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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Subject
Date Range
2010 2018


Advances in the area of ubiquitous, pervasive and wearable computing have resulted in the development of low band-width, data rich environmental and body sensor networks, providing a reliable and non-intrusive methodology for capturing activity data from humans and the environments they inhabit. Assistive technologies that promote independent living amongst elderly and individuals with cognitive impairment are a major motivating factor for sensor-based activity recognition systems. However, the process of discerning relevant activity information from these sensor streams such as accelerometers is a non-trivial task and is an on-going research area. The difficulty stems from factors such as spatio-temporal variations in …

Contributors
Chatapuram Krishnan, Narayanan, Panchanathan, Sethuraman, Sundaram, Hari, et al.
Created Date
2010

Reverse engineering gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is an important problem in the domain of Systems Biology. Learning GRNs is challenging due to the inherent complexity of the real regulatory networks and the heterogeneity of samples in available biomedical data. Real world biological data are commonly collected from broad surveys (profiling studies) and aggregate highly heterogeneous biological samples. Popular methods to learn GRNs simplistically assume a single universal regulatory network corresponding to available data. They neglect regulatory network adaptation due to change in underlying conditions and cellular phenotype or both. This dissertation presents a novel computational framework to learn common regulatory …

Contributors
Sen, Ina, Kim, Seungchan, Baral, Chitta, et al.
Created Date
2011

The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a specification that aims to support the conceptual modeling of metadata or information about resources in the form of a directed graph composed of triples of knowledge (facts). RDF also provides mechanisms to encode meta-information (such as source, trust, and certainty) about facts already existing in a knowledge base through a process called reification. In this thesis, an extension to the current RDF specification is proposed in order to enhance RDF triples with an application specific weight (cost). Unlike reification, this extension treats these additional weights as first class knowledge attributes in the RDF …

Contributors
Cedeno, Juan Pablo, Candan, Kasim S, Chen, Yi, et al.
Created Date
2010

Current trends in the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) involve the integration of legacy mesh-based finite element software with newer solid-modeling kernels or full CAD systems in order to simplify laborious or highly specialized tasks in engineering analysis. In particular, mesh generation is becoming increasingly automated. In addition, emphasis is increasingly placed on full assembly (multi-part) models, which in turn necessitates an automated approach to contact analysis. This task is challenging due to increases in algebraic system size, as well as increases in the number of distorted elements - both of which necessitate manual intervention to maintain accuracy and conserve computer …

Contributors
Grishin, Alexander, Shah, Jami J., Davidson, Joe, et al.
Created Date
2010

Real-world environments are characterized by non-stationary and continuously evolving data. Learning a classification model on this data would require a framework that is able to adapt itself to newer circumstances. Under such circumstances, transfer learning has come to be a dependable methodology for improving classification performance with reduced training costs and without the need for explicit relearning from scratch. In this thesis, a novel instance transfer technique that adapts a "Cost-sensitive" variation of AdaBoost is presented. The method capitalizes on the theoretical and functional properties of AdaBoost to selectively reuse outdated training instances obtained from a "source" domain to effectively …

Contributors
Venkatesan, Ashok, Panchanathan, Sethuraman, Li, Baoxin, et al.
Created Date
2011

This dissertation studies routing in small-world networks such as grids plus long-range edges and real networks. Kleinberg showed that geography-based greedy routing in a grid-based network takes an expected number of steps polylogarithmic in the network size, thus justifying empirical efficiency observed beginning with Milgram. A counterpart for the grid-based model is provided; it creates all edges deterministically and shows an asymptotically matching upper bound on the route length. The main goal is to improve greedy routing through a decentralized machine learning process. Two considered methods are based on weighted majority and an algorithm of de Farias and Megiddo, both …

Contributors
Bakun, Oleg, Konjevod, Goran, Richa, Andrea, et al.
Created Date
2011

In the current millennium, extensive use of computers and the internet caused an exponential increase in information. Few research areas are as important as information extraction, which primarily involves extracting concepts and the relations between them from free text. Limitations in the size of training data, lack of lexicons and lack of relationship patterns are major factors for poor performance in information extraction. This is because the training data cannot possibly contain all concepts and their synonyms; and it contains only limited examples of relationship patterns between concepts. Creating training data, lexicons and relationship patterns is expensive, especially in the …

