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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Subject
Date Range
2010 2019


The Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area has sustained one of the United States' fastest growth rates for nearly a century. Supported by a mild climate and cheap, available land, the magnitude of regional land development contrasts with heady concerns over energy use, environmental sensitivity, and land fragmentation. This dissertation uses four empirical research studies to investigate the historic, geographic microfoundations of the region's oft-maligned urban morphology and the drivers of land development behind it. First, urban land use patterns are linked to historical development processes by adapting a variety of spatial measures commonly used in land cover studies. The timing of …

Contributors
Kane, Kevin, O hUallachain, Breandan, York, Abigail M, et al.
Created Date
2015

With the ongoing drought surpassing a decade in Arizona, scholars, water managers and decision-makers have heightened attention to the availability of water resources, especially in rapidly growing regions where demand may outgrow supplies or outpace the capacity of the community water systems. Community water system managing entities and the biophysical and social characteristics of a place mediate communities' vulnerability to hazards such as drought and long-term climate change. The arid southwestern Phoenix metropolitan area is illustrative of the challenges that developed urban areas in arid climates face globally as population growth and climate change stress already fragile human-environmental systems. This …

Contributors
Zautner, Lilah Charmaine, Larson, Kelli, Bolin, Bob, et al.
Created Date
2011

Spatial uncertainty refers to unknown error and vagueness in geographic data. It is relevant to land change and urban growth modelers, soil and biome scientists, geological surveyors and others, who must assess thematic maps for similarity, or categorical agreement. In this paper I build upon prior map comparison research, testing the effectiveness of similarity measures on misregistered data. Though several methods compare uncertain thematic maps, few methods have been tested on misregistration. My objective is to test five map comparison methods for sensitivity to misregistration, including sub-pixel errors in both position and rotation. Methods included four fuzzy categorical models: fuzzy …

Contributors
Brown, Scott Benjamin, Wentz, Elizabeth A., Myint, Soe W., et al.
Created Date
2010

In the field of Geographic Information Science (GIScience), we have witnessed the unprecedented data deluge brought about by the rapid advancement of high-resolution data observing technologies. For example, with the advancement of Earth Observation (EO) technologies, a massive amount of EO data including remote sensing data and other sensor observation data about earthquake, climate, ocean, hydrology, volcano, glacier, etc., are being collected on a daily basis by a wide range of organizations. In addition to the observation data, human-generated data including microblogs, photos, consumption records, evaluations, unstructured webpages and other Volunteered Geographical Information (VGI) are incessantly generated and shared on …

Contributors
Shao, Hu, Li, Wenwen, Rey, Sergio, et al.
Created Date
2018

As urban populations become increasingly dense, massive amounts of new 'big' data that characterize human activity are being made available and may be characterized as having a large volume of observations, being produced in real-time or near real-time, and including a diverse variety of information. In particular, spatial interaction (SI) data - a collection of human interactions across a set of origins and destination locations - present unique challenges for distilling big data into insight. Therefore, this dissertation identifies some of the potential and pitfalls associated with new sources of big SI data. It also evaluates methods for modeling SI …

Contributors
Oshan, Taylor, Fotheringham, A. S., Farmer, Carson J.Q., et al.
Created Date
2017

This dissertation explores vulnerability to extreme heat hazards in the Maricopa County, Arizona metropolitan region. By engaging an interdisciplinary approach, I uncover the epidemiological, historical-geographical, and mitigation dimensions of human vulnerability to extreme heat in a rapidly urbanizing region characterized by an intense urban heat island and summertime heat waves. I first frame the overall research within global climate change and hazards vulnerability research literature, and then present three case studies. I conclude with a synthesis of the findings and lessons learned from my interdisciplinary approach using an urban political ecology framework. In the first case study I construct and …

Contributors
Declet-Barreto, Juan, Harlan, Sharon L, Bolin, Bob, et al.
Created Date
2013

