and lift-off process. Magnetization configurations and reversal processes of Co nanorings, with and without slots, were observed. Vortex-controlled switching behavior with stepped hysteresis loops was identified, with clearly defined onion states, vortex states, flux-closure (FC) states, and Omega states. Two distinct switching mechanisms for the …

Contributors
He, Kai, Mccartney, Martha R., Smith, David J., et al.
Created Date
2010

This dissertation describes work on three projects concerning the design and implementation of instrumentation used to study potential organic electronic devices. The first section describes the conducting atomic force microscope (CAFM) in the study of the mechanical and electronic interactions between DNA bases and nucleosides. Previous STM data suggested that an STM tip could recognize single base pairs through an electronic interaction after a functionalized tip made contact with a self assembled monolayer then was retracted. The conducting AFM was employed in order to understand the mechanical interactions of such a system and how they were affecting electrical responses. The …

Contributors
Kibel, Ashley, Lindsay, Stuart M, Chamberlin, Ralph, et al.
Created Date
2010

Previous studies have shown that adequate content knowledge is a necessary, but not sufficient, requirement for affective teaching. While legislation requests teachers to be "highly qualified" in a subject area, such as physics, many teachers are frequently asked to teach in an area when they are not certified through a teaching license to do so. This study uses mixed methods to examine the knowledge of beginning physics teachers. Through semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, and concept maps, the pedagogical content knowledge, subject matter knowledge, and practices of three groups of beginning secondary physics teachers were explored. Data were analyzed qualitatively using …

Contributors
Neakrase, Jennifer Jean, Luft, Julie, Semken, Steven, et al.
Created Date
2010

Water affinity and condensation on Si-based surfaces is investigated to address the problem of fogging on silicone intraocular lenses (IOL) during cataract surgery, using Si(100), silica (SiO2) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) silicone (SiOC2H6)n. Condensation is described by two step nucleation and growth where roughness controls heterogeneous nucleation of droplets followed by Ostwald ripening. Wetting on hydrophilic surfaces consists of continuous aqueous films while hydrophobic surfaces exhibit fogging with discrete droplets. Si-based surfaces with wavelength above 200 nm exhibit fogging during condensation. Below 200 nm, surfaces are found to wet during condensation. Water affinity of Si-based surfaces is quantified via the surface …

Contributors
Xing, Qian, Herbots, Nicole, Culbertson, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2011

Nuclear proliferation concerns have resulted in a desire for radiation detectors with superior energy resolution. In this dissertation a Monte Carlo code is developed for calculating energy resolution in gamma-ray detector materials. The effects of basic material properties such as the bandgap and plasmon resonance energy are studied using a model for inelastic electron scattering based on electron energy-loss spectra. From a simplified "toy model" for a generic material, energy resolution is found to oscillate as the plasmon resonance energy is increased, and energy resolution can also depend on the valence band width. By incorporating the model developed here as …

Contributors
Narayan, Raman Dale, Rez, Peter, Spence, John, et al.
Created Date
2011

The research of this dissertation involved quantitative characterization of electrostatic potential and charge distribution of semiconductor nanostructures using off-axis electron holography, as well as other electron microscopy techniques. The investigated nanostructures included Ge quantum dots, Ge/Si core/shell nanowires, and polytype heterostructures in ZnSe nanobelts. Hole densities were calculated for the first two systems, and the spontaneous polarization for wurtzite ZnSe was determined. Epitaxial Ge quantum dots (QDs) embedded in boron-doped silicon were studied. Reconstructed phase images showed extra phase shifts near the base of the QDs, which was attributed to hole accumulation in these regions. The resulting charge density was …

Contributors
Li, Luying, Mccartney, Martha R., Smith, David J., et al.
Created Date
2011

This thesis describes several approaches to next generation DNA sequencing via tunneling current method based on a Scanning Tunneling Microscope system. In chapters 5 and 6, preliminary results have shown that DNA bases could be identified by their characteristic tunneling signals. Measurements taken in aqueous buffered solution showed that single base resolution could be achieved with economic setups. In chapter 7, it is illustrated that some ongoing measurements are indicating the sequence readout by making linear scan on a piece of short DNA oligomer. However, to overcome the difficulties of controlling DNA especially ssDNA movement, it is much better to …

Contributors
Huang, Shuo, Lindsay, Stuart, Sankey, Otto, et al.
Created Date
2011

III-nitride alloys are wide band gap semiconductors with a broad range of applications in optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes and laser diodes. Indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes have been successfully produced over the past decade. But the progress of green emission light emitting devices has been limited by the incorporation of indium in the alloy, mainly due to phase separation. This difficulty could be addressed by studying the growth and thermodynamics of these alloys. Knowledge of thermodynamic phase stabilities and of pressure - temperature - composition phase diagrams is important for an understanding of the boundary conditions …

Contributors
Hill, Arlinda, Ponce, Fernando A, Chamberlin, Ralph V, et al.
Created Date
2011

Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with concentrations in the range 0 &#8804; y &#8804; 0.04, are studied via a variety of methods. The first microelectronic devices from GeSn films were fabricated using newly developed CMOS-compatible protocols, and the devices were characterized with respect to their electrical properties and optical response. The detectors were found to have a detection range that extends into the near-IR, and the detection edge is found to shift to longer wavelengths with …

Contributors
Mathews, Jay, Menéndez, José, Kouvetakis, John, et al.
Created Date
2011

The increased use of commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies in harsh radiation environments has resulted in a new approach to radiation effects mitigation. This approach utilizes simulation to support the design of integrated circuits (ICs) to meet targeted tolerance specifications. Modeling the deleterious impact of ionizing radiation on ICs fabricated in advanced CMOS technologies requires understanding and analyzing the basic mechanisms that result in buildup of radiation-induced defects in specific sensitive regions. Extensive experimental studies have demonstrated that the sensitive regions are shallow trench isolation (STI) oxides. Nevertheless, very little work has been done to model the physical mechanisms that …

Contributors
Sanchez Esqueda, Ivan, Barnaby, Hugh J, Schroder, Dieter, et al.
Created Date
2011

A distinct characteristic of ferroelectric materials is the existence of a reversible spontaneous polarization with the application of an electric field. The relevant properties ferroelectric lithium niobate surfaces include a low density of defects and external screening of the bound polarization charge. These properties result in unique surface electric field distribution with a strong electric field in the vicinity of domain boundaries, while away from the boundaries, the field decreases rapidly. In this work, ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN) is used as a template to direct the assembly of metallic nanostructures via photo-induced reduction and a substrate for deposition of ZnO …

Contributors
Sun, Yang, Nemanich, Robert, Bennett, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2011

Microfluidics is the study of fluid flow at very small scales (micro -- one millionth of a meter) and is prevalent in many areas of science and engineering. Typical applications include lab-on-a-chip devices, microfluidic fuel cells, and DNA separation technologies. Many of these microfluidic devices rely on micron-resolution velocimetry measurements to improve microchannel design and characterize existing devices. Methods such as micro particle imaging velocimetry (microPIV) and micro particle tracking velocimetry (microPTV) are mature and established methods for characterization of steady 2D flow fields. Increasingly complex microdevices require techniques that measure unsteady and/or three dimensional velocity fields. This dissertation presents …

Contributors
Created Date
2011

One of the most important issues in femtosecond free electron laser X-ray diraction is to reconstruct the 3D charge density of molecule from a mass of diraction snapshots. In order to determine the orientation of single molecule from diraction patterns, we rst determine the moments and products of inertia of this from 2D experiment data (diraction patterns or EM images to obtain the elements of the inertia tensor. If diraction patterns from uniformly random orientations or some preferred orientations are collected, the principal axes of the molecule can be extracted, together with the Euler angles which relate the principal axes …

Contributors
Wang, Xiaoyu, Spence, John C.H., Schmidt, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2011