Contributors
Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy, Gonzalez, Graciela H, Cohen, Trevor A, et al.
Created Date
2011

Internet sites that support user-generated content, so-called Web 2.0, have become part of the fabric of everyday life in technologically advanced nations. Users collectively spend billions of hours consuming and creating content on social networking sites, weblogs (blogs), and various other types of sites in the United States and around the world. Given the fundamentally emotional nature of humans and the amount of emotional content that appears in Web 2.0 content, it is important to understand how such websites can affect the emotions of users. This work attempts to determine whether emotion spreads through an online social network (OSN). To …

Contributors
Cole, William David, Liu, Huan, Sarjoughian, Hessam, et al.
Created Date
2011

Natural Language Processing is a subject that combines computer science and linguistics, aiming to provide computers with the ability to understand natural language and to develop a more intuitive human-computer interaction. The research community has developed ways to translate natural language to mathematical formalisms. It has not yet been shown, however, how to automatically translate different kinds of knowledge in English to distinct formal languages. Most of the recent work presents the problem that the translation method aims to a specific formal language or is hard to generalize. In this research, I take a first step to overcome this difficulty …

Contributors
Alvarez Gonzalez, Marcos, Baral, Chitta, Lee, Joohyung, et al.
Created Date
2010

This thesis deals with the analysis of interpersonal communication dynamics in online social networks and social media. Our central hypothesis is that communication dynamics between individuals manifest themselves via three key aspects: the information that is the content of communication, the social engagement i.e. the sociological framework emergent of the communication process, and the channel i.e. the media via which communication takes place. Communication dynamics have been of interest to researchers from multi-faceted domains over the past several decades. However, today we are faced with several modern capabilities encompassing a host of social media websites. These sites feature variegated interactional …

Contributors
De Choudhury, Munmun, Sundaram, Hari, Candan, K. Selcuk, et al.
Created Date
2011

Genes have widely different pertinences to the etiology and pathology of diseases. Thus, they can be ranked according to their disease-significance on a genomic scale, which is the subject of gene prioritization. Given a set of genes known to be related to a disease, it is reasonable to use them as a basis to determine the significance of other candidate genes, which will then be ranked based on the association they exhibit with respect to the given set of known genes. Experimental and computational data of various kinds have different reliability and relevance to a disease under study. This work …

Contributors
Lee, Jang, Gonzalez, Graciela, Ye, Jieping, et al.
Created Date
2011

Continuous advancements in biomedical research have resulted in the production of vast amounts of scientific data and literature discussing them. The ultimate goal of computational biology is to translate these large amounts of data into actual knowledge of the complex biological processes and accurate life science models. The ability to rapidly and effectively survey the literature is necessary for the creation of large scale models of the relationships among biomedical entities as well as hypothesis generation to guide biomedical research. To reduce the effort and time spent in performing these activities, an intelligent search system is required. Even though many …

Contributors
Kanwar, Pradeep, Davulcu, Hasan, Dinu, Valentin, et al.
Created Date
2010

We solve the problem of activity verification in the context of sustainability. Activity verification is the process of proving the user assertions pertaining to a certain activity performed by the user. Our motivation lies in incentivizing the user for engaging in sustainable activities like taking public transport or recycling. Such incentivization schemes require the system to verify the claim made by the user. The system verifies these claims by analyzing the supporting evidence captured by the user while performing the activity. The proliferation of portable smart-phones in the past few years has provided us with a ubiquitous and relatively cheap …

Contributors
Desai, Vaishnav Jagannath, Sundaram, Hari, Li, Baoxin, et al.
Created Date
2013

Embedded Networked Systems (ENS) consist of various devices, which are embedded into physical objects (e.g., home appliances, vehicles, buidlings, people). With rapid advances in processing and networking technologies, these devices can be fully connected and pervasive in the environment. The devices can interact with the physical world, collaborate to share resources, and provide context-aware services. This dissertation focuses on collaboration in ENS to provide smart services. However, there are several challenges because the system must be - scalable to a huge number of devices; robust against noise, loss and failure; and secure despite communicating with strangers. To address these challenges, …

Contributors
Kim, Su Jin, Gupta, Sandeep K. S., Dasgupta, Partha, et al.
Created Date
2010