In order to address concerns about the dominance of petroleum-fueled vehicles, the transition to alternative-fueled counterparts is urgently needed. Top barriers preventing the widespread diffusion of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV) are the limited range and the scarcity of refueling or recharging infrastructures in convenient locations. Researchers have been developing models for optimally locating refueling facilities for range-limited vehicles, and recently a strategy has emerged to cluster refueling stations to encourage consumers to purchase alternative-fuel vehicles by building a critical mass of stations. However, clustering approaches have not yet been developed based on flow-based demand. This study proposes a Threshold Coverage extension …

Contributors
Hong, Shuyao, Kuby, Michael J, Parker, Nathan C, et al.
Created Date
2015

While there are many elements to consider when determining one's risk of heat or cold stress, acclimation could prove to be an important factor to consider. Individuals who are participating in more strenuous activities, while being at a lower risk, will still feel the impacts of acclimation to an extreme climate. To evaluate acclimation in strenuous conditions, I collected finishing times from six different marathon races: the New York City Marathon (New York City, New York), Equinox Marathon (Fairbanks, Alaska), California International Marathon (Sacramento, California), LIVESTRONG Austin Marathon (Austin, Texas), Cincinnati Flying Pig Marathon (Cincinnati, Ohio), and the Ocala Marathon …

Contributors
Debiasse, Kimberly, Cerveny, Randall S, Brazel, Anthony, et al.
Created Date
2011

Since the late 1990s thousands of new Border Patrol agents, hundreds of miles of fencing, and additional immigration checkpoints have been added to the Mexico-U.S. border region. This unprecedented increase in boundary enforcement has strained existing relationships and created new separations between people and places in the borderlands. Southwestern Arizona has been impacted in especially dramatic ways, as the “hardening” of the international boundary has transformed conservation and indigenous spaces into theaters of drug interdiction and immigration control. This dissertation explores this transformation in southwestern Arizona, a region that was known by Spanish Colonial administrators as the Papaguería. With the …

Contributors
Warren, Scott Daniel, Arreola, Daniel D, Klett, Mark, et al.
Created Date
2015

There exist many facets of error and uncertainty in digital spatial information. As error or uncertainty will not likely ever be completely eliminated, a better understanding of its impacts is necessary. Spatial analytical approaches, in particular, must somehow address data quality issues. This can range from evaluating impacts of potential data uncertainty in planning processes that make use of methods to devising methods that explicitly account for error/uncertainty. To date, little has been done to structure methods accounting for error. This research focuses on developing methods to address geographic data uncertainty in spatial optimization. An integrated approach that characterizes uncertainty …

Contributors
Wei, Ran, Murray, Alan T, Anselin, Luc, et al.
Created Date
2013

The lack of substantive, multi-dimensional perspectives on civic space planning and design has undermined the potential role of these valuable social and ecological amenities in advancing urban sustainability goals. Responding to these deficiencies, this dissertation utilized mixed quantitative and qualitative methods and synthesized multiple social and natural science perspectives to inform the development of progressive civic space planning and design, theory, and public policy aimed at improving the social, economic, and environmental health of cities. Using Phoenix, Arizona as a case study, the analysis was tailored to arid cities, yet the products and findings are flexible enough to be geographically …

Contributors
Ibes, Dorothy, Talen, Emily, Boone, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2013

The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in …

Contributors
Connors, John Patrick, Turner, Billie Lee, Eakin, Hallie, et al.
Created Date
2015

The objective of this dissertation is to empirically analyze the results of the retail location decision making process and how chain networks evolve given their value platform. It employs one of the largest cross-sectional databases of retailers ever assembled, including 50 US retail chains and over 70,000 store locations. Three closely related articles, which develop new theory explaining location deployment and behaviors of retailers, are presented. The first article, "Regionalism in US Retailing," presents a comprehensive spatial analysis of the domestic patterns of retailers. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistics examine the degree to which the chains are deployed regionally …

