Skip to main content

ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Subject
Date Range
2011 2020


The glycation of plasma proteins leading to the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and subsequent damage is a driving factor in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. The overall research objective was to elucidate the mechanisms by which birds prevent protein glycation in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. This was accomplished through the specific purpose of examining the impact of temperature and glucose concentration on the percent glycation of chicken serum albumin (CSA) in comparison to human serum albumin (HSA). Purified CSA and HSA solutions prepared at four different glucose concentrations (0 mM, 5.56 mM, 11.11 …

Contributors
Zuck, Jessica Ann, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2016

Background: Smartphone diet tracking applications (apps) are increasing in popularity but may not adequately address the important concerns of proper intake and of diet quality. Two novel weight loss apps were designed based on the popular dietary frameworks: MyPlate and FoodLists. MyPlate, the dietary guidelines put forth by the U.S. government, encourages a balanced diet from five primary food groups, but does not specify intake limits. The Food Lists set upper intake limits on all food groups except vegetables, and these guidelines extend to include fats, sweets, and alcohol. Objective: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine …

Contributors
Scholtz, Cameron, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2016

Low income, pregnant adolescents have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth, delivery of low birth weight babies and excessive gestational weight gain that increases the risk of postpartum overweight and obesity. Inadequate dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that may differentially impact maternal health and fetal outcomes for pregnant adults and adolescents. To evaluate the effectiveness of a social media intervention on improving prenatal health knowledge and dietary intake, 22 racially diverse pregnant women (59% Black and 36% White) were recruited and adolescent (n=10) outcomes compared to those of adults (n=12) across the intervention. …

Contributors
Ellis, Megan, Whisner, Corrie M, Bruening, Meg, et al.
Created Date
2016

Objective: It’s not well understood how youth perceive existing fruit and vegetable (FV) marketing materials available in schools. This ancillary study sought to assess the acceptability of FV marketing materials freely available to schools among adolescents in grades 6-12. Methods: Middle and high school adolescents (n=40; 50% female; 52.5% Hispanic) in the Phoenix, AZ area were asked to rank marketing materials (n=35) from favorite to least favorite in four categories: table tents, medium posters, large posters and announcements. Favorites were determined by showing participants two items at a time and having them choose which they preferred; items were displayed to …

Contributors
Pisano, Sydney Alexis, Bruening, Meg, Adams, Marc, et al.
Created Date
2019

Currently, there has been limited research on evaluating the social media use and competency level of registered dietitian/nutritionists (RD/N). With health information increasingly sought on social media, it is imperative to understand the social media competency of health professionals. The social media use, reach, and competency level of a nationwide RD/N sample was assessed utilizing an online survey. The sample (n=500) while mostly female (97%) was representative of RD/Ns compared to the nationwide statistics from the Commission on Dietetic Registration. The sample included RD/Ns from forty-six states with California (n=44), New York (n=42), and Texas (n=34) having the largest proportion …

Contributors
Thompson-Felty, Claudia, Johnston, Carol, Swan, Pamela, et al.
Created Date
2017

ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have suggested a link between nut consumption and weight. The possible effects of regular nut consumption as a method of weight loss has shown minimal results with 2-3 servings of nut products per day. This 8 week study sought to investigate the effect of more modest nut consumption (1 oz./day, 5 days/week) on dietary compensation in healthy overweight individuals. Overweight and obese participants (n = 28) were recruited from the local community and were randomly assigned to either almond (NUT) or control (CON) group in this randomized, parallel-arm study. Subjects were instructed to eat their respective foods …

Contributors
Jahns, Marshall, Johnston, Carol, Hall, Richard, et al.
Created Date
2011

Nut consumption, specifically almonds, have been shown to help maintain weight and influence disease risk factors in adult populations. Limited studies have been conducted examining the effect of a small dose of almonds on energy intake and body weight. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pre-meal almond consumption on energy intake and weight in overweight and obese adults. In this study included 21, overweight or obese, participants who were considered healthy or had a controlled disease state. This 8-week parallel arm study, participants were randomized to consume an isocaloric amount of almonds, (1 oz) serving, …

Contributors
Mcbride, Lindsey Ann, Johnston, Carol, Swan, Pamela, et al.
Created Date
2011

ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this randomized parallel two-arm trial was to examine the effect that an intervention of combining daily almond consumption (2.5 ounces) with a walking program would have on heart rate recovery and resting heart rate when compared to the control group that consumed a placebo (cookie butter) in men and postmenopausal women, aged 20-69, in Phoenix, Arizona. Design: 12 men and women from Phoenix, Arizona completed an 8-week walking study (step goal: 10,000 steps per day). Subjects were healthy yet sedentary, non-smokers, free from gluten or nut allergies, who had controlled blood pressure. At week 5, …

Contributors
McElaney, Elizabeth Anne, Johnston, Carol S, Lespron, Christy L, et al.
Created Date
2016