In order to catch the smartest criminals in the world, digital forensics examiners need a means of collaborating and sharing information with each other and outside experts that is not prohibitively difficult. However, standard operating procedures and the rules of evidence generally disallow the use of the collaboration software and techniques that are currently available because they do not fully adhere to the dictated procedures for the handling, analysis, and disclosure of items relating to cases. The aim of this work is to conceive and design a framework that provides a completely new architecture that 1) can perform fundamental functions …

Contributors
Mabey, Michael Kent, Ahn, Gail-Joon, Yau, Stephen S, et al.
Created Date
2011

With the introduction of compressed sensing and sparse representation,many image processing and computer vision problems have been looked at in a new way. Recent trends indicate that many challenging computer vision and image processing problems are being solved using compressive sensing and sparse representation algorithms. This thesis assays some applications of compressive sensing and sparse representation with regards to image enhancement, restoration and classication. The first application deals with image Super-Resolution through compressive sensing based sparse representation. A novel framework is developed for understanding and analyzing some of the implications of compressive sensing in reconstruction and recovery of an image …

Contributors
Kulkarni, Naveen, Li, Baoxin, Ye, Jieping, et al.
Created Date
2011

The fields of pattern recognition and machine learning are on a fundamental quest to design systems that can learn the way humans do. One important aspect of human intelligence that has so far not been given sufficient attention is the capability of humans to express when they are certain about a decision, or when they are not. Machine learning techniques today are not yet fully equipped to be trusted with this critical task. This work seeks to address this fundamental knowledge gap. Existing approaches that provide a measure of confidence on a prediction such as learning algorithms based on the …

Contributors
Nallure Balasubramanian, Vineeth, Panchanathan, Sethuraman, Ye, Jieping, et al.
Created Date
2010

Today, many wireless networks are single-channel systems. However, as the interest in wireless services increases, the contention by nodes to occupy the medium is more intense and interference worsens. One direction with the potential to increase system throughput is multi-channel systems. Multi-channel systems have been shown to reduce collisions and increase concurrency thus producing better bandwidth usage. However, the well-known hidden- and exposed-terminal problems inherited from single-channel systems remain, and a new channel selection problem is introduced. In this dissertation, Multi-channel medium access control (MAC) protocols are proposed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for nodes equipped with a single …

Contributors
Moon, Yuhan, Syrotiuk, Violet R, Huang, Dijiang, et al.
Created Date
2010

Time series analysis of dynamic networks is an important area of study that helps in predicting changes in networks. Changes in networks are used to analyze deviations in the network characteristics. This analysis helps in characterizing any network that has dynamic behavior. This area of study has applications in many domains such as communication networks, climate networks, social networks, transportation networks, and biological networks. The aim of this research is to analyze the structural characteristics of such dynamic networks. This thesis examines tools that help to analyze the structure of the networks and explores a technique for computation and analysis …

Contributors
Paramasivam, Kumaraguru, Colbourn, Charles J, Sen, Arunabhas, et al.
Created Date
2011

Most existing approaches to complex event processing over streaming data rely on the assumption that the matches to the queries are rare and that the goal of the system is to identify these few matches within the incoming deluge of data. In many applications, such as stock market analysis and user credit card purchase pattern monitoring, however the matches to the user queries are in fact plentiful and the system has to efficiently sift through these many matches to locate only the few most preferable matches. In this work, we propose a complex pattern ranking (CPR) framework for specifying top-k …

Contributors
Wang, Xinxin, Candan, K. Selcuk, Chen, Yi, et al.
Created Date
2011

This thesis describes a synthetic task environment, CyberCog, created for the purposes of 1) understanding and measuring individual and team situation awareness in the context of a cyber security defense task and 2) providing a context for evaluating algorithms, visualizations, and other interventions that are intended to improve cyber situation awareness. CyberCog provides an interactive environment for conducting human-in-loop experiments in which the participants of the experiment perform the tasks of a cyber security defense analyst in response to a cyber-attack scenario. CyberCog generates the necessary performance measures and interaction logs needed for measuring individual and team cyber situation awareness. …

Contributors
Rajivan, Prashanth, Femiani, John, Cooke, Nancy, et al.
Created Date
2011

Prognostics and health management (PHM) is a method that permits the reliability of a system to be evaluated in its actual application conditions. This work involved developing a robust system to determine the advent of failure. Using the data from the PHM experiment, a model was developed to estimate the prognostic features and build a condition based system based on measured prognostics. To enable prognostics, a framework was developed to extract load parameters required for damage assessment from irregular time-load data. As a part of the methodology, a database engine was built to maintain and monitor the experimental data. This …