Contributors
Joseph, Lawrence, Kuby, Michael, Matthews, Richard, et al.
Created Date
2013

Change of residence is a commonly occurring event in urban areas. It reflects how people interact with the social or physical environment. Thus, by exploring the movement patterns of residential changes, geographers and other scholars hope to learn more about the reasons and impacts associated with residential mobility, and to better understand how humans and the environment mutually interact. This is especially meaningful if exploration is based on micro scale movements, since residential changes within a city or a county reflect how the urban structure and community composition interact. Local differentiation, as an inevitable feature among movements at different places, …

Contributors
Liu, Yin, Murray, Alan, Rey, Sergio, et al.
Created Date
2012

Recent advances in geo-visualization technologies, such as Google Earth, have the potential to enhance spatial thinking. Google Earth is especially suited to teaching landforms and geomorphological processes in traditional, online, or hybrid college classroom settings. The excitement for the technology as a learning tool, however, must be tempered by the need to develop sound and supportive pedagogies. A fundamental gap in the geoscience education literature exists because learning experiences with Google Earth, from the perspective of the student, are not completely understood. This dissertation analyzes three case studies in college introductory physical geography (Chapters 2 and 4) and teacher education …

Contributors
Palmer, Ronald Evan, Dorn, Ronald I, Harris, Lauren M, et al.
Created Date
2014

Human endeavors move 7x more volume of earth than the world’s rivers accelerating the removal of Earth’s soil surface. Measuring anthropogenic acceleration of soil erosion requires knowledge of natural rates through the study of 10Be, but same-watershed comparisons between anthropogenically-accelerated and natural erosion rates do not exist for urbanizing watersheds. Here I show that urban sprawl from 1989 to 2013 accelerated soil erosion between 1.3x and 15x above natural rates for different urbanizing watersheds in the metropolitan Phoenix region, Sonoran Desert, USA, and that statistical modeling a century of urban sprawl indicates an acceleration of only 2.7x for the Phoenix …

Contributors
Jeong, Ara, Dorn, Ronald I., Schmeeckle, Mark, et al.
Created Date
2019

This dissertation research investigates both spatial and temporal aspects of Bronze Age land use and land cover in the Eastern Mediterranean using botanical macrofossils of charcoal and charred seeds as sources of proxy data. Comparisons through time and over space using seed and charcoal densities, seed to charcoal ratios, and seed and charcoal identifications provide a comprehensive view of island vs. mainland vegetative trajectories through the critical 1000 year time period from 2500 BC to 1500 BC of both climatic fluctuation and significant anthropogenic forces. This research focuses particularly on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus during this crucial interface of …

Contributors
Klinge, Joanna Marie, Fall, Patricia L, Falconer, Steven E, et al.
Created Date
2013

In 2001, a refugee group of unaccompanied minors known as the Lost Boys of Sudan began arriving in the United States. Their early years were met with extensive media coverage and scores of well-meaning volunteers in scattered resettlement locations across the country. Their story was told in television news reports, documentary films, and published memoirs. Updates regularly appeared in newsprint media. Scholars have criticized public depictions of refugees as frequently de-politicized, devoid of historical context, and often depicting voiceless masses of humanity rather than individuals with skills and histories (Malkki 1996, Harrell-Bond and Voutira 2007). These representations matter because they …

Contributors
Alexander, Melinda, McHugh, Kevin, Catlaw, Thomas, et al.
Created Date
2014

Canal oriented development (COD) is a placemaking concept that aims to create mixed use developments along canal banks using the image and utility of the waterfront as a natural attraction for social and economic activity. COD has the potential to for landlocked cities, which are lacking a traditional harbor, to pursue waterfront development which has become an important economic development source in the post-industrial city. This dissertation examines how COD as a placemaking technique can and has been used in creating urban development. This topic is analyzed via three separate yet interconnecting papers. The first paper explores the historical notion …