The evolution of single hairpin vortices and multiple interacting hairpin vortices are studied in direct numerical simulations of channel flow at Re-tau=395. The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of increased Reynolds number and varying initial conditions on the growth of hairpins and the conditions under which single hairpins autogenerate hairpin packets. The hairpin vortices are believed to provide a unified picture of wall turbulence and play an important role in the production of Reynolds shear stress which is directly related to turbulent drag. The structures of the initial three-dimensional vortices are extracted from the two-point spatial …

Contributors
Parthasarathy, Praveen Kumar, Adrian, Ronald, Huang, Huei-Ping, et al.
Created Date
2011

With the advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), an opportunity has arisen to break the nexus between radiation dose and spatial resolution in diffractive imaging, by outrunning radiation damage altogether when using single X-ray pulses so brief that they terminate before atomic motion commences. This dissertation concerns the application of XFELs to biomolecular imaging in an effort to overcome the severe challenges associated with radiation damage and macroscopic protein crystal growth. The method of femtosecond protein nanocrystallography (fsPNX) is investigated, and a new method for extracting crystallographic structure factors is demonstrated on simulated data and on the first experimental …

Contributors
Kirian, Richard Adam, Spence, John C. H., Spence, John C. H., et al.
Created Date
2011

In this project, a novel method is presented for measuring the resistivity of nanoscale metallic conductors (nanowires) using a variable-spacing 2-point method with a modified ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope. An auxiliary field emission imaging method that allows for scanning insulating surfaces using a large gap distance (20nm) is also presented. Using these methods, the resistivity of self-assembled endotaxial FeSi2 nanowires (NWs) on Si(110) was measured. The resistivity was found to vary inversely with NW width, being rhoNW = 200 uOhm cm at 12 nm and 300 uOhm cm at 2 nm. The increase at small w is attributed to …

Contributors
Tobler, Samuel, Bennett, Peter, Mccartney, Martha, et al.
Created Date
2011

Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology is based on an electrochemical phenomenon in which a metallic electrodeposit can be grown or dissolved between two electrodes depending on the voltage applied between them. Devices based on this phenomenon exhibit a unique, self-healing property, as a broken metallic structure can be healed by applying an appropriate voltage between the two broken ends. This work explores methods of fabricating interconnects and switches based on PMC technology on flexible substrates. The objective was the evaluation of the feasibility of using this technology in flexible electronics applications in which reliability is a primary concern. The re-healable …

Contributors
Baliga, Sunil Ravindranath, Kozicki, Michael N, Schroder, Dieter K, et al.
Created Date
2011

In this thesis I introduce a new direction to computing using nonlinear chaotic dynamics. The main idea is rich dynamics of a chaotic system enables us to (1) build better computers that have a flexible instruction set, and (2) carry out computation that conventional computers are not good at it. Here I start from the theory, explaining how one can build a computing logic block using a chaotic system, and then I introduce a new theoretical analysis for chaos computing. Specifically, I demonstrate how unstable periodic orbits and a model based on them explains and predicts how and how well …

Contributors
Kia, Behnam, Ditto, William, Huang, Liang, et al.
Created Date
2011

Nanofluidic devices in which one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) spans a barrier between two fluid reservoirs were constructed, enabling direct electrical measurement of the transport of ions and molecules. Ion current through these devices is about 2 orders of magnitude larger than that predicted from the bulk resistivity of the electrolyte. Electroosmosis drives excess current, carried by cations, and is found to be the origin of giant ionic current through SWCNT as shown by building an ionic field-effect transistor with a gate electrode embedded in the fluid barrier. Wetting of inside of the semi-conducting SWCNT by water showed the change …

Contributors
Pang, Pei, Lindsay, Stuart, Ros, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2011

ABSTRACT Group III-nitride semiconductor materials have been commercially used in fabrication of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) covering the spectral range from UV to visible and infrared, and exhibit unique properties suitable for modern optoelectronic applications. Great advances have recently happened in the research and development in high-power and high-efficiency blue-green-white LEDs, blue LDs and other optoelectronic applications. However, there are still many unsolved challenges with these materials. In this dissertation, several issues concerning structural, electronic and optical properties of III-nitrides have been investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron holography (EH) and cathodoluminescence (CL) …

Contributors
Sun, Kewei, Ponce, Fernando, Smith, David, et al.
Created Date
2011

Group III-nitride semiconductors have attracted much attention for applications on high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) operating in the visible and ultra-violet spectral range using indium gallium nitride in the active layer. However, the device efficiency in the green to red range is limited by quantum-confined Stark effects resulting from the lattice mismatch between GaN and InGaN. In this dissertation, the optical and micro-structural properties of GaN-based light emitting structures have been analyzed and correlated by utilizing cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy techniques. In the first section, optimization of the design of GaN-based lasers diode structures is …

Contributors
Huang, Yu, Ponce, Fernando A, Tsen, Kong-Thon, et al.
Created Date
2011

The chemical sensitivity and spatial resolution of Raman spectroscopy, combined with the sensitivity of modern systems that can easily detect single atomic layers, have made this technique a preferred choice for the strain characterization of complex systems such as nanoscale complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor - CMOS - devices. A disadvantage of Raman spectroscopy, however, is that the shifts associated with strain are not related to the geometrical deformations in any obvious way, so that careful calibrations are needed to determine the anharmonic coefficients (p, q and r) that relate strain to Raman shifts. A new set of measurements of the Raman shift …

Contributors
Bagchi, Sampriti, Menendez, Jose, Treacy, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2011

In this work, a new method, "Nanobonding" [1,2] is conceived and researched to bond Si-based surfaces, via nucleation and growth of a 2 D silicon oxide SiOxHx interphase connecting the surfaces at the nanoscale across macroscopic domains. Nanobonding cross-bridges two smooth surfaces put into mechanical contact in an O2/H2O mixed ambient below T <200 °C via arrays of SiOxHx molecules connecting into a continuous macroscopic bonding interphase. Nano-scale surface planarization via wet chemical processing and new spin technology are compared via Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM) , before and after nano-bonding. Nanobonding uses precursor phases, 2D nano-films of beta-cristobalite …

Contributors
Whaley, Shawn David, Culbertson, Robert J, Herbots, Nicole, et al.
Created Date
2011

he accurate simulation of many-body quantum systems is a challenge for computational physics. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are a class of algorithms that can be used to solve the many-body problem. I study many-body quantum systems with Path Integral Monte Carlo techniques in three related areas of semiconductor physics: (1) the role of correlation in exchange coupling of spins in double quantum dots, (2) the degree of correlation and hyperpolarizability in Stark shifts in InGaAs/GaAs dots, and (3) van der Waals interactions between 1-D metallic quantum wires at finite temperature. The two-site model is one of the simplest quantum problems, …

Contributors
Zhang, Lei, Shumway, John, Schmidt, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2011

In this thesis a new method based on the Tight-Binding Linear Muffin Tin Orbital (TB-LMTO) formalism and the Quasiparticle Self-consistent GW (QSGW) approximation is proposed. The method is capable of generating accurate electronic bands structure of large supercells necessary to model alloys structures. The strategy consist in building simple and small hamiltonian from linear Muffin-tin-orbitals (LMTO). Parameters in this hamiltonian are then used to fit the difference in QSGW self-energies and LDA exchange-correlation potentials. The parameter are assumed to transfer to new environments --- a procedure we check carefully by comparing our predicted band to QSGW bands for small supercells. …

Contributors
Azemtsa Donfack, Hermann Azemtsa, Van Schilfgaarde, Mark, Dow, John D, et al.
Created Date
2011

ABSTRACT An Ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) computer code has been developed to simulate, semi-classically, spin-dependent electron transport in quasi two-dimensional (2D) III-V semiconductors. The code accounts for both three-dimensional (3D) and quasi-2D transport, utilizing either 3D or 2D scattering mechanisms, as appropriate. Phonon, alloy, interface roughness, and impurity scattering mechanisms are included, accounting for the Pauli Exclusion Principle via a rejection algorithm. The 2D carrier states are calculated via a self-consistent 1D Schrödinger-3D-Poisson solution in which the charge distribution of the 2D carriers in the quantization direction is taken as the spatial distribution of the squared envelope functions within the …