Contributors
Varadarajan, Gayathri, Liu, Huan, Ye, Jieping, et al.
Created Date
2010

This thesis investigates the role of activity visualization tools in increasing group awareness at the workspace. Today, electronic calendaring tools are widely used in the workplace. The primary function is to enable each person maintain a work schedule. They also are used to schedule meetings and share work details when appropriate. However, a key limitation of current tools is that they do not enable people in the workplace to understand the activity of the group as a whole. A tool that increases group awareness would promote reflection; it would enable thoughtful engagement with one's co-workers. I have developed two tools: …

Contributors
Zhang, Lu, Sundaram, Hari, Qian, Gang, et al.
Created Date
2010

Peer-to-peer systems are known to be vulnerable to the Sybil attack. The lack of a central authority allows a malicious user to create many fake identities (called Sybil nodes) pretending to be independent honest nodes. The goal of the malicious user is to influence the system on his/her behalf. In order to detect the Sybil nodes and prevent the attack, a reputation system is used for the nodes, built through observing its interactions with its peers. The construction makes every node a part of a distributed authority that keeps records on the reputation and behavior of the nodes. Records of …

Contributors
Cárdenas-Haro, José Antonio, Konjevod, Goran, Richa, Andrea W., et al.
Created Date
2010

This research describes software based remote attestation schemes for obtaining the integrity of an executing user application and the Operating System (OS) text section of an untrusted client platform. A trusted external entity issues a challenge to the client platform. The challenge is executable code which the client must execute, and the code generates results which are sent to the external entity. These results provide the external entity an assurance as to whether the client application and the OS are in pristine condition. This work also presents a technique where it can be verified that the application which was attested, …

Contributors
Srinivasan, Raghunathan, Dasgupta, Partha, Colbourn, Charles, et al.
Created Date
2011

Currently Java is making its way into the embedded systems and mobile devices like androids. The programs written in Java are compiled into machine independent binary class byte codes. A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) executes these classes. The Java platform additionally specifies the Java Native Interface (JNI). JNI allows Java code that runs within a JVM to interoperate with applications or libraries that are written in other languages and compiled to the host CPU ISA. JNI plays an important role in embedded system as it provides a mechanism to interact with libraries specific to the platform. This thesis addresses the …

Contributors
Chandrian, Preetham, Lee, Yann-Hang, Davulcu, Hasan, et al.
Created Date
2011

Typically, the complete loss or severe impairment of a sense such as vision and/or hearing is compensated through sensory substitution, i.e., the use of an alternative sense for receiving the same information. For individuals who are blind or visually impaired, the alternative senses have predominantly been hearing and touch. For movies, visual content has been made accessible to visually impaired viewers through audio descriptions -- an additional narration that describes scenes, the characters involved and other pertinent details. However, as audio descriptions should not overlap with dialogue, sound effects and musical scores, there is limited time to convey information, often …

Contributors
Viswanathan, Lakshmie Narayan, Panchanathan, Sethuraman, Hedgpeth, Terri, et al.
Created Date
2011

As pointed out in the keynote speech by H. V. Jagadish in SIGMOD'07, and also commonly agreed in the database community, the usability of structured data by casual users is as important as the data management systems' functionalities. A major hardness of using structured data is the problem of easily retrieving information from them given a user's information needs. Learning and using a structured query language (e.g., SQL and XQuery) is overwhelmingly burdensome for most users, as not only are these languages sophisticated, but the users need to know the data schema. Keyword search provides us with opportunities to conveniently …

Contributors
Liu, Ziyang, Chen, Yi, Candan, Kasim S, et al.
Created Date
2011

Building computational models of human problem solving has been a longstanding goal in Artificial Intelligence research. The theories of cognitive architectures addressed this issue by embedding models of problem solving within them. This thesis presents an extended account of human problem solving and describes its implementation within one such theory of cognitive architecture--ICARUS. The document begins by reviewing the standard theory of problem solving, along with how previous versions of ICARUS have incorporated and expanded on it. Next it discusses some limitations of the existing mechanism and proposes four extensions that eliminate these limitations, elaborate the framework along interesting dimensions, …