Contributors
Buckman, Stephen Thomas, Talen, Emily, Ellin, Nan, et al.
Created Date
2013

Since the 1990s, the United States has been increasingly hosting large numbers of foreign students in its higher education sector and continues to accommodate these skilled college graduates in its job market. When international students graduate, they can transition from an international student to a skilled migrant. Yet their decision-making process to stay in the receiving country (the United States), to return to sending countries, or to move on to another country, at different stages of such transition period, is not presently understood. This dissertation examines the experiences of these “migrants in transition period” when they face the “to return …

Contributors
Yu, Wan, Li, Wei, Arreola, Daniel, et al.
Created Date
2016

Studies of governance have focused on the interactions among diverse actors while implicitly recognizing the role of power within those relationships. Explicit power analyses of water governance coordination are needed to better understand the conditions for and barriers to sustainability. I therefore utilized a novel conceptual framework to analyze vertical and horizontal governance, along with power, to address how governance interactions affect water sustainability in terms of (1) interactions among governance actors across local to state levels; (2) coordination among actors at the local level; and (3) the exercise of power among assorted actors. I adopted a qualitative case study …

Contributors
Ayodele, Deborah Olufunmilola, Larson, Kelli L, Bolin, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2017

A right to the city is a human right that is overlooked in American cities. Cities reflect humanity in collective form, but are manipulated by the powerful at the expense of the powerless. Landscapes of cities tell the city's stories, as historical inequalities become imprinted on the city's physical and symbolic landscapes. In Detroit, Michigan, over forty square miles of the city are vacant, unemployment might be as high as fifty percent, and the city has lost about sixty percent of its population since the mid-1950s. Detroit must now solve its spatial problems in the context of depopulation; the city's …

Contributors
Marotta, Stephen J., Casper, Monica J, Murphy-Erfani, Julie, et al.
Created Date
2011

Ephemeral streams in Arizona that are perpendicularly intersected by the Central Arizona Project (CAP) canal have been altered due to partial or complete damming of the stream channel. The dammed upstream channels have experienced decades long cycles of sediment deposition and waterlogging during storm events causing the development of "green-up" zones. This dissertation examines the biogeomorphological effects of damming ephemeral streams caused by the CAP canal by investigating: (1) changes in the preexisting spatial cover of riparian vegetation and how these changes are affected by stream geometry; (2) green-up initiation and evolution; and (3) changes in plant species and community …

Contributors
Hamdan, Abeer, Schmeeckle, Mark, Myint, Soe, et al.
Created Date
2014

The shortest path between two locations is important for spatial analysis, location modeling, and wayfinding tasks. Depending on permissible movement and availability of data, the shortest path is either derived from a pre-defined transportation network or constructed in continuous space. However, continuous space movement adds substantial complexity to identifying the shortest path as the influence of obstacles has to be considered to avoid errors and biases in a derived path. This obstacle-avoiding shortest path in continuous space has been referred to as Euclidean shortest path (ESP), and attracted the attention of many researchers. It has been proven that constructing a …

Contributors
Hong, Insu, Murray, Alan T, Kuby, Micheal, et al.
Created Date
2015

A fundamental gap in geomorphic scholarship regards fluvial terraces in small desert drainages and those terraces associated with integrating drainages. This dissertation analyzes four field-based case studies within the Sonoran Desert, south-central Arizona, with the overriding purpose of developing a theory to explain the formative processes and spatial distribution of fluvial terraces in the region. Strath terraces are a common form (Chapters 2, 3, 4) and are created at the expense of bounding pediments that occur on the margins of constraining mountainous drainage boundaries (Chapters 1, 2, 3). Base-level fluctuations of the major drainages cause the formation of new straths …

Contributors
Larson, Phillip Herman, Dorn, Ron I, Schmeeckle, Mark, et al.
Created Date
2013