Contributors
Tierney, Brian David, Goodnick, Stephen, Ferry, David, et al.
Created Date
2011

Many species e.g. sea urchin form amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursor phases that subsequently transform into crystalline CaCO3. It is certainly possible that the biogenic ACC might have more than 10 wt% Mg and &sim; 3 wt% of water. The structure of ACC and the mechanisms by which it transforms to crystalline phase are still poorly understood. In this dissertation our goal is to determine an atomic structure model that is consistent with diffraction and IR measurements of ACC. For this purpose a calcite supercell with 24 formula units, containing 120 atoms, was constructed. Various configurations with substitution of Ca …

Contributors
Sinha, Sourabh, Rez, Peter, Bearat, Hamdallah A., et al.
Created Date
2012

Complex dynamical systems consisting interacting dynamical units are ubiquitous in nature and society. Predicting and reconstructing nonlinear dynamics of units and the complex interacting networks among them serves the base for the understanding of a variety of collective dynamical phenomena. I present a general method to address the two outstanding problems as a whole based solely on time-series measurements. The method is implemented by incorporating compressive sensing approach that enables an accurate reconstruction of complex dynamical systems in terms of both nodal equations that determines the self-dynamics of units and detailed coupling patterns among units. The representative advantages of the …

Contributors
Yang, Rui, Lai, Ying-Cheng, Duman, Tolga M, et al.
Created Date
2012

In this work, I worked on the synthesis and characterization of nanowires and belts, grown using different materials, in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system with catalytic growth method. Through this thesis, I utilized the Photoluminescence (PL), Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses to find out the properties of Erbium Chloride Silicate (ECS) and two segment CdS-CdSe samples. In the first part of my research, growth of very new material, Erbium Chloride Silicate (ECS), in form of core/shell Si/ECS and pure ECS nanowires, was demonstrated. This new material has very fascinating properties for new …

Contributors
Turkdogan, Sunay, Ning, Cun-Zheng, Tao, Meng, et al.
Created Date
2012

Quark matter at sufficiently high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, and may exist in the interior of neutron stars. The properties of two simplest possible color-superconducting phases, i.e., the color-flavor-locked (CFL) and two-flavor superconducting (2SC) phases, are reviewed. The effect of a magnetic field on the pairing dynamics in two-flavor color-superconducting dense quark matter is investigated. A universal form of the gap equation for an arbitrary magnetic field is derived in the weakly coupled regime of QCD at asymptotically high density, using the framework of Schwinger-Dyson equation in the improved rainbow approximation. The results …

Contributors
Yu, Lang, Shovkovy, Igor A., Lunardini, Cecilia, et al.
Created Date
2012

Group III-nitride semiconductors have wide application in optoelectronic devices. Spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects have been found to be critical for electric and optical properties of group III-nitrides. In this dissertation, firstly, the crystal orientation dependence of the polarization is calculated and in-plane polarization is revealed. The in-plane polarization is sensitive to the lateral characteristic dimension determined by the microstructure. Specific semi-polar plane growth is suggested for reducing quantum-confined Stark effect. The macroscopic electrostatic field from the polarization discontinuity in the heterostructures is discussed, b ased on that, the band diagram of InGaN/GaN quantum well/barrier and AlGaN/GaN heterojunction is obtained …

Contributors
Wei, Qiyuan, Ponce, Fernando A, Tsen, Kong-Thon, et al.
Created Date
2012

Studying charge transport through single molecules tethered between two metal electrodes is of fundamental importance in molecular electronics. Over the years, a variety of methods have been developed in attempts of performing such measurements. However, the limitation of these techniques is still one of the factors that prohibit one from gaining a thorough understanding of single molecule junctions. Firstly, the time resolution of experiments is typically limited to milli to microseconds, while molecular dynamics simulations are carried out on the time scale of pico to nanoseconds. A huge gap therefore persists between the theory and the experiments. This thesis demonstrates …

Contributors
Guo, Shaoyin, Tao, Nongjian, Bennett, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2012

The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator is one of the most important models in Quantum Mechanics. Analogous to the classical mass vibrating back and forth on a spring, the quantum oscillator system has attracted substantial attention over the years because of its importance in many advanced and difficult quantum problems. This dissertation deals with solving generalized models of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation which are called generalized quantum harmonic oscillators, and these are characterized by an arbitrary quadratic Hamiltonian of linear momentum and position operators. The primary challenge in this work is that most quantum models with timedependence are not solvable explicitly, yet …

Contributors
Lopez, Raquel, Suslov, Sergei K, Radunskaya, Ami, et al.
Created Date
2012

In 2022, integrated circuit interconnects will approach 10 nm and the diffusion barrier layers needed to ensure long lasting devices will be at 1 nm. This dimension means the interconnect will be dominated by the interface and it has been shown the interface is currently eroding device performance. The standard interconnect system has three layers - a Copper metal core, a Tantalum Adhesion layer and a Tantalum Nitride Diffusion Barrier Layer. An alternate interconnect schema is a Tantalum Nitride barrier layer and Silver as a metal. The adhesion layer is removed from the system along with changing to an alternate, …

Contributors
Grumski, Michael, Adams, James, Krause, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2012

This thesis deals with the first measurements done with a cold neutron beam at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental technique consisted of capturing polarized cold neutrons by nuclei to measure parity-violation in the angular distribution of the gamma rays following neutron capture. The measurements presented here for the nuclei Chlorine ( 35Cl) and Aluminum ( 27Al ) are part of a program with the ultimate goal of measuring the asymmetry in the angular distribution of gamma rays emitted in the capture of neutrons on protons, with a precision better than 10-8, in order to …

Contributors
Balascuta, Septimiu, Alarcon, Ricardo, Belitsky, Andrei, et al.
Created Date
2012

The research described in this dissertation has involved the use of transmission electron microcopy (TEM) to characterize the structural properties of II-VI and III-V compound semiconductor heterostructures and superlattices. The microstructure of thick ZnTe epilayers (~2.4 µm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) under virtually identical conditions on GaSb, InAs, InP and GaAs (100) substrates were compared using TEM. High-resolution electron micrographs revealed a highly coherent interface for the ZnTe/GaSb sample, and showed extensive areas with well-separated interfacial misfit dislocations for the ZnTe/InAs sample. Lomer edge dislocations and 60o dislocations were commonly observed at the interfaces of the ZnTe/InP and …

Contributors
Ouyang, Lu, Smith, David J, Mccartney, Martha, et al.
Created Date
2012

In this work, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy are combined to create a microscopy technique which allows for nanometer resolution topographic and fluorescence imaging. This technique can be applied to any sample which can be immobilized on a surface and which can be observed by fluorescence microscopy. Biological problems include small molecular systems, such as membrane receptor clusters, where very high optical resolutions need to be achieved. In materials science, fluorescent nanoparticles or other optically active nanostructures can be investigated using this technique. In the past decades, multiple techniques have been developed that yield high …

Contributors
Schulz, Olaf, Ros, Robert, Levitus, Marcia, et al.
Created Date
2012

Understanding the temperature structure of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is paramount to modeling disk evolution and future planet formation. PPDs around T Tauri stars have two primary heating sources, protostellar irradiation, which depends on the flaring of the disk, and accretional heating as viscous coupling between annuli dissipate energy. I have written a "1.5-D" radiative transfer code to calculate disk temperatures assuming hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium. The model solves for the temperature at all locations simultaneously using Rybicki's method, converges rapidly at high optical depth, and retains full frequency dependence. The likely cause of accretional heating in PPDs is the magnetorotational …

Contributors
Lesniak Iii, Michael V., Desch, Steven J., Scannapieco, Evan, et al.
Created Date
2012

Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically-functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode ("tethered molecule-pair" configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Importantly, at large tunnel gaps, there exists a regime for many molecules in which the tunneling is influenced more by the chemical identity of the molecules than by variability in the molecule-metal contact. Functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the …

Contributors
Chang, Shuai, Lindsay, Stuart, Ros, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2012

This work is an investigation into the information provided by the concurrent use of in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). The two analytical methods were employed during growth of metal, semiconductor and superconductor thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Surface sensitivity of the REELS spectrometer was found to be less than 1 nm for 20 KeV electrons incident at a 2 degree angle to an atomically flat film surface, agreeing with the standard electron escape depth data when adjusted incident angle. Film surface topography was found to strongly influence the …

Contributors
Strawbridge, Brett William, Newman, Nathan, Chamberlin, Ralph, et al.
Created Date
2012

CpG methylation is an essential requirement for the normal development of mammals, but aberrant changes in the methylation can lead to tumor progression and cancer. An in-depth understanding of this phenomenon can provide insights into the mechanism of gene repression. We present a study comparing methylated DNA and normal DNA wrt its persistence length and contour length. Although, previous experiments and studies show no difference between the physical properties of the two, the data collected and interpreted here gives a different picture to the methylation phenomena and its effect on gene silencing. The study was extended to the artificially reconstituted …

Contributors
Kaur, Parminder, Lindsay, Stuart, Ros, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2012

The disordered nature of glass-forming melts results in two features for its dynamics i.e. non-Arrhenius and non-exponential behavior. Their macroscopic properties are studied through observing spatial heterogeneity of the molecular relaxation. Experiments performed in a low-frequency range tracks the flow of energy in time on slow degrees of freedom and transfer to the vibrational heat bath of the liquid, as is the case for microwave heating. High field measurements on supercooled liquids result in generation of fictive temperatures of the absorbing modes which eventually result in elevated true bath temperatures. The absorbed energy allows us to quantify the changes in …

Contributors
Pathak, Ullas, Richert, Ranko, Dai, Lenore, et al.
Created Date
2012

What can classical chaos do to quantum systems is a fundamental issue highly relevant to a number of branches in physics. The field of quantum chaos has been active for three decades, where the focus was on non-relativistic quantumsystems described by the Schr¨odinger equation. By developing an efficient method to solve the Dirac equation in the setting where relativistic particles can tunnel between two symmetric cavities through a potential barrier, chaotic cavities are found to suppress the spread in the tunneling rate. Tunneling rate for any given energy assumes a wide range that increases with the energy for integrable classical …

Contributors
Ni, Xuan, Lai, Ying-Cheng, Huang, Liang, et al.
Created Date
2012

Recently a new materials platform consisting of semiconductors grown on GaSb and InAs substrates with lattice constants close to 6.1 A was proposed by our group for various electronic and optoelectronic applications. This materials platform consists of both II-VI (MgZnCdHg)(SeTe) and III-V (InGaAl)(AsSb) compound semiconductors, which have direct bandgaps spanning the entire energy spectrum from far-IR (~0 eV) up to UV (~3.4 eV). The broad range of bandgaps and material properties make it very attractive for a wide range of applications in optoelectronics, such as solar cells, laser diodes, light emitting diodes, and photodetectors. Moreover, this novel materials system potentially …

Contributors
Fan, Jin, Zhang, Yong-Hang, Smith, David, et al.
Created Date
2012

One dimensional (1D) and quasi-one dimensional quantum wires have been a subject of both theoretical and experimental interest since 1990s and before. Phenomena such as the "0.7 structure" in the conductance leave many open questions. In this dissertation, I study the properties and the internal electron states of semiconductor quantum wires with the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method. PIMC is a tool for simulating many-body quantum systems at &#64257;nite temperature. Its ability to calculate thermodynamic properties and various correlation functions makes it an ideal tool in bridging experiments with theories. A general study of the features interpreted by the …

Contributors
Liu, Jianheng, Shumway, John B, Schmidt, Kevin E, et al.
Created Date
2012

A thorough exploration of star formation necessitates observation across the electromagnetic spectrum. In particular, observations in the submillimeter and ultra-violet allow one to observe very early stage star formation and to trace the evolution from molecular cloud collapse to stellar ignition. Submillimeter observations are essential for piercing the heart of heavily obscured stellar nurseries to observe star formation in its infancy. Ultra-violet observations allow one to observe stars just after they emerge from their surrounding environment, allowing higher energy radiation to escape. To make detailed observations of early stage star formation in both spectral regimes requires state-of-the-art detector technology and …

Contributors
Veach, Todd Justin, Scowen, Paul A, Groppi, Christopher E, et al.
Created Date
2012

Group IV alloy films exhibit the ability to tune both band structure and lattice parameters and have recently attracted attention for their potential applications in Si-photonics and photovoltaics. In this work, several new approaches to produce these alloys directly on Si(100) and Ge(100) wafers are developed. For photovoltaics, use of Ge-buffered Si(100) wafers as a low cost platform for epitaxy of In1-xGaxAs layers was explored. The results indicate that this approach has promise for transitioning from bulk Ge platforms to virtual substrates for a significant cost reduction. The electrical and optical properties of Ge and Ge1-ySny layers produced using several …

Contributors
Beeler, Richard Todd, Kouvetakis, John, Menéndez, José, et al.
Created Date
2012

The theory of quantum electrodynamics predicts that beta decay of the neutron into a proton, electron, and anti-neutrino should be accompanied by a continuous spectrum of photons. A recent experiment, RDK I, reported the first detection of radiative decay photons from neutron beta decay with a branching ratio of (3.09 &plusmn; 0.32) &times; 10-3 in the energy range of 15 keV to 340 keV. This was achieved by prompt coincident detection of an electron and photon, in delayed coincidence with a proton. The photons were detected by using a single bar of bismuth germanate scintillating crystal coupled to an avalanche …

Contributors
O'Neill, Benjamin William, Alarcon, Ricardo, Drucker, Jeffery, et al.
Created Date
2012

In this dissertation, remote plasma interactions with the surfaces of low-k interlayer dielectric (ILD), Cu and Cu adhesion layers are investigated. The first part of the study focuses on the simultaneous plasma treatment of ILD and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) Cu surfaces using N2/H2 plasma processes. H atoms and radicals in the plasma react with the carbon groups leading to carbon removal for the ILD films. Results indicate that an N2 plasma forms an amide-like layer on the surface which apparently leads to reduced carbon abstraction from an H2 plasma process. In addition, FTIR spectra indicate the formation of hydroxyl …

Contributors
Liu, Xin, Nemanich, Robert, Chamberlin, Ralph, et al.
Created Date
2012

Nitride semiconductors have wide applications in electronics and optoelectronics technologies. Understanding the nature of the optical recombination process and its effects on luminescence efficiency is important for the development of novel devices. This dissertation deals with the optical properties of nitride semiconductors, including GaN epitaxial layers and more complex heterostructures. The emission characteristics are examined by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and imaging, and are correlated with the structural and electrical properties studied by transmission electron microscopy and electron holography. Four major areas are covered in this dissertation, which are described next. The effect of strain on the emission characteristics in wurtzite GaN …

Contributors
Li, Ti, Ponce, Fernando, Culbertson, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2012

High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on Group III-nitride heterostructures have been characterized by advanced electron microscopy methods including off-axis electron holography, nanoscale chemical analysis, and electrical measurements, as well as other techniques. The dissertation was organized primarily into three topical areas: (1) characterization of near-gate defects in electrically stressed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, (2) microstructural and chemical analysis of the gate/buffer interface of AlN/GaN HEMTs, and (3) studies of the impact of laser-liftoff processing on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The electrical performance of stressed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs was measured and the devices binned accordingly. Source- and drain-side degraded, undegraded, and unstressed devices were then …

Contributors
Johnson, Michael Ray, Mccartney, Martha R, Smith, David J, et al.
Created Date
2012