In October, 2009, participants of the Arizona Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) began receiving monthly Cash Value Vouchers (CVV) worth between six and 10 dollars towards the purchase of fresh fruits and vegetables. Data from the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) showed CVV redemption rates in the first two years of the program were lower than the national average of 77% redemption. In response, the ADHS WIC Food List was expanded to also include canned and frozen fruits and vegetables. More recent data from ADHS suggest that redemption rates are improving, but variably exist …

Contributors
Bertmann, Farryl Mw, Wharton, Christopher, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2013

In 2002, a scientifically derived food guide pyramid for vegetarians, the Modified Food Guide for Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and Vegans was published and well received. Now that 10 years have passed, new scientific literature regarding the bioavailability of the nutrients of key concern in vegetarian diets has been published, and the graphical format of the nation's food guide has evolved from a pyramid shape into a circular plate. The objective of this research was to examine the post-2002 literature regarding the bioavailability of key nutrients in vegetarian diets; to use this information to update the recommendations made in the 2002 Modified Food …

Contributors
Fladell, Lauren, Johnston, Carol, Vaughan, Linda, et al.
Created Date
2013

Food banks are the foundation of the emergency food network, and while their chief mission is to mitigate hunger, the rise in obesity and other diet-related diseases among clientele has incited the need for better nutritional control with regards to procurement of inventory at food banks. The purpose of this research was to determine if procured inventory at United Food Bank in Mesa, Arizona could meet minimum MyPlate recommendations for a typical food bank client and what implications the results could have for future policy. Inventory data was obtained from United Food Bank for fiscal year 2013-2014 and analyzed utilizing …

Contributors
Lick, Linda L., Bruening, Meredith, Vaughan, Linda, et al.
Created Date
2015

College weight gain and obesity are significant problems impacting our society, leading to a considerable number of comorbidities during and after college. Gut microbiota are increasingly recognized for their role in obesity and weight gain. Currently, research exploring the gut microbiome and its associations with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is limited among this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between the gut microbiome, BMI, and dietary intake in a population of healthy college students living in two dorms at Arizona State University (n=90). Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken including 24-hour dietary recalls and …

Contributors
Hotz, Ricci-Lee, Whisner, Corrie, Bruening, Meredith, et al.
Created Date
2016

Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption continues to lag far behind US Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommendations. Interventions targeting individuals' dietary behaviors address only a small fraction of dietary influences. Changing the food environment by increasing availability of and excitement for FV through local food production has shown promise as a method for enhancing intake. However, the extent to which local production is sufficient to meet recommended FV intakes, or actual intakes, of specific populations remains largely unconsidered. This study was the first of its kind to evaluate the capacity to support FV intake of Arizona's population with statewide production of …

Contributors
Vaudrin, Nicole, Wharton, Christopher, Bruening, Meg, et al.
Created Date
2013

Mexican Americans have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association of hyperglycemia with traditional CVD risk factors in this population has been established, but there is limited data regarding other non-traditional CVD risk factors. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate CVD risk among Mexican Americans by measuring concentrations of lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cholesterol in low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions. Eighty overweight/obese Mexican-American adults participating in the Maricopa Insulin Resistance Initiative were randomly selected from each of the following four groups (n = 20 per group): nomolipidemic/normoglycemic controls …

Contributors
Neupane, Srijana, Vega-Lopez, Sonia, Shaibi, Gabriel Q, et al.
Created Date
2011

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of what food insecurity among college students. Qualitative research regarding food insecurity on college campuses has been growing as we gain a better understanding of how prevalent this issue is and its broad impact on students. However, to our knowledge there are only a handful of studies that examined the student and university staff experience using mixed methods. Qualitative data is needed to gain a deeper understanding of the student experience. OBJECTIVE: To gain deeper insights about students’ food insecurity experiences from students themselves and the university staff …

Contributors
Brown, Erika, Bruening, Meg, Vega-López, Sonia, et al.
Created Date
2018

Vitamin B12, found only in animal products, is a water-soluble vitamin important for DNA methylation, purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and the myelination of nerves. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include anemia, gait disturbances, altered vibration proprioception, impaired vision, psychosis, depression, dementia-like illness, and ultimately death. Because vegetarians and vegans consume fewer animal products in their diet than omnivores, they are inherently more at risk for developing these symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between nervous system markers (balance, dexterity, and vibration sensitivity) and markers of vitamin B12 nutriture (serum B12 …

Contributors
Arnold, Taylor Ann, Johnston, Carol, Whisner, Corrie, et al.
Created Date
2016

According to a 2016 census, eight million adults conform to a vegetarian diet within the United States, and about 50% of these adults follow a vegan diet. The census determined that plant-based diets are quickly growing in popularity particularly in young adults between the ages of 18 to 34 years. Many Americans are aware of the health benefits of a plant-based diet, however, the dietary risks associated with these diets are not well emphasized. Health concerns such as vitamin deficiencies and altered metabolism are heightened in vegetarian populations. One Particular nutrient that is commonly lacking in the vegetarian diet is …

Contributors
Ugarte, Noel, Johnston, Carol S, Whisner, Corrie, et al.
Created Date
2019

As part of the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide are required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards in order to help consumers make healthier decisions when dining out. Previous studies that have evaluated menu-labeling policies show mixed results and the majority have been conducted in urban cities along the east coast. This study was the first to look at the effectiveness of menu labeling in a southwest population. The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if noticing or using calorie menu labels in …