In today's world, unprecedented amounts of data of individual mobile objects have become more available due to advances in location aware technologies and services. Studying the spatio-temporal patterns, processes, and behavior of mobile objects is an important issue for extracting useful information and knowledge about mobile phenomena. Potential applications across a wide range of fields include urban and transportation planning, Location-Based Services, and logistics. This research is designed to contribute to the existing state-of-the-art in tracking and modeling mobile objects, specifically targeting three challenges in investigating spatio-temporal patterns and processes; 1) a lack of space-time analysis tools; 2) a lack …

Contributors
Nara, Atsushi, Torrens, Paul M, Myint, Soe W, et al.
Created Date
2011

This study explores the potential risks associated with the 65 U.S.-based commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) and the distribution of those risks among the populations of both their respective host communities and of the communities located in outlying areas. First, I examine the relevant environmental justice issues. I start by examining the racial/ethnic composition of the host community populations, as well as the disparities in socio-economic status that exist, if any, between the host communities and communities located in outlying areas. Second, I estimate the statistical associations that exist, if any, between a population's distance from a NPP and several …

Contributors
Kyne, Dean, Bolin, Bob, Boone, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2014

Researchers across a variety of fields are often interested in determining if data are of a random nature or if they exhibit patterning which may be the result of some alternative and potentially more interesting process. This dissertation explores a family of statistical methods, i.e. space-time interaction tests, designed to detect structure within three-dimensional event data. These tests, widely employed in the fields of spatial epidemiology, criminology, ecology and beyond, are used to identify synergistic interaction across the spatial and temporal dimensions of a series of events. Exploration is needed to better understand these methods and determine how their results …

Contributors
Malizia, Nicholas, Anselin, Luc, Murray, Alan, et al.
Created Date
2013

Trees serve as a natural umbrella to mitigate insolation absorbed by features of the urban environment, especially building structures and pavements. For a desert community, trees are a particularly valuable asset because they contribute to energy conservation efforts, improve home values, allow for cost savings, and promote enhanced health and well-being. The main obstacle in creating a sustainable urban community in a desert city with trees is the scarceness and cost of irrigation water. Thus, strategically located and arranged desert trees with the fewest tree numbers possible potentially translate into significant energy, water and long-term cost savings as well as …

Contributors
Zhao, Qunshan, Wentz, Elizabeth A., Sailor, David J., et al.
Created Date
2017

Two critical limitations for hyperspatial imagery are higher imagery variances and large data sizes. Although object-based analyses with a multi-scale framework for diverse object sizes are the solution, more data sources and large amounts of testing at high costs are required. In this study, I used tree density segmentation as the key element of a three-level hierarchical vegetation framework for reducing those costs, and a three-step procedure was used to evaluate its effects. A two-step procedure, which involved environmental stratifications and the random walker algorithm, was used for tree density segmentation. I determined whether variation in tone and texture could …

Contributors
Liau, Yan-Ting, Franklin, Janet, Turner, Billie, et al.
Created Date
2013

City governments are increasingly incorporating urban and peri-urban agriculture into their policies and programs, a trend seen as advancing sustainability, development, and food security. Urban governance can provide new opportunities for farmers, but it also creates structures to control their activities, lands, and purposes. This study focused on Mexico City, which is celebrated for its agricultural traditions and policies. The study examined: 1) the functions of urban and peri-urban agriculture that the Government of Mexico City (GMC) manages and prioritizes; 2) how the GMC’s policies have framed farmers, and how that framing affects farmers’ identity and purpose; and 3) how …

Contributors
Bausch, Julia Christine, Eakin, Hallie C, Lerner, Amy M, et al.
Created Date
2017

Environmental change and natural hazards represent a challenge for sustainable development. By disrupting livelihoods and causing billions of dollars in damages, disasters can undo many decades of development. Development, on the other hand, can actually increase vulnerability to disasters by depleting environmental resources and marginalizing the poorest. Big disasters and big cities get the most attention from the media and academia. The vulnerabilities and capabilities of small cities have not been explored adequately in academic research, and while some cities in developed countries have begun to initiate mitigation and adaptation responses to environmental change, most cities in developing countries have …