Monte Carlo methods often used in nuclear physics, such as auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo and Green's function Monte Carlo, have typically relied on phenomenological local real-space potentials containing as few derivatives as possible, such as the Argonne-Urbana family of interactions, to make sampling simple and efficient. Basis set methods such as no-core shell model or coupled-cluster techniques typically use softer non-local potentials because of their more rapid convergence with basis set size. These non-local potentials are typically defined in momentum space and are often based on effective field theory. Comparisons of the results of the two types of methods …

Contributors
Lynn, Joel Eric, Schmidt, Kevin E, Alarcón, Ricardo, et al.
Created Date
2013

Zeolites are a class of microporous materials that are immensely useful as molecular sieves and catalysts. While there exist millions of hypothetical zeolite topologies, only 206 have been recognized to exist in nature, and the question remains: What distinguishes known zeolite topologies from their hypothetical counterparts? It has been found that all 206 of the known zeolites can be represented as networks of rigid perfect tetrahedra that hinge freely at the connected corners. The range of configurations over which the corresponding geometric constraints can be met has been termed the "flexibility window". Only a small percentage of hypothetical types exhibit …

Contributors
Dawson, Colby, Treacy, Michael M. J., O'Keeffe, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2013

This dissertation is on the study of structural and optical properties of some III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors. The first part of this dissertation is a study of the deformation mechanisms associated with nanoindentation and nanoscratching of InP, GaN, and ZnO crystals. The second part is an investigation of some fundamental issues regarding compositional fluctuations and microstructure in GaInNAs and InAlN alloys. In the first part, the microstructure of (001) InP scratched in an atomic force microscope with a small diamond tip has been studied as a function of applied normal force and crystalline direction in order to understand at …

Contributors
Huang, Jingyi, Ponce, Fernando A, Carpenter, Ray W, et al.
Created Date
2013

The work contained in this dissertation is focused on the optical properties of direct band gap semiconductors which crystallize in a wurtzite structure: more specifically, the III-nitrides and ZnO. By using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, many of their properties have been investigated, including band gaps, defect energy levels, carrier lifetimes, strain states, exciton binding energies, and effects of electron irradiation on luminescence. Part of this work is focused on p-type Mg-doped GaN and InGaN. These materials are extremely important for the fabrication of visible light emitting diodes and diode lasers and their complex nature is currently not entirely understood. The luminescence of …

Contributors
Juday, Reid, Ponce, Fernando A, Drucker, Jeff, et al.
Created Date
2013

The thesis studies new methods to fabricate optoelectronic Ge1-ySny/Si(100) alloys and investigate their photoluminescence (PL) properties for possible applications in Si-based photonics including IR lasers. The work initially investigated the origin of the difference between the PL spectrum of bulk Ge, dominated by indirect gap emission, and the PL spectrum of Ge-on-Si films, dominated by direct gap emission. It was found that the difference is due to the supression of self-absorption effects in Ge films, combined with a deviation from quasi-equilibrium conditions in the conduction band of undoped films. The latter is confirmed by a model suggesting that the deviation …

Contributors
Grzybowski, Gordon J., Kouvetakis, John, Chizmeshya, Andrew, et al.
Created Date
2013

Microwave dielectrics are widely used to make resonators and filters in telecommunication systems. The production of thin films with high dielectric constant and low loss could potentially enable a marked reduction in the size of devices and systems. However, studies of these materials in thin film form are very sparse. In this research, experiments were carried out on practical high-performance dielectrics including ZrTiO4-ZnNb2O6 (ZTZN) and Ba(Co,Zn)1/3Nb2/3O3 (BCZN) with high dielectric constant and low loss tangent. Thin films were deposited by laser ablation on various substrates, with a systematical study of growth conditions like substrate temperature, oxygen pressure and annealing to …

Contributors
Li, You, Newman, Nathan, Alford, Terry, et al.
Created Date
2013

This dissertation is focused on material property exploration and analysis using computational quantum mechanics methods. Theoretical calculations were performed on the recently discovered hexahydride materials A2SiH6 (A=Rb, K) to calculate the lattice dynamics of the systems in order to check for structural stability, verify the experimental Raman and infrared spectrospcopy results, and obtain the theoretical free energies of formation. The electronic structure of the systems was calculated and the bonding and ionic properties of the systems were analyzed. The novel hexahydrides were compared to the important hydrogen storage material KSiH3. This showed that the hypervalent nature of the SiH62- ions …

Contributors
Benson, Daryn Eugene, Haussermann, Ulrich, Shumway, John, et al.
Created Date
2013

After a decade of efforts, accurate and affordable DNA sequencing continues to remain an important goal in current research landscape. This thesis starts with a brief overview of the recent updates in the field of DNA sequencing technologies followed by description of the nanofluidics route to single molecule DNA detection. Chapter 2 presents discusses carbon nanotube(CNT) based nanofluidics. The fabrication and DNA sensing measurements of CNT forest membrane devices are presented. Chapter 3 gives the background for functionalization and recognition aspects of reader molecules. Chapter 4 marks the transition to solid state nanopore nanofluidics. The fabrication of Imidazole functionalized nanopores …

Contributors
Krishnakumar, Padmini, Lindsay, Stuart, He, Jin, et al.
Created Date
2013

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an important phenomenon involving nuclear magnetic moments in magnetic field, which can provide much information about a wide range of materials, including their chemical composition, chemical environments and nuclear spin interactions. The NMR spectrometer has been extensively developed and used in many areas of research. In this thesis, studies in two different areas using NMR are presented. First, a new kind of nanoparticle, Gd(DTPA) intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH), has been successfully synthesized in the laboratory of Prof. Dey in SEMTE at ASU. In Chapter II, the NMR relaxation studies of two types of LDH …

Contributors
Peng, Zihui, Marzke, Robert F, Dey, Sandwip Kumar, et al.
Created Date
2013

In this research, our goal was to fabricate Josephson junctions that can be stably processed at 300&deg;C or higher. With the purpose of integrating Josephson junction fabrication with the current semiconductor circuit fabrication process, back-end process temperatures (>350 &deg;C) will be a key for producing large scale junction circuits reliably, which requires the junctions to be more thermally stable than current Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb junctions. Based on thermodynamics, Hf was chosen to produce thermally stable Nb/Hf-HfOx/Nb superconductor tunnel Josephson junctions that can be grown or processed at elevated temperatures. Also elevated synthesis temperatures improve the structural and electrical properties of Nb electrode …

Contributors
Huang, Mengchu, Newman, Nathan, Rowell, John M., et al.
Created Date
2013

Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), also known as amylin, is a 37-residue intrinsically disordered hormone involved in glucose regulation and gastric emptying. The aggregation of hIAPP into amyloid fibrils is believed to play a causal role in type 2 diabetes. To date, not much is known about the monomeric state of hIAPP or how it undergoes an irreversible transformation from disordered peptide to insoluble aggregate. IAPP contains a highly conserved disulfide bond that restricts hIAPP(1-8) into a short ring-like structure: N_loop. Removal or chemical reduction of N_loop not only prevents cell response upon binding to the CGRP receptor, but also …

Contributors
Cope, Stephanie M., Vaiana, Sara M, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, et al.
Created Date
2013

This thesis describes the fabrication of several new classes of Ge1-x-ySixSny materials with the required compositions and crystal quality to engineer the band gaps above and below that of elemental Ge (0.8 eV) in the near IR. The work initially focused on Ge1-x-ySixSny (1-5% Sn, 4-20% Si) materials grown on Ge(100) via gas-source epitaxy of Ge4H10, Si4H10 and SnD4. Both intrinsic and doped layers were produced with defect-free microstructure and viable thickness, allowing the fabrication of high-performance photodetectors. These exhibited low ideality factors, state-of-the-art dark current densities and adjustable absorption edges between 0.87 and 1.03 eV, indicating that the band …