Contributors
Green, Jessie E., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Bruening, Meg, et al.
Created Date
2014

Although many studies have looked into the relationship between depression and eating behaviors, most have not looked into the interaction between depressive mood, weight status, and eating behaviors; specifically the consumption of added sugars. This longitudinal study examined the relationship between depressive mood and added sugar consumption among college freshmen, and how weight status play a role in this relationship. A web-based survey assessing depressive mood score and added-sugar foods consumption, and height and weight measurements were obtained. A total of 511 participants (aged 18.5±0.4 years; 70.5% females) were recruited at Arizona State University from August 2015 through January 2016. …

Contributors
Chen, Yufei, Bruening, Meredith, Hekler, Eric, et al.
Created Date
2017

Background: Previous research suggests a healthy eater schema (i.e., identifying yourself as a healthy eater) may be a useful concept to target in interventions. A "stealth" intervention that discussed the moral issues related to food worked better at promoting healthful eating than an intervention focused on the health benefits. No research has explored the relationship between moral foundations, a theoretical model focused on delineating core "foundations" for making a moral decision, and healthy eater self-identity or self-efficacy. Purpose: We explored the relationship between moral foundations (i.e., harm/care, fairness/reciprocity, in-group/loyalty, authority/respect, & purity/sanctity) and health eater self-identity and fruit and vegetable …

Contributors
Kiser, Sarah, Hekler, Eric B, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2013

The increase in obesity since the 1980's has been associated with fast-food consumption. In hopes that calorie labeling will be an effective tool to combat obesity, congress included a provision in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) that will require all restaurants with twenty or more locations to post calorie information for each menu item. Current research has provided mixed results regarding the effectiveness of calorie labeling, but overall seems to suggest that calorie labeling may only be effective among certain populations. In September, 2012 McDonald's began to post calorie labels on their menu boards before …

Contributors
Brown, Alan, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Bruening, Meredith, et al.
Created Date
2013

Background: The shortage of available dietetic internship (DI) positions for qualified applicants threatens the future of dietetics. Only about half of all applicants will obtain a slot. Additional internship positions are needed and can be offered only if more practitioners become preceptors. Objective: To examine the perceptions associated with the role of DI preceptor among nutrition and dietetic practitioners and identify barriers and motivators to becoming a DI preceptor in Arizona. Design: An online survey adapted from previous published instruments was administered between July and September 2011 to dietetic and nutrition professionals eligible to precept dietetic interns. Participants: RD, DTR, …

Contributors
Wooden, Alissa Anne, Winham, Donna M, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra N, et al.
Created Date
2012

Salad bars are promoted as a means to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among school-age children; however, no study has assessed barriers to having salad bars. Further, it is not known if barriers differ across school level. This cross-sectional study investigated the barriers to having salad bars across school level among schools without salad bars in Arizona (n=177). Multivariate binominal regression models were used to determine differences between the barriers and school level, adjusting for years at current job, enrollment of school, free-reduced eligibility rate and district level clustering. The top five barriers were not enough staff (51.4%), lack of …

Contributors
Kebric, Kelsey Anne, Bruening, Meg, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2016

Abstract Healthy eating promotes the optimal growth and development of children and can help reduce the risk of developing many health-related problems such as obesity and diabetes in both children and adults. Low-income, minority children disproportionately suffer from several chronic diseases when compared to middle to upper class non-Hispanic whites. The school is an environment in which children can learn about the importance of healthy eating by observing foods served, observing role models and interacting with a curriculum that emphasizes health and good nutrition. Parent involvement has been shown to play a role in improving health habits of children. Therefore, …

Contributors
Pazzaglia, Gina, Margolis, Eric, Appleton, Nicholas, et al.
Created Date
2016

Dietary protein is known to increase postprandial thermogenesis more so than carbohydrates or fats, probably related to the fact that amino acids have no immediate form of storage in the body and can become toxic if not readily incorporated into body tissues or excreted. It is also well documented that subjects report greater satiety on high- versus low-protein diets and that subject compliance tends to be greater on high-protein diets, thus contributing to their popularity. What is not as well known is how a high-protein diet affects resting metabolic rate over time, and what is even less well known is …

Contributors
Moore, Amy, Johnston, Carol, Appel, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2012

The transition to college has been identified as a vulnerable period for weight gain and the onset of obesity. Research has shown that the gut microbiota is different in obese compared to lean individuals, but a period of weight gain has never been studied in free-living individuals. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess the association between changes in the intestinal microbiota and weight-related outcomes in healthy college students living in on-campus dormitories at Arizona State University (n=39). Anthropometric measures and fecal samples were collected at the beginning and end of the school year, and microbial relative …

Contributors
Journey, Elizabeth, Whisner, Corrie M, Bruening, Meredith, et al.
Created Date
2017

