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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


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2012 2019


In October, 2009, participants of the Arizona Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) began receiving monthly Cash Value Vouchers (CVV) worth between six and 10 dollars towards the purchase of fresh fruits and vegetables. Data from the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) showed CVV redemption rates in the first two years of the program were lower than the national average of 77% redemption. In response, the ADHS WIC Food List was expanded to also include canned and frozen fruits and vegetables. More recent data from ADHS suggest that redemption rates are improving, but variably exist …

Contributors
Bertmann, Farryl Mw, Wharton, Christopher, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2013

Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption continues to lag far behind US Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommendations. Interventions targeting individuals' dietary behaviors address only a small fraction of dietary influences. Changing the food environment by increasing availability of and excitement for FV through local food production has shown promise as a method for enhancing intake. However, the extent to which local production is sufficient to meet recommended FV intakes, or actual intakes, of specific populations remains largely unconsidered. This study was the first of its kind to evaluate the capacity to support FV intake of Arizona's population with statewide production of …

Contributors
Vaudrin, Nicole, Wharton, Christopher, Bruening, Meg, et al.
Created Date
2013

Vitamin B12, found only in animal products, is a water-soluble vitamin important for DNA methylation, purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and the myelination of nerves. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include anemia, gait disturbances, altered vibration proprioception, impaired vision, psychosis, depression, dementia-like illness, and ultimately death. Because vegetarians and vegans consume fewer animal products in their diet than omnivores, they are inherently more at risk for developing these symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between nervous system markers (balance, dexterity, and vibration sensitivity) and markers of vitamin B12 nutriture (serum B12 …

Contributors
Arnold, Taylor Ann, Johnston, Carol, Whisner, Corrie, et al.
Created Date
2016

As part of the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide are required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards in order to help consumers make healthier decisions when dining out. Previous studies that have evaluated menu-labeling policies show mixed results and the majority have been conducted in urban cities along the east coast. This study was the first to look at the effectiveness of menu labeling in a southwest population. The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if noticing or using calorie menu labels in …

Contributors
Green, Jessie E., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Bruening, Meg, et al.
Created Date
2014

Background: Previous research suggests a healthy eater schema (i.e., identifying yourself as a healthy eater) may be a useful concept to target in interventions. A "stealth" intervention that discussed the moral issues related to food worked better at promoting healthful eating than an intervention focused on the health benefits. No research has explored the relationship between moral foundations, a theoretical model focused on delineating core "foundations" for making a moral decision, and healthy eater self-identity or self-efficacy. Purpose: We explored the relationship between moral foundations (i.e., harm/care, fairness/reciprocity, in-group/loyalty, authority/respect, & purity/sanctity) and health eater self-identity and fruit and vegetable …

Contributors
Kiser, Sarah, Hekler, Eric B, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2013

The increase in obesity since the 1980's has been associated with fast-food consumption. In hopes that calorie labeling will be an effective tool to combat obesity, congress included a provision in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) that will require all restaurants with twenty or more locations to post calorie information for each menu item. Current research has provided mixed results regarding the effectiveness of calorie labeling, but overall seems to suggest that calorie labeling may only be effective among certain populations. In September, 2012 McDonald's began to post calorie labels on their menu boards before …

Contributors
Brown, Alan, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Bruening, Meredith, et al.
Created Date
2013

Salad bars are promoted as a means to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among school-age children; however, no study has assessed barriers to having salad bars. Further, it is not known if barriers differ across school level. This cross-sectional study investigated the barriers to having salad bars across school level among schools without salad bars in Arizona (n=177). Multivariate binominal regression models were used to determine differences between the barriers and school level, adjusting for years at current job, enrollment of school, free-reduced eligibility rate and district level clustering. The top five barriers were not enough staff (51.4%), lack of …

Contributors
Kebric, Kelsey Anne, Bruening, Meg, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2016

Individuals in urban low-income areas often do not have easy access to large grocery stores and supermarkets, and regularly shop at nearby small/corner stores. These stores stock an abundance of processed, energy-dense, nutrient poor foods, combined with few nutrient-dense products. A high concentration of small/corner stores is associated with poor diets by nearby residents. Interventions that target small food stores for increasing the availability and sale of healthy foods have been launched in many communities, and validated survey instruments have been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions. However, in-store surveys can take up to thirty minutes to conduct …

Contributors
DeWeese, Robin, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Todd, Mike, et al.
Created Date
2015