Contributors
Xu, Chi, Kouvetakis, John, Menendez, Jose, et al.
Created Date
2013

For this project, the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) has been calculated based on the recent direct supernova rate measurements and neutrino spectrum from SN1987A. The estimated diffuse electron antineutrino flux is &sim; 0.10 &ndash; 0.59 /cm2/s at 99% confidence level, which is 5 times lower than the Super-Kamiokande 2012 upper limit of 3.0 /cm2/s, above energy threshold of 17.3 MeV. With a Megaton scale water detector, 40 events could be detected above the threshold per year. In addition, the detectability of neutrino bursts from direct black hole forming collapses (failed supernovae) at Megaton detectors is calculated. These neutrino bursts …

Contributors
Yang, Lili, Lunardini, Cecilia, Alarcon, Ricardo, et al.
Created Date
2013

In this dissertation, the interface chemistry and electronic structure of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) dielectrics on GaN are investigated with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). Three interrelated issues are discussed in this study: (1) PEALD dielectric growth process optimization, (2) interface electronic structure of comparative PEALD dielectrics on GaN, and (3) interface electronic structure of PEALD dielectrics on Ga- and N-face GaN. The first study involved an in-depth case study of PEALD Al2O3 growth using dimethylaluminum isopropoxide, with a special focus on oxygen plasma effects. Saturated and self-limiting growth of Al2O3 films were obtained with an …

Contributors
Yang, Jialing, Nemanich, Robert J, Chen, Tingyong, et al.
Created Date
2014

ABSTRACT This thesis focuses on structural characterizations and optical properties of Si, Ge based semiconductor alloys. Two material systems are characterized: Si-based III-V/IV alloys, which represent a possible pathway to augment the optical performance of elemental silicon as a solar cell absorber layer, and Ge-based Ge1-ySny and Ge1-x-ySixSny systems which are applicable to long wavelength optoelectronics. Electron microscopy is the primary tool used to study structural properties. Electron Energy Loss spectroscopy (EELS), Ellipsometry, Photoluminescence and Raman Spectroscopy are combined to investigate electronic band structures and bonding properties. The experiments are closely coupled with structural and property modeling and theory. A …

Contributors
Jiang, Liying, Menendez, Jose, Kouvetakis, John, et al.
Created Date
2014

Single molecule identification is one essential application area of nanotechnology. The application areas including DNA sequencing, peptide sequencing, early disease detection and other industrial applications such as quantitative and quantitative analysis of impurities, etc. The recognition tunneling technique we have developed shows that after functionalization of the probe and substrate of a conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope with recognition molecules ("tethered molecule-pair" configuration), analyte molecules trapped in the gap that is formed by probe and substrate will bond with the reagent molecules. The stochastic bond formation/breakage fluctuations give insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level. …

Contributors
Zhao, Yanan, Lindsay, Stuart, Nemanich, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2014

This dissertation describes Space Vector 1 and Space Vector 2, two video games that introduce Newtonian mechanics concepts. Space Vector 1 is a side-scrolling game, in which players choose to drop bombs or supplies. Players had to identify if the physics was correct during a mission, or they had to plot the trajectory of a falling object, which was then simulated. In Space Vector 2, players were given velocity and acceleration values and had to plot the trajectory of a spaceship across a grid, or players were given a trajectory of a spaceship on a grid and had to program …

Contributors
Keylor, Eric Karl, Gee, James P., Stevens, Scott M., et al.
Created Date
2014

During the downswing all golfers must roll their forearms and twist the club handle in order to square the club face into impact. Anecdotally some instructors say that rapidly twisting the handle and quickly closing the club face is the best technique while others disagree and suggest the opposite. World class golfers have swings with a range of club handle twist velocities (HTV) from very slow to very fast and either method appears to create a successful swing. The purpose of this research was to discover the relationship between HTV at impact and selected body and club biomechanical characteristics during …

Contributors
Cheetham, Phillip, Hinrichs, Richard, Ringenbach, Shannon, et al.
Created Date
2014

Multiple quantum well (MQW) structures have been employed in a variety of solid state devices. The InGaAs/GaAs material system is of special interest for many optoelectronic applications. This study examines epitaxial growth and defect creation in InGaAs/GaAs MQWs at its initial stage. Correlations between physical properties, crystal perfection of epitaxial structures, and growth conditions under which desired properties are achieved appear as highly important for the realization and final performance of semiconductor based devices. Molecular beam epitaxy was utilized to grow InGaAs/GaAs MQW structures with a variation in deposition temperature T<sub>dep</sub> among the samples to change crystalline and physical properties. …

Contributors
Karow, Matthias, Honsberg, Christiana B, Faleev, Nikolai N, et al.
Created Date
2014

Urban scaling analysis has introduced a new scientific paradigm to the study of cities. With it, the notions of <italic>size</italic>, <italic>heterogeneity</italic> and <italic>structure</italic> have taken a leading role. These notions are assumed to be behind the causes for why cities differ from one another, sometimes wildly. However, the mechanisms by which size, heterogeneity and structure shape the general statistical patterns that describe urban economic output are still unclear. Given the rapid rate of urbanization around the globe, we need precise and formal mathematical understandings of these matters. In this context, I perform in this dissertation probabilistic, distributional and computational explorations …

Contributors
Gomez-Lievano, Andres, Lobo, José, Muneepeerakul, Rachata, et al.
Created Date
2014

Spin-orbit interactions are important in determining nuclear structure. They lead to a shift in the energy levels in the nuclear shell model, which could explain the sequence of magic numbers in nuclei. Also in nucleon-nucleon scattering, the large nucleon polarization observed perpendicular to the plane of scattering needs to be explained by adding the spin-orbit interactions in the potential. Their effects change the equation of state and other properties of nuclear matter. Therefore, the simulation of spin-orbit interactions is necessary in nuclear matter. The auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo is an effective and accurate method for calculating the ground state …

Contributors
Zhang, Jie, Schmidt, Kevin E, Alarcon, Ricardo, et al.
Created Date
2014

Group III-nitride semiconductors have been commercially used in the fabrication of light-emitting diodes and laser diodes, covering the ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectral range and exhibit unique properties suitable for modern optoelectronic applications. InGaN ternary alloys have energy band gaps ranging from 0.7 to 3.4 eV. It has a great potential in the application for high efficient solar cells. AlGaN ternary alloys have energy band gaps ranging from 3.4 to 6.2 eV. These alloys have a great potential in the application of deep ultra violet laser diodes. However, there are still many issues with these materials that remain to be solved. In this …

Contributors
Wei, Yong, Ponce, Fernando, Chizmeshya, Andrew, et al.
Created Date
2014

The continuous random network (CRN) model of network glasses is widely accepted as a model for materials such as vitreous silica and amorphous silicon. Although it has been more than eighty years since the proposal of the CRN, there has not been conclusive experimental evidence of the structure of glasses and amorphous materials. This has now changed with the advent of two-dimensional amorphous materials. Now, not only the distribution of rings but the actual atomic ring structure can be imaged in real space, allowing for greater charicterization of these types of networks. This dissertation reports the first work done on …

Contributors
Kumar, Avishek, Thorpe, Michael F, Ozkan, Sefika B, et al.
Created Date
2014

ABSTRACT X-Ray crystallography and NMR are two major ways of achieving atomic resolution of structure determination for macro biomolecules such as proteins. Recently, new developments of hard X-ray pulsed free electron laser XFEL opened up new possibilities to break the dilemma of radiation dose and spatial resolution in diffraction imaging by outrunning radiation damage with ultra high brightness femtosecond X-ray pulses, which is so short in time that the pulse terminates before atomic motion starts. A variety of experimental techniques for structure determination of macro biomolecules is now available including imaging of protein nanocrystals, single particles such as viruses, pump-probe …

Contributors
Wang, Dingjie, Spence, John CH, Weierstall, Uwe, et al.
Created Date
2014