Contributors
Marquez Reyes, Bernardo Jose, Eakin, Hallie, Lara-Valencia, Francisco, et al.
Created Date
2010

Landscape restoration is a global priority as evidenced by the United Nations’ 2020 goal to restore 150 million hectares of land worldwide. Restoration is particularly needed in estuaries and their watersheds as society depends on these environments for numerous benefits. Estuary restoration is often undermined by social-ecological scale mismatch, the incongruence between governing units and the bio-physical resources they seek to govern. Despite growing recognition of this fact, few empirical studies focus on scale mismatches in environmental restoration work. Using a sub-basin of Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A., I analyze scale mismatches in estuary restoration. I take a network science approach …

Contributors
Sayles, Jesse Saemann, Turner II, B L, Childers, Daniel L, et al.
Created Date
2015

Gnamma pit is an Australian aboriginal term for weathering pit. A mix of weathering and aeolian processes controls the formation of gnamma pits. There is a potential to utilize gnamma as an indicator of paleowind intensity because gnamma growth is promoted by the removal of particles from gnamma pits by wind, a process referred to as deflation. Wind tunnel tests determining the wind velocity threshold of deflation over a range of pit dimensions and particles sizes are conducted. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling utilizing the Re-Normalisation Group (RNG) K-Epsilon turbulence closure is used to investigate the distribution of wall shear …

Contributors
Wang, Yinlue, Schmeeckle, Mark W, Dorn, Ronald I, et al.
Created Date
2015

It has been identified in the literature that there exists a link between the built environment and non-motorized transport. This study aims to contribute to existing literature on the effects of the built environment on cycling, examining the case of the whole State of California. Physical built environment features are classified into six groups as: 1) local density, 2) diversity of land use, 3) road connectivity, 4) bike route length, 5) green space, 6) job accessibility. Cycling trips in one week for all children, school children, adults and employed-adults are investigated separately. The regression analysis shows that cycling trips is …

Contributors
Wang, Kailai, Salon, Deborah, Rey, Sergio, et al.
Created Date
2015

Use of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in natural landscapes is a popular outdoor activity around the world. Rapid-growing OHV activity causes impacts on vegetation and land cover within these landscapes and can be an important factor in land degradation and ecosystem change. The Algodones Dunes in southeastern California is one of the largest inland sand dune complexes in the United States and hosts many endangered species. This study examines changes in land cover and OHV activity within two OHV active sites in comparison to an adjoined protected area. The study also investigates potential associations between land cover changes, climate trends, and …

Contributors
Cheung, Suet Yi, Walker, Ian J, Myint, Soe W, et al.
Created Date
2018

Transportation infrastructure in urban areas has significant impacts on socio-economic activities, land use, and real property values. This dissertation proposes a more comprehensive theory of the positive and negative relationships between property values and transportation investments that distinguishes different effects by mode (rail vs. road), by network component (nodes vs. links), and by distance from them. It hypothesizes that transportation investment generates improvement in accessibility that accrue only to the nodes such as highway exits and light rail stations. Simultaneously, it tests the hypothesis that both transport nodes and links emanate short-distance negative nuisance effects due to disamenities such as …

Contributors
Seo, Kihwan Seo, Michael, Kuby, Golub, Aaron, et al.
Created Date
2016

As part of the effort to streamline management efforts in protected areas worldwide and assist accountability reporting, new techniques to help guide conservation goals and monitor progress are needed. Rapid assessment is recognized as a field-level data collection technique, but each rapid assessment index is limited to only the ecoregion for which it is designed. This dissertation contributes to the existing bodies of conservation monitoring and tourism management literature in four ways: (i.) Indicators are developed for rapid assessment in arid and semi-arid regions, and the processes by which new indicators should be developed is explained; (ii.) Interpolation of surveyed …