Birds have plasma glucose levels that are 1.5-2 times greater than mammals of similar body mass in addition to higher free fatty acid concentrations, both of which would typically impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation if observed in mammals. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation can be stimulated in mammals through the use of acetylcholine (ACh), which primarily acts through nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated pathways, with varying reliance on endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). Very few studies have been conducted on small resistance systemic arteries from birds. The hypothesis was that because birds have naturally high glucose and free fatty acid concentrations, ACh-induced vasodilation of isolated …

Contributors
Jarrett, Catherine Lee, Sweazea, Karen L, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012

Many people with or at risk for diabetes have difficulty maintaining normal postprandial blood glucose levels (120-140 mg/dl). Research has shown that vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia. The purpose of this study was to examine a possible mechanism by which vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia, particularly the effect of vinegar ingestion on gut fermentation. In this parallel arm randomized control trial, the effects of daily ingestion of vinegar on gut fermentation markers were observed among adults at risk for type 2 diabetes in Phoenix, Arizona. Subjects (n=14) were randomly assigned to treatments consisting of a vinegar drink (1.5g acetic acid) or a …

Contributors
White, Serena Elsa, Johnston, Carol, Appel, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2013

Community Supported Agriculture programs (CSAs) have become a viable local source of fresh agricultural goods and represent a potentially new way to improve fruit and vegetable consumption among individuals and families. Studies concerning CSAs have focused mainly on characteristics of the typical CSA member and motivations and barriers to join a CSA program. The purpose of this study was to examine whether behavior and attitudinal differences existed between current CSA members and a nonmember control group. Specifically, ecological attitudes, eating out behaviors, composting frequency, and family participation in food preparation were assessed. This study utilized an online survey comprising items …

Contributors
Macmillan Uribe, Alexandra Luisa, Wharton, Christopher, Winham, Donna, et al.
Created Date
2011

Background: The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics states that it is possible for a vegetarian to obtain the recommended amount of nutrients with a properly planned diet but nutrient deficiencies, such as vitamin B12 deficiency, may occur if diet planning is not optimal. An early indicator of B12 deficiency is raised homocysteine concentrations in blood which can cause health issues. Objective: The amino acid methionine is consumed via dietary protein. Methionine is used in the biosynthesis of other proteins. After a removal of a methyl group, it makes homocysteine. Slightly raised homocysteine may promote greater synthesis of glutathione, an important …

Contributors
Manley, Rachel Christine, Johnston, Carol, Levinson, Simin, et al.
Created Date
2019

Background. Despite research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of essential hypertension, instances of this condition continue to rise. Recent findings indicate that the administration of dietary nitrates, in the form of beetroot juice and other nitrate-rich vegetables, may offer anti-hypertensive effects in various study populations. Objective. This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial sought to compare the effects of high-nitrate vegetable salads to the effects of low-nitrate canned vegetables on plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration, peripheral and central-aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse wave velocity, and flow-mediated dilation. Methods. Healthy, post-menopausal women (n=5; 80% Caucasian; 52.6 ± 5.7 years) with mildly elevated blood …

Contributors
Mayra, Selicia, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2017

The purpose of this study was to gather qualitative data on different and novel methods used to self-monitor diet and exercise during a weight loss study. Participants who used either a traditional paper and pencil method or a smart phone weight loss app for diet and exercise tracking were recruited for focus groups. Focus group discussions centered on the liked and disliked aspects of recording, perceived behavior changes, and suggestions for improved self-monitoring. Focus groups were organized based on the method of self-monitoring. The app group tracked calorie intake and expenditure via the "Lose It" app on their smart phones. …

Contributors
Sterner, Danielle, Wharton, Christopher, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012

Individuals in urban low-income areas often do not have easy access to large grocery stores and supermarkets, and regularly shop at nearby small/corner stores. These stores stock an abundance of processed, energy-dense, nutrient poor foods, combined with few nutrient-dense products. A high concentration of small/corner stores is associated with poor diets by nearby residents. Interventions that target small food stores for increasing the availability and sale of healthy foods have been launched in many communities, and validated survey instruments have been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions. However, in-store surveys can take up to thirty minutes to conduct …

Contributors
DeWeese, Robin, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Todd, Mike, et al.
Created Date
2015

The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) in guiding message design for a new health context, reducing meat consumption. The experiment was a posttest only design with a comparison and a control group. Message design was informed by the EPPM and contained threat and efficacy components. Participants (Americans ages 25-44 who eat meat approximately once a day) were randomly assigned to view a high threat/ high efficacy video, a high threat/ low efficacy video, or to be in a control group. Dependent variables were danger control outcomes (i.e., attitudes, intentions, …

Contributors
Fehrenbach, Keri Szejda, Roberto, Anthony J, Mongeau, Paul A, et al.
Created Date
2015

Determining the factors associated with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in the household may help in understanding the varying complexities that contribute to obesity among children and help design interventions to impact children's food consumption behaviors. This study examined factors that are associated with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in children's home food environments (HFE). Data was collected from a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1708 households, with at least one child between 3-18 years of age, located in five low-income New Jersey cities. HFE was assessed based on responses to a set of six items that …

Contributors
Berry, Andrea I., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012