The role of environmental factors that influence atmospheric propagation of sound originating from freeway noise sources is studied with a combination of field experiments and numerical simulations. Acoustic propagation models are developed and adapted for refractive index depending upon meteorological conditions. A high-resolution multi-nested environmental forecasting model forced by coarse global analysis is applied to predict real meteorological profiles at fine scales. These profiles are then used as input for the acoustic models. Numerical methods for producing higher resolution acoustic refractive index fields are proposed. These include spatial and temporal nested meteorological simulations with vertical grid refinement. It is shown …

Contributors
Shaffer, Stephen Richard, Moustaoui, Mohamed, Mahalov, Alex, et al.
Created Date
2014

Commercially pure (CP) and extra low interstitial (ELI) grade Ti-alloys present excellent corrosion resistance, lightweight, and formability making them attractive materials for expanded use in transportation and medical applications. However, the strength and toughness of CP titanium are affected by relatively small variations in their impurity/solute content (IC), e.g., O, Al, and V. This increase in strength is due to the fact that the solute either increases the critical stress required for the prismatic slip systems ({10-10}<1-210>) or activates another slip system ((0001)<11-20>, {10-11}<11-20>). In particular, solute additions such as O can effectively strengthen the alloy but with an attendant …

Contributors
Bhatia, Mehul Anoopkumar, Solanki, Kiran N, Peralta, Pedro, et al.
Created Date
2014

This thesis explores the different aspects of higher curvature gravity. The "membrane paradigm" of black holes in Einstein gravity is extended to black holes in f(R) gravity and it is shown that the higher curvature effects of f(R) gravity causes the membrane fluid to become non-Newtonian. Next a modification of the null energy condition in gravity is provided. The purpose of the null energy condition is to filter out ill-behaved theories containing ghosts. Conformal transformations, which are simple redefinitions of the spacetime, introduces serious violations of the null energy condition. This violation is shown to be spurious and a prescription …

Contributors
Chatterjee, Saugata, Parikh, Maulik K, Easson, Damien, et al.
Created Date
2014

Inductors are fundamental components that do not scale well. Their physical limitations to scalability along with their inherent losses make them the main obstacle in achieving monolithic system-on-chip platform (SoCP). For past decades researchers focused on integrating magnetic materials into on-chip inductors in the quest of achieving high inductance density and quality factor (QF). The state of the art on-chip inductor is made of an enclosed magnetic thin-film around the current carrying wire for maximum flux amplification. Though the integration of magnetic materials results in enhanced inductor characteristics, this approach has its own challenges and limitations especially in power applications. …

Contributors
Khdour, Mahmoud M., Yu, Hongbin, Pan, George, et al.
Created Date
2014

Fluctuation Electron Microscopy (FEM) has become an effective materials' structure characterization technique, capable of probing medium-range order (MRO) that may be present in amorphous materials. Although its sensitivity to MRO has been exercised in numerous studies, FEM is not yet a quantitative technique. The holdup has been the discrepancy between the computed kinematical variance and the experimental variance, which previously was attributed to source incoherence. Although high-brightness, high coherence, electron guns are now routinely available in modern electron microscopes, they have not eliminated this discrepancy between theory and experiment. The main objective of this thesis was to explore, and to …

Contributors
Rezikyan, Aram, Treacy, Michael M.J., Smith, David J., et al.
Created Date
2015

Off-axis electron holography (EH) has been used to characterize electrostatic potential, active dopant concentrations and charge distribution in semiconductor nanostructures, including ZnO nanowires (NWs) and thin films, ZnTe thin films, Si NWs with axial p-n junctions, Si-Ge axial heterojunction NWs, and Ge/LixGe core/shell NW. The mean inner potential (MIP) and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of ZnO NWs have been measured to be 15.3V±0.2V and 55±3nm, respectively, for 200keV electrons. These values were then used to characterize the thickness of a ZnO nano-sheet and gave consistent values. The MIP and IMFP for ZnTe thin films were measured to be 13.7±0.6V …

Contributors
Gan, Zhaofeng, McCartney, Martha R, Smith, David J, et al.
Created Date
2015

This dissertation research has involved microscopic characterization of magnetic nanostructures using off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy. The nanostructures investigated have included Co nanoparticles (NPs), Au/Fe/GaAs shell/core nanowires (NWs), carbon spirals with magnetic cores, magnetic nanopillars, Ni-Zn-Co spinel ferrite and CoFe/Pd multilayers. The studies have confirmed the capability of holography to describe the behavior of magnetic structures at the nanoscale. The phase changes caused by the fringing fields of chains consisting of Co NPs were measured and calculated. The difference between chains with different numbers of Co NPs followed the trend indicated by calculations. Holography studies of Au/Fe/GaAs NWs grown …

Contributors
Zhang, Desai, McCartney, Martha R, Smith, David J, et al.
Created Date
2015

Driven by the curiosity for the secret of life, the effort on sequencing of DNAs and other large biopolymers has never been respited. Advanced from recent sequencing techniques, nanotube and nanopore based sequencing has been attracting much attention. This thesis focuses on the study of first and crucial compartment of the third generation sequencing technique, the capture and translocation of biopolymers, and discuss the advantages and obstacles of two different nanofluidic pathways, nanotubes and nanopores for single molecule capturing and translocation. Carbon nanotubes with its constrained structure, the frictionless inner wall and strong electroosmotic flow, are promising materials for linearly …

Contributors
Song, Weisi, Lindsay, Stuart, Ros, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2015

With the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012, particle physics has decidedly moved beyond the Standard Model into a new epoch. Though the Standard Model particle content is now completely accounted for, there remain many theoretical issues about the structure of the theory in need of resolution. Among these is the hierarchy problem: since the renormalized Higgs mass receives quadratic corrections from a higher cutoff scale, what keeps the Higgs boson light? Many possible solutions to this problem have been advanced, such as supersymmetry, Randall-Sundrum models, or sub-millimeter corrections to gravity. One such solution has been advanced by the …

Contributors
TerBeek, Russell Henry, Lebed, Richard F, Alarcon, Ricardo, et al.
Created Date
2015

The atomic force microscope (AFM) is capable of directly probing the mechanics of samples with length scales from single molecules to tissues and force scales from pico to micronewtons. In particular, AFM is widely used as a tool to measure the elastic modulus of soft biological samples by collecting force-indentation relationships and fitting these to classic elastic contact models. However, the analysis of raw force-indentation data may be complicated by mechanical heterogeneity present in biological systems. An analytical model of an elastic indentation on a bonded two-layer sample was solved. This may be used to account for substrate effects and …

Contributors
Doss, Bryant Lee, Ros, Robert, Lindsay, Stuart, et al.
Created Date
2015

GaN and AlGaN have shown great potential in next-generation power and RF electronics. However, these devices are limited by reliability issues such as leakage current and current collapse that result from surface and interface states on GaN and AlGaN. This dissertation, therefore, examined these electronic states, focusing on the following two points: First, the surface electronic state configuration was examined with regards to the polarization bound 1013 charges/cm2 that increases with aluminum content. This large bound charge requires compensation either externally by surface states or internally by the space charge regions as relates to band bending. In this work, band …

Contributors
Eller, Brianna, Nemanich, Robert J, Chowdhury, Srabanti, et al.
Created Date
2015

This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots (QDs). The first step of this project was to investigate the growth of Ag islands on Si(100). Two distinct families of Ag islands have been observed. “Big islands” are clearly faceted and have basal dimensions in the few hundred nm to μm range with a variety of basal shapes. “Small islands” are not clearly faceted and have basal diameters in the 10s of nm range. Big islands form via a …

Contributors
Kong, Dexin, Drucker, Jeffery, Chen, Tingyong, et al.
Created Date
2015

In this dissertation, I described my research on the growth and characterization of various nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets, of different semiconductors in a Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system. In the first part of my research, I selected chalcogenides (such as CdS and CdSe) for a comprehensive study in growing two-segment axial nanowires and radial nanobelts/sheets using the ternary CdSxSe1-x alloys. I demonstrated simultaneous red (from CdSe-rich) and green (from CdS-rich) light emission from a single monolithic heterostructure with a maximum wavelength separation of 160 nm. I also demonstrated the first simultaneous two-color lasing from a single nanosheet …