Determining the factors associated with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in the household may help in understanding the varying complexities that contribute to obesity among children and help design interventions to impact children's food consumption behaviors. This study examined factors that are associated with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in children's home food environments (HFE). Data was collected from a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1708 households, with at least one child between 3-18 years of age, located in five low-income New Jersey cities. HFE was assessed based on responses to a set of six items that …

Contributors
Berry, Andrea I., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012

Background: Individuals in the general populations with a known gluten disorder is believed to be 6% and it is unclear why the gluten free diet (GFD) has risen sharply (28%) in recent years. However, science has revealed that gluten can cause colonic changes in those undiagnosed with a known gluten disorder. The ramifications of these changes are unknown. Three common ingredients found in gluten free products, such as pasta, are corn quinoa and rice. Evidence from the scientific literature has shown that corn and quinoa can produce more colonic hydrogen than refined wheat and rice, indicating that corn and quinoa …

Contributors
Snyder, Darren Lawrence, Johnston, Carol, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2015

Objectives: This study examines weight loss strategies (eating, physical activity (PA), or both) adopted by overweight or obese (OWOB) parents and children in relation to age, income, gender, education, and race/ethnicity in a predominantly low-income and high minority sample. We also examine if OWOB parent-child dyads employed the same strategies to lose weight, and how these strategies vary by demographic variables. Methods: Data was compiled from the New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study (NJCOB). A random digit dial household phone survey was used to select 1,708 households with at least one child aged 3-18 years from five cities in New Jersey. …

Contributors
Dwaik, Noor Fathi, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Tasevska, Natasha, et al.
Created Date
2016

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related health issues. Recent research shows that a child's age and gender are associated with parental misperception of their child's weight status, but little is known about the interaction of these factors across various age groups. This study examined the association between a wide range of parent, child, and household factors and the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body …

Contributors
Bader, Wendy L., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Lloyd, Kristen, et al.
Created Date
2013

Fruit and vegetable consumption among school children falls short of current recommendations. The development of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP), which combine the resources of government entities with the resources of private entities, such as businesses or not-for-profit agencies, has been suggested as an effective approach to address a number of public health concerns, including inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) provides fruits and vegetables as snacks at least twice per week in low-income elementary schools. In addition to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption behaviors at school, children participating in …

Contributors
Gruner, Jessie Green, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Evans, Browynne, et al.
Created Date
2017

Childhood obesity has been on the rise for the past decade, and it has been hypothesized that students' food choices may be influenced by easy access to food outlets near their schools that provide unhealthful options. But the results of recent studies on the relationship between the food environment around schools and student weight status are mixed and often contradictory. Most studies have used measures of weight and height that were self-reported by students, or have relied on data from a relatively small sample of students. I examine the association between weight status among school students and the food environment …

Contributors
Tang, Xuyang, Abbott, Joshua K, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2013

In recent years, overall consumption of meat products has been decreasing, and at the same time vegetarianism is on the rise. A variety of factors are likely driving changes in consumers' attitudes towards, and consumption of, meat products. Although concern regarding animal welfare may contribute to these trends, growing consumer interest in the roles that production and processing of meat play in terms of environmental degradation could also impact individuals' decisions about the inclusion of meat in their diets. Because these factors could be related to moral attitudes as well, the purpose of this study was to explore the relations …

Contributors
Bond, Leeann, Wharton, Christopher, Hekler, Eric, et al.
Created Date
2013

Objective: The purpose of this randomized parallel arm trial was to demonstrate the effects of daily fish oil supplementation (600mg per day for eight weeks) on body composition and body mass in young healthy women, aged 18-38, at a large southwestern university. Design: 26 non-obese (mean BMI 23.7±0.6 kg/m2), healthy women (18-38y; mean, 23.5±1.1 y) from a southwestern Arizona university campus community completed the study. Subjects were healthy, non-smokers, consuming less than 3.5 oz of fish per week according to self-report. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: FISH (600 mg omega-3 fatty acids provided in one gel capsule …

Contributors
Teran, Bianca Maria, Johnston, Carol, Johnson, Melinda, et al.
Created Date
2013

Background: Higher intake of carbohydrates in the evening and later eating times has been associated with higher total energy intake (TEI)1-3 and higher risk of being overweight or obese.1,4 Though existing evidence indicates a link between added sugars intake and increased body mass index (BMI), the effect of daily patterns of added sugars intake on TEI and BMI is unknown. Research on added sugars has relied on self-report dietary assessments with limited days of dietary data, resulting in unreliable estimates. The purpose of this thesis was to describe patterns of added sugars consumption, and to investigate the relationship between dietary …

Contributors
Gunnerson, Hannah Marie, Tasevska, Natasha, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2019