Background: Acetic acid in vinegar has demonstrated antiglycemic effects in previous studies; however, the mechanism is unknown. Objective: To determine whether acetic acid dissociates in the addition of sodium chloride and describe a flavorful vinaigrette that maintains the functional properties of acetic acid. Design: Phase I - Ten healthy subjects (23-40 years) taste tested five homemade vinaigrette and five commercial dressings. Perceived saltiness, sweetness, tartness, and overall tasted were scored using a modified labeled affective magnitude scale. Each dressing was tested three times for pH with a calibrated meter. Phase II – Randomized crossover trial testing six dressings against a …

Contributors
Bonsall, Amber Kaila, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2017

Long-term results of dietary weight loss interventions are not promising, with rates of weight loss maintenance at a mere 20%. Psychological factors related to weight maintenance include setting unrealistic weight goals, poor problem-solving skills, low self-efficacy, dichotomous thinking, and external locus of control. The ability to maintain a stable bodyweight over time has been associated with optimal health outcomes, lower stress levels, and higher general well-being. Dichotomous thinking has been associated with overeating and increased bodyweight. Cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger are three dimensions of human eating behavior that appear to be important to understanding weight loss maintenance. Individuals who …

Contributors
Lee, Sohee, Robles-Sotelo, Elias, Vargas, Perla, et al.
Created Date
2018

Food system and health characteristics were evaluated across the last Waorani hunter-gatherer group in Amazonian Ecuador and a remote neighboring Kichwa indigenous subsistence agriculture community. Hunter-gatherer food systems like the Waorani foragers may not only be nutritionally, but also pharmaceutically beneficial because of high dietary intake of varied plant phytochemical compounds. A modern diet that reduces these dietary plant defense phytochemicals below levels typical in human evolutionary history may leave humans vulnerable to diseases that were controlled through a foraging diet. Few studies consider the health impact of the recent drastic reduction of plant phytochemical content in the modern global …

Contributors
London, Douglas, Tsuda, Takeyuki, Beezhold, Bonnie L, et al.
Created Date
2012

Diet quality is closely intertwined with overall health status and deserves close examination. Healthcare providers are stretched thin in the current stressed system and would benefit from a validated tool for rapid assessment of diet quality. The Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Participants Short Version (REAP-S) represents one such option. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the REAP-S and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) for scoring the diet quality of omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan diets. Eighty-one healthy male and female subjects with an average age of 30.9 years completed the REAP-S as well …

Contributors
Bliss, Courtney, Johnston, Carol, Tasevska, Natasha, et al.
Created Date
2015

Background: Hispanic women are at high risk for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), in part due to their high prevalence of obesity, which may influence the development of insulin resistance and disease onset. Unhealthy eating contributes to T2D risk. Dietary patterns are the combination of total foods and beverages among individual’s over time, but there is limited information regarding its role on T2D risk factors among Hispanic women. Objective: To identify a posteriori dietary patterns and their associations with diabetes risk factors (age, BMI, abdominal obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c) among overweight/obese Hispanic women. Design: Cross-sectional dietary data …

Contributors
Arias-Gastelum, Mayra, Vega-López, Sonia, Der Ananian, Cheryl, et al.
Created Date
2018

Vegetarian diets can provide an abundance of nutrients when planned with care. However, research suggests that vegetarian diets may have lower protein quality than omnivore diets. Current protein recommendations assume that vegetarians obtain a majority of their protein from animal products, like dairy and eggs. Studies have shown that this assumption may not be valid. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) may not be adequate in vegetarian populations with high protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to analyze dietary protein quality using the DIAAS (Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score) method in both vegetarian and omnivore endurance athletes. 38 omnivores …

Contributors
Zuelke, Corinne, Johnston, Carol, Wharton, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2017

The body is capable of regulating hunger in several ways. Some of these hunger regulation methods are innate, such as genetics, and some, such as the responses to stress and to the smell of food, are innate but can be affected by body conditions such as BMI and physical activity. Further, some hunger regulation methods stem from learned behaviors originating from cultural pressures or parenting styles. These latter regulation methods for hunger can be grouped into the categories: emotion, environment, and physical. The factors that regulate hunger can also influence the incidence of disordered eating, such as eating in the …

Contributors
Goett, Taylor, Johnston, Carol, Lee, Chong, et al.
Created Date
2013

There are limited studies exploring the direct relationship between coconut oil and cholesterol concentrations. Research in animals and a few intervention trials suggest that coconut oil increases the good cholesterol (high density lipoprotein, HDL) and thus reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Preliminary research at Arizona State University (ASU) has found similar results using coconut oil as a placebo, positive changes in HDL cholesterol concentrations were observed. The goal of this randomized, double blind, parallel two arm study, was to further examine the beneficial effects of a 2g supplement of coconut oil taken each day for 8 weeks on cholesterol …

Contributors
Shedden, Rachel Nikita, Johnston, Carol, Lespron, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2017