Contributors
Gutbrod, Elyssa Faye, Dorn, Ronald I, Cerveny, Niccole, et al.
Created Date
2013

The global increase in urbanization has raised questions about urban sustainability to which multiple research communities have entered. Those communities addressing interest in the urban heat island (UHI) effect and extreme temperatures include land system science, urban/landscape ecology, and urban climatology. General investigations of UHI have focused primarily on land surface and canopy layer air temperatures. The surface temperature is of prime importance to UHI studies because of its central rule in the surface energy balance, direct effects on air temperature, and outdoor thermal comfort. Focusing on the diurnal surface temperature variations in Phoenix, Arizona, especially on the cool (green …

Contributors
Zhang, Yujia, Turner, Billie, Murray, Alan T, et al.
Created Date
2018

This dissertation examines associations between religious affiliation, religious community context and health of women and their children in Mozambique focusing on the following issues: (1) attending prenatal consultations and delivering children in a health facility; (2) women's symptoms of STDs; and (3) under-five mortality. Estimation of random intercept Poisson regression for the outcome about attending prenatal consultations demonstrated a favorable effect of affiliation to Catholic or Mainline Protestant and Apostolic religious groups. The concentration of Zionist churches in the community had a negative influence. Random intercept logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between religion and institutional child delivery. …

Contributors
Cau, Boaventura Manuel, Agadjanian, Victor, Hayford, Sarah, et al.
Created Date
2011

Regional differences of inventive activity and economic growth are important in economic geography. These differences are generally explained by the theory of localized knowledge spillovers, which argues that geographical proximity among economic actors fosters invention and innovation. However, knowledge production involves an increasing number of actors connecting to non-local partners. The space of knowledge flows is not tightly bounded in a given territory, but functions as a network-based system where knowledge flows circulate around alignments of actors in different and distant places. The purpose of this dissertation is to understand the dynamics of network aspects of knowledge flows in American …

Contributors
Lee, Der-Shiuan, Ó Huallacháin, Breandán, Ó Huallacháin, Breandán, et al.
Created Date
2011

This dissertation investigates spatial and temporal changes in land cover and plant species distributions on Cyprus in the past, present and future (1973-2070). Landsat image analysis supports inference of land cover changes following the political division of the island of Cyprus in 1974. Urban growth in Nicosia, Larnaka and Limasol, as well as increased development along the southern coastline, is clearly evident between 1973 and 2011. Forests of the Troodos and Kyrenia Ranges remain relatively stable, with transitions occurring most frequently between agricultural land covers and shrub/herbaceous land covers. Vegetation models were constructed for twenty-two plant species of Cyprus using …

Contributors
Ridder, Elizabeth, Fall, Patricia L, Myint, Soe W, et al.
Created Date
2013

Concerns about Peak Oil, political instability in the Middle East, health hazards, and greenhouse gas emissions of fossil fuels have stimulated interests in alternative fuels such as biofuels, natural gas, electricity, and hydrogen. Alternative fuels are expected to play an important role in a transition to a sustainable transportation system. One of the major barriers to the success of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV) is the lack of infrastructure for producing, distributing, and delivering alternative fuels. Efficient methods that locate alternative-fuel refueling stations are essential in accelerating the advent of a new energy economy. The objectives of this research are to develop …

Contributors
Kim, Jong-Geun, Kuby, Michael J, Wentz, Elizabeth A, et al.
Created Date
2010

The manner in which land and water are used and managed is a major influencing factor of global environmental change. Globally, modifications to the landscape have drastically transformed social and ecological communities. Land and water management practices also influences people's vulnerability to hazards. Other interrelated factors are compounding problems of environmental change as a result of land and water use changes. Such factors include climate change, sea level rise, the frequency and severity of hurricanes, and increased populations in coastal regions. The implication of global climate change for small islands and small island communities is especially troublesome. Socially, small islands …