Contributors
Trivedi, Nishant H., Langley, Patrick W, Vanlehn, Kurt, et al.
Created Date
2011

Text search is a very useful way of retrieving document information from a particular website. The public generally use internet search engines over the local enterprise search engines, because the enterprise content is not cross linked and does not follow a page rank algorithm. On the other hand the enterprise search engine uses metadata information, which allows the user to specify the conditions that any retrieved document should meet. Therefore, using metadata information for searching will also be very useful. My thesis aims on developing an enterprise search engine using metadata information by providing advanced features like faceted navigation. The …

Contributors
Sanaka, Srinivasa Raviteja, Davulcu, Hasan, Sen, Arunabha, et al.
Created Date
2010

The Game As Life - Life As Game (GALLAG) project investigates how people might change their lives if they think of and/or experience their life as a game. The GALLAG system aims to help people reach their personal goals through the use of context-aware computing, and tailored games and applications. To accomplish this, the GALLAG system uses a combination of sensing technologies, remote audio/video feedback, mobile devices and an application programming interface (API) to empower users to create their own context-aware applications. However, the API requires programming through source code, a task that is too complicated and abstract for many …

Contributors
Garduno Massieu, Luis, Burleson, Winslow, Hekler, Eric, et al.
Created Date
2012

Mostly, manufacturing tolerance charts are used these days for manufacturing tolerance transfer but these have the limitation of being one dimensional only. Some research has been undertaken for the three dimensional geometric tolerances but it is too theoretical and yet to be ready for operator level usage. In this research, a new three dimensional model for tolerance transfer in manufacturing process planning is presented that is user friendly in the sense that it is built upon the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) readings that are readily available in any decent manufacturing facility. This model can take care of datum reference change …

Contributors
Khan, M Nadeem Shafi, Phelan, Patrick E, Montgomery, Douglas, et al.
Created Date
2011

Advances in electronics technology and innovative manufacturing processes have driven the semiconductor industry towards extensive miniaturization & ever greater integration of chip design. One consequence of this sustained evolution has been the growing relative cost of accessing off-chip components with external memory being one of the dominant contributors. In embedded systems and applications, where power consumption and cost are extremely crucial factors, the use of on chip Scratch Pad Memories (SPMs) has proven to be a good alternative to caches. SPMs are more efficient than on-chip caches in a wide variety of aspects including energy consumption, power dissipation, speed performance, …

Contributors
Ghadge, Nikhil Dadasaheb, Chatha, Dr. Karamvir, Shrivastava, Dr. Aviral, et al.
Created Date
2011

Reliable extraction of human pose features that are invariant to view angle and body shape changes is critical for advancing human movement analysis. In this dissertation, the multifactor analysis techniques, including the multilinear analysis and the multifactor Gaussian process methods, have been exploited to extract such invariant pose features from video data by decomposing various key contributing factors, such as pose, view angle, and body shape, in the generation of the image observations. Experimental results have shown that the resulting pose features extracted using the proposed methods exhibit excellent invariance properties to changes in view angles and body shapes. Furthermore, …

Contributors
Peng, Bo, Qian, Gang, Ye, Jieping, et al.
Created Date
2011

This thesis research attempts to observe, measure and visualize the communication patterns among developers of an open source community and analyze how this can be inferred in terms of progress of that open source project. Here I attempted to analyze the Ubuntu open source project's email data (9 subproject log archives over a period of five years) and focused on drawing more precise metrics from different perspectives of the communication data. Also, I attempted to overcome the scalability issue by using Apache Pig libraries, which run on a MapReduce framework based Hadoop Cluster. I described four metrics based on which …

Contributors
Motamarri, Lakshminarayana, Santanam, Raghu, Ye, Jieping, et al.
Created Date
2011

Data-driven applications are becoming increasingly complex with support for processing events and data streams in a loosely-coupled distributed environment, providing integrated access to heterogeneous data sources such as relational databases and XML documents. This dissertation explores the use of materialized views over structured heterogeneous data sources to support multiple query optimization in a distributed event stream processing framework that supports such applications involving various query expressions for detecting events, monitoring conditions, handling data streams, and querying data. Materialized views store the results of the computed view so that subsequent access to the view retrieves the materialized results, avoiding the cost …

Contributors
Chaudhari, Mahesh Balkrishna, Dietrich, Suzanne W, Urban, Susan D, et al.
Created Date
2011