Long term high fat diets (HFD) are correlated with the development of diabetes and kidney disease. However, the impact of short term high fat intake on the etiology of kidney disease has not been well-studied. Therefore, this study examined the impact of a six week HFD (60% fat) on kidney structure and function in young male Sprague-Dawley rats. Previous studies have shown that these animals develop indices of diabetes compared to rats fed a standard rodent chow (5% fat) for six weeks. The hypothesis of this study is that six weeks of HFD will lead to early stages of kidney …

Contributors
Crinigan, Catherine, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2015

Background. Research suggests that non-O blood types are at an increased risk of thrombosis and related health complications in cardiovascular disease (CVD). This is due in part to higher concentrations of von Willebrand factor (VWF), an important factor involved in blood clotting. Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a vegetarian-like diet on blood coagulation and other health parameters in adults with type A blood compared to type O blood over a four week intervention. Given the lack of previous research on blood type and diet, it was hypothesized that no difference in blood coagulation …

Contributors
Brown, Jennifer Marie, Johnston, Carol, Martin, Keith, et al.
Created Date
2013

Sustaining a fall can be hazardous for those with low bone mass. Interventions exist to reduce fall-risk, but may not retain long-term interest. "Exergaming" has become popular in older adults as a therapy, but no research has been done on its preventative ability in non-clinical populations. The purpose was to determine the impact of 12-weeks of interactive play with the Wii Fit® on balance, muscular fitness, and bone health in peri- menopausal women. METHODS: 24 peri-menopausal-women were randomized into study groups. Balance was assessed using the Berg/FICSIT-4 and a force plate. Muscular strength was measured using the isokinetic dynamometer at …

Contributors
Wherry, Sarah Jo, Swan, Pamela D, Adams, Marc, et al.
Created Date
2014

Curcumin is an active ingredient of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) and is studied extensively for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of turmeric on blood glucose and plasma insulin levels. The study utilized a placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over design with participants serving as their own control. Eight glucose tolerant healthy participants completed the full study. Three-weeks washout period was kept in between six-weeks. Prior to the test meal day, participants were asked to eat a bagel with their evening dinner. During the day of the test meal, participants reported to …

Contributors
Oza, Namrata, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2017

This study examined the effect of consuming pinto, black, and dark red kidney beans with white rice in comparison to a white rice only control meal on the glycemic response of adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). These bean and rice combinations are part of many traditional diets. Seventeen subjects with T2D treated by diet and/or metformin were randomly assigned to 4 treatments: white rice (control), pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, and dark red kidney beans/rice. All treatments were portioned by weight and matched for available carbohydrate content of ∼ 50 grams. Capillary whole blood samples were collected at baseline and …

Contributors
Thompson, Sharon Virginia, Winham, Donna M, Beezhold, Bonnie, et al.
Created Date
2011

The winter holiday period has been highlighted as a major risk period for weight gain due to excess caloric intake in the form of fat and sugar. Furthermore, diets high in fat and sugar have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exercise aids in the prevention of weight/fat gain, and prevents deleterious changes in cardiometabolic function. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fat-sugar supplemented diet, with and without two different exercise training protocols, on body composition, glycemic control and other markers of cardiovascular disease in an at-risk population of overweight …

Contributors
Tucker, Wesley Jack, Gaesser, Glenn A, Angadi, Siddhartha S, et al.
Created Date
2016

The Western Pattern diet has been characterized by having greater than 50 percent consumption coming from fat and sugar. This macronutrient allocation has been shown to have deleterious effects on endothelial function and metabolic markers of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to improve vascular reactivity and metabolic markers related to cardiovascular health. The objective of the study was to determine if exercise training can prevent the anticipated deleterious effects of a fat-sugar supplemented diet on endothelial function and blood markers of cardiovascular risk in young men. Twenty-one, healthy college-aged males were randomly assigned to either the doughnut + exercise …

Contributors
Black, Laurie Elizabeth, Gaesser, Glenn, Cataldo, Donna, et al.
Created Date
2013

ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the effect a daily coconut oil supplement (2 grams) would have on a common serum marker of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein) and an indicator of oxidative stress (TBARS) when compared to the control group receiving a placebo capsule (white flour) in healthy, sedentary adults between the ages of 18-40 in Phoenix, Arizona. Design: This study was designed as secondary analyses of blood samples originally collected to study the effects of coconut oil supplementation on blood lipids and body composition. The original study consisted of 32 healthy, adult volunteers …

Contributors
Norman, Lisa Marie, Johnston, Carol, Shepard, Christina, et al.
Created Date
2017

Obesity prevalence is high in the United States, in part due to increased fat storage following consumption of high fat/carbohydrate (sugar) foods. Following a meal, carbohydrate stimulates its own oxidation, while simultaneously suppressing fat oxidation, ultimately leading to fat storage. Aerobic exercise preceding a meal increases fat oxidation in the postprandial period, which may reduce fat storage. The ideal exercise prescription for optimal postprandial fat oxidation is unknown. The effect of low and moderate intensity continuous exercise (MIE) has been studied extensively, while the effects of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on post-prandial substrate oxidation has not been examined. The purpose …

Contributors
Fleming, Jacob Michael, Johnston, Carol S, Gaesser, Glenn A, et al.
Created Date
2018