Contributors
TURKDOGAN, SUNAY, Ning, Cun Zheng, Palais, Joseph C, et al.
Created Date
2015

Many physical phenomena and industrial applications involve multiphase fluid flows and hence it is of high importance to be able to simulate various aspects of these flows accurately. The Dynamic Contact Angles (DCA) and the contact lines at the wall boundaries are a couple of such important aspects. In the past few decades, many mathematical models were developed for predicting the contact angles of the inter-face with the wall boundary under various flow conditions. These models are used to incorporate the physics of DCA and contact line motion in numerical simulations using various interface capturing/tracking techniques. In the current thesis, …

Contributors
Pendota, Premchand, Herrmann, Marcus, Rykaczewski, Konrad, et al.
Created Date
2015

The study of deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) in explosives is of prime importance with regards to insensitive munitions (IM). Critical damage owing to thermal or shock stimuli could translate to significant loss of life and material. The present study models detonation and deflagration of a commonly used granular explosive: cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine, HMX. A robust literature review is followed by computational modeling of gas gun and DDT tube test data using the Sandia National Lab three-dimensional multi-material Eulerian hydrocode CTH. This dissertation proposes new computational practices and models that aid in predicting shock stimulus IM response. CTH was first used to …

Contributors
Mahon, Kelly Susan, Lee, Taewoo, Herrmann, Marcus, et al.
Created Date
2015

Sample delivery is an essential component in biological imaging using serial diffraction from X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL) and synchrotrons. Recent developments have made possible the near-atomic resolution structure determination of several important proteins, including one G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) drug target, whose structure could not easily have been determined otherwise (Appendix A). In this thesis I describe new sample delivery developments that are paramount to advancing this field beyond what has been accomplished to date. Soft Lithography was used to implement sample conservation in the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN). A PDMS/glass composite microfluidic injector was created and given …

Contributors
Nelson, Garrett, Spence, John C, Weierstall, Uwe J, et al.
Created Date
2015

Due to the ever increasing relevance of finer machining control as well as necessary reduction in material waste by large area semiconductor device manufacturers, a novel bulk laser machining method was investigated. Because the cost of silicon and sapphire substrates are limiting to the reduction in cost of devices in both the light emitting diode (LED) and solar industries, and the present substrate wafering process results in >50% waste, the need for an improved ingot wafering technique exists. The focus of this work is the design and understanding of a novel semiconductor wafering technique that utilizes the nonlinear absorption properties …

Contributors
LeBeau, James, Bowden, Stuart, Honsberg, Christiana, et al.
Created Date
2015

InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) can be considered as potential alternatives for conventional HgCdTe photodetectors due to improved uniformity, lower manufacturing costs with larger substrates, and possibly better device performance. This dissertation presents a comprehensive study on the structural, optical and electrical properties of InAs/InAsSb T2SLs grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The effects of different growth conditions on the structural quality were thoroughly investigated. Lattice-matched condition was successfully achieved and material of exceptional quality was demonstrated. After growth optimization had been achieved, structural defects could hardly be detected, so different characterization techniques, including etch-pit-density (EPD) measurements, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and X-ray …

Contributors
Shen, Xiaomeng, Zhang, Yong-Hang, Smith, David J, et al.
Created Date
2015

Group-IV semiconductor alloys are of interest for Si-integrated optoelectronic applications due to the band gap tunability and enhanced optical capabilities that can be achieved through compositional tuning. This work advances the field by presenting a systematic study of the optical and electronic properties of Ge1-ySny and analogous Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys. The fundamental direct and indirect band gaps of Ge1-ySny materials are measured by room temperature photoluminescence in samples containing 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.11 and a transition to direct gap materials is found to occur at yc = 0.087. This result is enabled by the development of sample growth and processing …

Contributors
Gallagher, James Dennis, Menendez, Jose, Kouvetakis, John, et al.
Created Date
2015

A theoretical study of a three-dimensional (3D) N/S interface with arbitrary spin polarization and interface geometry is presented. The 3D model gives the same intrinsic spin polarization and superconducting gap dependence as the 1D model. This demonstrates that the 1D model can be use to t 3D data. Using this model, a Heusler alloy is investigated. Andreev reflection measurements show that the spin polarization is 80% in samples sputtered on unheated MgO(100) substrates and annealed at high temperatures. However, the spin polarization is considerably smaller in samples deposited on heated substrates. Ferromagnetic FexSi􀀀x alloys have been proposed as potential spin …

Contributors
Gifford, Jessica Anna, Chen, Tingyong, Bennett, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2015

Multifunctional oxide thin-films grown on silicon and several oxide substrates have been characterized using High Resolution (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), and Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). Oxide thin films grown on SrTiO3/Si pseudo-substrate showed the presence of amorphised SrTiO3 (STO) at the STO/Si interface. Oxide/oxide interfaces were observed to be atomically clean with very few defects. Al-doped SrTiO3 thin films grown on Si were of high crystalline quality. The Ti/O ratio estimated from EELS line scans revealed that substitution of Ti by Al created associated O vacancies. The strength of the crystal field in STO was …

Contributors
Dhamdhere, Ajit R., SMITH, DAVID J, McCartney, Martha R., et al.
Created Date
2015

In disordered soft matter system, amorphous and crystalline components might be coexisted. The interaction between the two distinct structures and the correlation within the crystalline components are crucial to the macroscopic property of the such material. The spider dragline silk biopolymer, is one of such soft matter material that exhibits exceptional mechanical strength though its mass density is considerably small compare to structural metal. Through wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), the research community learned that the silk fiber is mainly composed of amorphous backbone and $\beta$-sheet nano-crystals. However, the morphology of the crystalline system within the fiber is still not clear. …

Contributors
Mou, Qiushi, Yarger, Jeffery, Benmore, Chris, et al.
Created Date
2015

In this work, the insight provided by our sophisticated Full Band Monte Carlo simulator is used to analyze the behavior of state-of-art devices like GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and Hot Electron Transistors. Chapter 1 is dedicated to the description of the simulation tool used to obtain the results shown in this work. Moreover, a separate section is dedicated the set up of a procedure to validate to the tunneling algorithm recently implemented in the simulator. Chapter 2 introduces High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), state-of-art devices characterized by highly non linear transport phenomena that require the use of advanced simulation …

Contributors
Soligo, Riccardo, Saraniti, Marco, Goodnick, Stephen M, et al.
Created Date
2016

The muon problem of flavor physics presents a rich opportunity to study beyond standard model physics. The as yet undiscovered bound state (μ+μ-), called true muonium, presents a unique opportunity to investigate the muon problem. The near-future experimental searches for true muonium will produce it relativistically, preventing the easy application of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In this thesis, quantum field theory methods based on light-front quantization are used to solve an effective Hamiltonian for true muonium in the Fock space of |μ+μ-> , |μ+μ-γ> , |e+e->, |e+e-γ>, |τ+τ-> , and |τ+τ-γ> . To facilitate these calculations a new parallel code, True …

Contributors
Lamm, Henry, Lebed, Richard F, Belitsky, Andrei, et al.
Created Date
2016

In the first part of this thesis, we use the generalized Landau-level represen- tation to study the effect of screening on the properties of the graphene quantum Hall states with integer filling factors. The analysis is performed in the low-energy Dirac model in the mean-field approximation, in which the long-range Coulomb in- teraction is modified by the one-loop static screening effects. The solutions demon- strate that static screening leads to a substantial suppression of the gap parameters in the quantum Hall states with a broken U (4) flavor symmetry. The results of the temperature dependence of the energy gaps mimic …

Contributors
Xia, Lifang, Shovkovy, Igor, Lebed, Richard, et al.
Created Date
2016