Social situational awareness, or the attentiveness to one's social surroundings, including the people, their interactions and their behaviors is a complex sensory-cognitive-motor task that requires one to be engaged thoroughly in understanding their social interactions. These interactions are formed out of the elements of human interpersonal communication including both verbal and non-verbal cues. While the verbal cues are instructive and delivered through speech, the non-verbal cues are mostly interpretive and requires the full attention of the participants to understand, comprehend and respond to them appropriately. Unfortunately certain situations are not conducive for a person to have complete access to their …

Contributors
Krishna, Sreekar, Panchanathan, Sethuraman, Black, John A, et al.
Created Date
2011

Bridging semantic gap is one of the fundamental problems in multimedia computing and pattern recognition. The challenge of associating low-level signal with their high-level semantic interpretation is mainly due to the fact that semantics are often conveyed implicitly in a context, relying on interactions among multiple levels of concepts or low-level data entities. Also, additional domain knowledge may often be indispensable for uncovering the underlying semantics, but in most cases such domain knowledge is not readily available from the acquired media streams. Thus, making use of various types of contextual information and leveraging corresponding domain knowledge are vital for effectively …

Contributors
Wang, Zheshen, Li, Baoxin, Sundaram, Hari, et al.
Created Date
2011

Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) are systems comprising of computational systems that interact with the physical world to perform sensing, communication, computation and actuation. Common examples of these systems include Body Area Networks (BANs), Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), Power Distribution Systems etc. The close coupling between cyber and physical worlds in a CPS manifests in two types of interactions between computing systems and the physical world: intentional and unintentional. Unintentional interactions result from the physical characteristics of the computing systems and often cause harm to the physical world, if the computing nodes are close to each other, these interactions may overlap thereby …

Contributors
Kandula, Sailesh Umamaheswara, Gupta, Sandeep, Lee, Yann Hang, et al.
Created Date
2010

Web applications continue to remain as the most popular method of interaction for businesses over the Internet. With it's simplicity of use and management, they often function as the "front door" for many companies. As such, they are a critical component of the security ecosystem as vulnerabilities present in these systems could potentially allow malicious users access to sensitive business and personal data. The inherent nature of web applications enables anyone to access them anytime and anywhere, this includes any malicious actors looking to exploit vulnerabilities present in the web application. In addition, the static configurations of these web applications …

Contributors
Taguinod, Marthony, Ahn, Gail-Joon, Doupé, Adam, et al.
Created Date
2018

Multi-label learning, which deals with data associated with multiple labels simultaneously, is ubiquitous in real-world applications. To overcome the curse of dimensionality in multi-label learning, in this thesis I study multi-label dimensionality reduction, which extracts a small number of features by removing the irrelevant, redundant, and noisy information while considering the correlation among different labels in multi-label learning. Specifically, I propose Hypergraph Spectral Learning (HSL) to perform dimensionality reduction for multi-label data by exploiting correlations among different labels using a hypergraph. The regularization effect on the classical dimensionality reduction algorithm known as Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) is elucidated in this …

Contributors
Sun, Liang, Ye, Jieping, Li, Baoxin, et al.
Created Date
2011

Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to improve the generalization performance (of the resulting classifiers) by learning multiple related tasks simultaneously. Specifically, MTL exploits the intrinsic task relatedness, based on which the informative domain knowledge from each task can be shared across multiple tasks and thus facilitate the individual task learning. It is particularly desirable to share the domain knowledge (among the tasks) when there are a number of related tasks but only limited training data is available for each task. Modeling the relationship of multiple tasks is critical to the generalization performance of the MTL algorithms. In this dissertation, I propose …

Contributors
Chen, Jianhui, Ye, Jieping, Kumar, Sudhir, et al.
Created Date
2011

Detecting anatomical structures, such as the carina, the pulmonary trunk and the aortic arch, is an important step in designing a CAD system of detection Pulmonary Embolism. The presented CAD system gets rid of the high-level prior defined knowledge to become a system which can easily extend to detect other anatomic structures. The system is based on a machine learning algorithm --- AdaBoost and a general feature --- Haar. This study emphasizes on off-line and on-line AdaBoost learning. And in on-line AdaBoost, the thesis further deals with extremely imbalanced condition. The thesis first reviews several knowledge-based detection methods, which are …