Urinary sucrose and fructose has been suggested as a predictive biomarker of total sugars intake based on research involving UK adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between total sugars consumption and 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose (24uSF) in US adult population and to investigate the effect of physical activity on this association. Fifty seven free-living healthy subjects 20 to 68 years old, participated in a 15-day highly controlled feeding study, consuming their habitual diet, provided by the research metabolic kitchen. Dietary sugars were estimated using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR). Subjects collected eight 24-hour …

Contributors
Mohan, Chitra, Tasevska, Natasha, Ainsworth, Barbara, et al.
Created Date
2019

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which vinegar has been shown to reduce postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Fifteen male and female subjects were recruited, ages 20-60y, who had no prior history of gastrointestinal (GI) disease or resections impacting normal GI function, were non-smokers, were non-vegetarian/vegan, were not taking any medications known to alter (glucose) metabolism, and were free of chronic disease including diabetes. Subjects were instructed to …

Contributors
Medved, Emily, Johnston, Carol, Sweazea, Karen, et al.
Created Date
2012

Pediatric obesity is a continuing concern in the United States. Preventative intervention methods in the form of nutrition education, including hands-on cooking lessons may improve personal choices for healthy eating. This study assessed the effectiveness of Arizona State University’s Camp CRAVE, a one-week course promoting healthy eating and teaching basic cooking skills. Children ages 9-13years (mean 10.3years, n=31) participated in a pre- and post-test survey to assess if the one-week course would increase self-efficacy to cook at home and increase knowledge of nutrition. The course showed significant increase in the participants’ nutrition knowledge and preference for healthier food options. There …

Contributors
Bell, Kelly Marie, Johnston, Carol, Shepard, Christina, et al.
Created Date
2017

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the LoseIt Smart Phone app by Fit Now Inc. for nutritional quality among users during an 8 week behavioral modification weight loss protocol. All participants owned smart phones and were cluster randomized to either a control group using paper and pencil record keeping, a memo group using a memo function on their smart phones, or the LoseIt app group which was composed of the participants who owned iPhones. Thirty one participants completed the study protocol: 10 participants from the LoseIt app group, 10 participants from the memo group, and 11 participants from the paper and pencil …

Contributors
Cowan, David Kevin, Johnston, Carol, Wharton, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2011

Birds have shown promise as models of diabetes due to health and longevity despite naturally high plasma glucose concentrations, a condition which in diabetic humans leads to protein glycation and various complications. Research into mechanisms that protect birds from high plasma glucose have shown that some species of birds have naturally low levels of protein glycation. Some hypothesize a diet rich in carotenoids and other antioxidants protects birds from protein glycation and oxidative damage. There is little research, however, into the amount of protein glycation in birds of prey, which consume a high protein, high fat diet. No studies have …

Contributors
Ingram, Tana Dawn, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2017

An understanding of diet habits is crucial in implementing proper management strategies for wildlife. Diet analysis, however, remains a challenge for ruminant species. Microhistological analysis, the method most often employed in herbivore diet studies, is tedious and time consuming. In addition, it requires considerable training and an extensive reference plant collection. The development of DNA barcoding (species identification using a standardized DNA sequence) and the availability of recent DNA sequencing techniques offer new possibilities in diet analysis for ungulates. Using fecal material collected from controlled feeding trials on pygmy goats, (Capra hicus), novel DNA barcoding technology using the P6-loop of …

Contributors
Murphree, Julie Joan, Miller, William H., Steele, Kelly, et al.
Created Date
2012

Background: Individuals in the general populations with a known gluten disorder is believed to be 6% and it is unclear why the gluten free diet (GFD) has risen sharply (28%) in recent years. However, science has revealed that gluten can cause colonic changes in those undiagnosed with a known gluten disorder. The ramifications of these changes are unknown. Three common ingredients found in gluten free products, such as pasta, are corn quinoa and rice. Evidence from the scientific literature has shown that corn and quinoa can produce more colonic hydrogen than refined wheat and rice, indicating that corn and quinoa …

Contributors
Snyder, Darren Lawrence, Johnston, Carol, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2015

Objectives: This study examines weight loss strategies (eating, physical activity (PA), or both) adopted by overweight or obese (OWOB) parents and children in relation to age, income, gender, education, and race/ethnicity in a predominantly low-income and high minority sample. We also examine if OWOB parent-child dyads employed the same strategies to lose weight, and how these strategies vary by demographic variables. Methods: Data was compiled from the New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study (NJCOB). A random digit dial household phone survey was used to select 1,708 households with at least one child aged 3-18 years from five cities in New Jersey. …

Contributors
Dwaik, Noor Fathi, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Tasevska, Natasha, et al.
Created Date
2016

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related health issues. Recent research shows that a child's age and gender are associated with parental misperception of their child's weight status, but little is known about the interaction of these factors across various age groups. This study examined the association between a wide range of parent, child, and household factors and the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body …

Contributors
Bader, Wendy L., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Lloyd, Kristen, et al.
Created Date
2013