Contributors
Pompeii, Brian, Bolin, Bob, Boone, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2014

Anthropogenic land use has irrevocably transformed the natural systems on which humankind relies. Understanding where, why, and how social and economic processes drive globally-important land-use changes, from deforestation to urbanization, has advanced substantially. Illicit and clandestine activities--behavior that is intentionally secret because it breaks formal laws or violates informal norms--are poorly understood, however, despite the recognition of their significant role in land change. This dissertation fills this lacuna by studying illicit and clandestine activity and quantifying its influence on land-use patterns through examining informal urbanization in Mexico City and deforestation Central America. The first chapter introduces the topic, presenting a …

Contributors
Tellman, Elizabeth, Turner II, Billie L, Eakin, Hallie, et al.
Created Date
2019

At first glance, trends in increased hunger and obesity in the United States (US) would seem to represent the result of different causal mechanisms. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported that nearly 50 million Americans had experienced hunger in 2009. A year later, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published a report showing that 68% of the US population was either overweight or obese. Researchers have found that these contrasting trends are actually interrelated. Being so, it is imperative that communities and individuals experiencing problems with food security are provided better access to healthy food options. In …

Contributors
Rawson, Brooke Elise, Vargas, Perla A, Booze, Randy, et al.
Created Date
2011

Residential historic preservation occurs through inhabitation. Through day-to-day domesticities a suite of bodily comportments and aesthetic practices are perpetually at work tearing and stitching the historic fabric anew. Such paradoxical practice materializes seemingly incompatible relations between past and present, people and things. Through a playful posture of experience/experiment, this dissertation attends to the materiality of historic habitation vis-à-vis practices and performances in the Coronado historic neighborhood (1907-1942) in Phoenix, Arizona. Characterized by diversity in the built and social environs, Coronado defies preservation's exclusionary tendencies. First, I propose a theoretical frame to account for the amorphous expression of nostalgia, the way …

Contributors
Kitson, Jennifer Lynn, Mchugh, Kevin, Lukinbeal, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2013

Metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, is one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in the U.S., which has resulted in an urban heat island (UHI) of substantial size and intensity. Several detrimental biophysical and social impacts arising from the large UHI has posed, and continues to pose, a challenge to stakeholders actively engaging in discussion and policy formulation for a sustainable desert city. There is a need to mitigate some of its detrimental effects through sustainable methods, such as through the application of low-water, desert-adapted low-water use trees within residential yards (i.e. urban xeriscaping). This has the potential to sustainably reduce urban …

Contributors
Chow, Winston T.L., Brazel, Anthony J, Grossman-Clarke, Susanne, et al.
Created Date
2011

The State of California has made great strides in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through mandated, rate-payer funded Investor Owned Utility (IOU) electricity Demand Side Management (DSM) programs. This study quantifies the amount of reduced GHG emissions in Arizona that result from DSM in that state, as well as the DSM reductions within Southern California Edison (SCE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E;), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E;) during the 2010 through 2012 California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) DSM program cycle. To accomplish this quantification, it develops a model to allocated GHG emissions based on "operating margin" resources requirements …

Contributors
Landry, Bryan, Pasqualetti, Martin J., Pijawka, K. David, et al.
Created Date
2013

Climate change impacts are evident throughout the world, particularly in the low lying coastal areas. The multidimensional nature and cross-scale impacts of climate change require a concerted effort from different organizations operating at multiple levels of governance. The efficiency and effectiveness of the adaptation actions of these organizations rely on the problem framings, network structure, and power dynamics of the organizations and the challenges they encounter. Nevertheless, knowledge on how organizations within multi-level governance arrangements frame vulnerability, how the adaptation governance structure shapes their roles, how power dynamics affect the governance process, and how barriers emerge in adaptation governance as …

Contributors
Ishtiaque, Asif, Chhetri, Netra, Eakin, Hallie, et al.
Created Date
2019