Contributors
Wu, Hong, Liang, Jianming, Farin, Gerald, et al.
Created Date
2011

This dissertation is focused on building scalable Attribute Based Security Systems (ABSS), including efficient and privacy-preserving attribute based encryption schemes and applications to group communications and cloud computing. First of all, a Constant Ciphertext Policy Attribute Based Encryption (CCP-ABE) is proposed. Existing Attribute Based Encryption (ABE) schemes usually incur large, linearly increasing ciphertext. The proposed CCP-ABE dramatically reduces the ciphertext to small, constant size. This is the first existing ABE scheme that achieves constant ciphertext size. Also, the proposed CCP-ABE scheme is fully collusion-resistant such that users can not combine their attributes to elevate their decryption capacity. Next step, efficient …

Contributors
Zhou, Zhibin, Huang, Dijiang, Yau, Sik-Sang, et al.
Created Date
2011

Navigating within non-linear structures is a challenge for all users when the space is large but the problem is most pronounced when the users are blind or visually impaired. Such users access digital content through screen readers like JAWS which read out the text on the screen. However presentation of non-linear narratives in such a manner without visual cues and information about spatial dependencies is very inefficient for such users. The NSDL Science Literacy StrandMaps are visual layouts to help students and teachers browse educational resources. A Strandmap shows relationships between concepts and how they build upon one another across …

Contributors
Gaur, Shruti, Candan, Kasim Selçuk, Sundaram, Hari, et al.
Created Date
2011

Finding the optimal solution to a problem with an enormous search space can be challenging. Unless a combinatorial construction technique is found that also guarantees the optimality of the resulting solution, this could be an infeasible task. If such a technique is unavailable, different heuristic methods are generally used to improve the upper bound on the size of the optimal solution. This dissertation presents an alternative method which can be used to improve a solution to a problem rather than construct a solution from scratch. Necessity analysis, which is the key to this approach, is the process of analyzing the …

Contributors
Nayeri, Peyman, Colbourn, Charles, Konjevod, Goran, et al.
Created Date
2011

With the rapid growth of mobile computing and sensor technology, it is now possible to access data from a variety of sources. A big challenge lies in linking sensor based data with social and cognitive variables in humans in real world context. This dissertation explores the relationship between creativity in teamwork, and team members' movement and face-to-face interaction strength in the wild. Using sociometric badges (wearable sensors), electronic Experience Sampling Methods (ESM), the KEYS team creativity assessment instrument, and qualitative methods, three research studies were conducted in academic and industry R&D; labs. Sociometric badges captured movement of team members and …

Contributors
Tripathi, Priyamvada, Burleson, Winslow, Liu, Huan, et al.
Created Date
2011

Service based software (SBS) systems are software systems consisting of services based on the service oriented architecture (SOA). Each service in SBS systems provides partial functionalities and collaborates with other services as workflows to provide the functionalities required by the systems. These services may be developed and/or owned by different entities and physically distributed across the Internet. Compared with traditional software system components which are usually specifically designed for the target systems and bound tightly, the interfaces of services and their communication protocols are standardized, which allow SBS systems to support late binding, provide better interoperability, better flexibility in dynamic …

Contributors
Yin, Yin, Yau, Stephen S, Candan, Kasim, et al.
Created Date
2011

Query Expansion is a functionality of search engines that suggest a set of related queries for a user issued keyword query. In case of exploratory or ambiguous keyword queries, the main goal of the user would be to identify and select a specific category of query results among different categorical options, in order to narrow down the search and reach the desired result. Typical corpus-driven keyword query expansion approaches return popular words in the results as expanded queries. These empirical methods fail to cover all semantics of categories present in the query results. More importantly these methods do not consider …

Contributors
Natarajan, Sivaramakrishnan, Chen, Yi, Candan, Selcuk, et al.
Created Date
2011

Online social networks, including Twitter, have expanded in both scale and diversity of content, which has created significant challenges to the average user. These challenges include finding relevant information on a topic and building social ties with like-minded individuals. The fundamental question addressed by this thesis is if an individual can leverage social network to search for information that is relevant to him or her. We propose to answer this question by developing computational algorithms that analyze a user's social network. The features of the social network we analyze include the network topology and member communications of a specific user's …

Contributors
Xu, Ke, Sundaram, Hari, Ye, Jieping, et al.
Created Date
2010