Objectives This cross-sectional study sought to assess the eating and physical activity behaviors among in-state and out-of-state college freshmen attending Arizona State University and to determine if social connectedness mediated the relationship between residency status and eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods College freshmen from two dormitories were recruited for participation from Arizona State University’s Tempe campus. A 128-item survey assessing demographics, college life, eating and physical activity behaviors, and social connectedness was administered. In addition, participants completed up to three days of dietary recall. Multivariate linear regression models, adjusting for age, gender, race, ethnicity, highest parental education, dormitory, Pell …

Contributors
Nelson, Stephanie Aleece, Bruening, Meg, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2016

Health knowledge alone does not appear to lead to sustained healthy behavior, suggesting the need for alternative methods for improving diet. Recent research shows a possible role of moral contexts of food production on diet related behaviors; however no studies have been conducted to specifically explore the relationship between moral constructs and food consumption. This study examined the relationship between fast food consumption and two measures of morality, Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ), specifically harm/care and purity/sanctity foundations, and the Ethical Concern in food choice (EC) questionnaire, which includes animal welfare, environment protection, political values, and religion subscales. The study also …

Contributors
Martinelli, Sarah, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Hekler, Eric B., et al.
Created Date
2013

While literature has examined the associations between emotions and overeating, rarely is the relationship between emotions and food choices included. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to utilize mobile-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys to determine the associations among negative, positive, apathetic, and mixed emotions and a variety of food choices in college freshmen living in residence halls. A total of 2142 survey responses from 647 college freshmen were included in this analysis (70.3% female, 51.5% non-white). Mixed model logistic regression assessed the cross-sectional association between emotions and food choices adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, Pell grant status, highest …

Contributors
Ashurst, Jessica, Bruening, Meg, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2016

Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Dietary behaviors influence the risk of developing multiple chronic diseases. The U.S. population consumes too few fruits and vegetables and too much sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast food. The Social Ecological Model (SEM) was created as a framework for health promotion interventions. The SEM organizes factors that can influence health into five layers: intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes, institutional/organizational factors, community factors, and public policy. Each layer can influence dietary behaviors and other layers. This work aims to understand how the community layer, represented by the food environment, …

Contributors
Lorts, Cori, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Adams, Marc, et al.
Created Date
2017

Although many studies have looked into the benefits and consequences of consuming breakfast, most have not looked into the unintended consequences of breakfast being served at school; specifically the consumption of an additional breakfast. This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence and health related outcomes of the consumption of an additional breakfast at school amongst youth using a survey assessing possible predictors (i.e. parental education, morning activities, race), the ASA-kids 24-hr dietary recall, and height and weight measurements. A total of fifty-eight participants (aged 13.5±1.6 years; 55.2% male) were recruited at after school library programs and Boys and Girls Clubs in …

Contributors
Simpson, Julie, Bruening, Meg, Bruening, Meg, et al.
Created Date
2015

Objectives Through a cross-sectional observational study, this thesis evaluates the relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress as it relates to predominantly Hispanic/Latino parents in Phoenix, Arizona. The purpose of this study was to address gaps in the literature by examining differences in "healthy" and "unhealthy" eating behaviors, foods available in the home, how time and low energy impact meal preparation, and the level of stress between food security groups. Methods Parents, 18 years or older, were recruited during two pre-scheduled health fairs, from English as a …

Contributors
Villanova, Christina Rose, Bruening, Meg, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2014

Background: College freshmen are exposed to a variety of environmental and social factors that can alter changes to health habits and encourage weight gain. Weight-related conversations had with friends may be related to self-perception of weight and alterations to health behaviors, but this association has yet to be assessed in the college population. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationship between friend advice about weight management, self-perception of weight, and alterations to weight change intentions, physical activity, and eating habits in college freshmen over time. Methods: College freshmen from ASU with complete data for three time points (n=321) were …

Contributors
Thibodeau, Tristan, Bruening, Meg, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2016

Objective: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a federally-funded program that provides supplemental food packages, nutrition education, and healthcare referrals to low-income women, infants, and children under 5, who are at the highest nutritional risk. This study explores if household WIC participation is associated with healthier dietary behaviors among age-ineligible children (5-18-years-old) in WIC households. Consumption frequency of fruits, vegetables, 100% juice, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and energy-dense snacks (sweet and salty snacks) among children from WIC and income-qualifying non-WIC households were compared. Methods: Data were obtained from two cross-sectional panels (2009-10 and 2014) of …

Contributors
Steeves, Stephanie Nicole, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Tasevska, Natasha, et al.
Created Date
2019