Fruit and vegetable consumption among school children falls short of current recommendations. The development of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP), which combine the resources of government entities with the resources of private entities, such as businesses or not-for-profit agencies, has been suggested as an effective approach to address a number of public health concerns, including inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) provides fruits and vegetables as snacks at least twice per week in low-income elementary schools. In addition to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption behaviors at school, children participating in …

Contributors
Gruner, Jessie Green, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Evans, Browynne, et al.
Created Date
2017

Background In the United States (US), first-year university students typically live on campus and purchase a meal plan. In general, meal plans allow the student a set number of meals per week or semester, or unlimited meals. Understanding how students’ use their meal plan, and barriers and facilitators to meal plan use, may help decrease nutrition-related issues. Methods First-year students’ meal plan and residence information was provided by a large, public, southwestern university for the 2015-2016 academic year. A subset of students (n=619) self-reported their food security status. Logistic generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to determine if meal plan …

Contributors
van Woerden, Irene, Bruening, Meg, Hruschka, Daniel, et al.
Created Date
2019

The omega-3 fatty acids in fatty fish and fish oil, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA), have been associated with a reduction in risk for cardiovascular disease. Blood type is a known contributor to risk for cardiovascular events. This study evaluated the effect of fish oil supplements on cardiovascular risk markers in adults with blood types A or O. An 8-week parallel-arm, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in healthy adult men and women with either blood type A (BTA) or blood type O (BTO). Participants were randomized to receive fish oil supplements (n=10 [3 BTA/7 BTO]; 2 g [containing …

Contributors
Herring, Dana, Johnston, Carol, Vega-López, Sonia, et al.
Created Date
2014

Background: Research in animal models suggests that fish oil ingestion may impair immunity and increase risk for infection. To date there are no studies examining this relationship between fish oil ingestion and risk for infection in humans. Objective: The primary aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-arm study was to examine the effect of 400 mg of EPA and 200 mg of DHA, the main components of fish oil (FO) supplements, on the incidence of symptoms related to upper respiratory tract infections in healthy young females, at a large southwestern university. Design: Healthy young women between 18 and 38 years …

Contributors
Gutierrez, Megan, Johnston, Carol, Appel, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2013

Food deserts are defined as regions with low average income, low accessibility to grocery stores, and high adverse health outcomes. Food deserts have thus become an important area of public health research, and many actions are being taken across the country to "solve" the variety of problems food deserts represent. Despite the many solutions promoted to improve food security, healthy food access, and health outcomes among individuals living in food desert areas, not all activities have been critically assessed for their potential for sustained impact. Further, little research has been conducted in the state of Arizona regarding food-related ‘assets’ available …

Contributors
Yanamandra, Meghana, Wharton, Christopher, Maienschein, Jane, et al.
Created Date
2015

Research related to food deserts, areas with limited access to healthy and affordable food options, has focused primarily on issues of healthy food access, food quality and pricing, dietary outcomes, and increased risk for chronic diseases among residents. However, upstream challenges that might play a major role in the creation and perpetuation of food deserts, namely problems in the supply chain, have been less considered. In this qualitative study, researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with local produce supply chain representatives to understand their perspectives on the barriers to, and potential solutions for, supplying affordable produce to underserved areas in Phoenix, AZ. …

Contributors
Lacagnina, Gina Elizabeth, Wharton, Christopher, Hughner, Renee, et al.
Created Date
2015

Childhood obesity has been on the rise for the past decade, and it has been hypothesized that students' food choices may be influenced by easy access to food outlets near their schools that provide unhealthful options. But the results of recent studies on the relationship between the food environment around schools and student weight status are mixed and often contradictory. Most studies have used measures of weight and height that were self-reported by students, or have relied on data from a relatively small sample of students. I examine the association between weight status among school students and the food environment …

Contributors
Tang, Xuyang, Abbott, Joshua K, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2013

This study was designed to influence consumer habits, specifically those relating to purchases of fruits, vegetables, and junk food. Previous studies have clearly shown the ineffectiveness of simply describing the health benefits of eating more fruits and vegetables (F/V). In contrast, this study aimed to change the result by changing the message: providing participants with insight into the hidden agendas of food companies and grocery stores, provide useful tips on how to include children when selecting F/V, and emphasizing the importance of parental modeling in regard to food purchases. Participants of this study were separated into two groups, the tour …

Contributors
Kinsfather, Diana Llelven, Johnston, Carol, Hekler, Eric, et al.
Created Date
2013

Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-shortening autosomal recessive genetic disease affecting Caucasians. The disease is characterized by a dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein and aberrant mucus accumulation that subsequently alters the physicochemical environment in numerous organ systems. These mucosal perturbations have been associated with inflammation and microbial dysbiosis, most notably in the lungs and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Genistein, a soy isoflavone and dietary polyphenol, has been shown to modulate CFTR function in cell cultures and murine models, as well exert sex-dependent improvement of survival rates in a CF mouse model. However, it is unknown whether …

Contributors
Argo, Katy Bryana, Whisner, Corrie M, Al-Nakkash, Layla, et al.
Created Date
2019

Although many studies have looked into the relationship between home food availability and dietary intake, few have assessed actual change in the home food environment as a result of an intervention program. This secondary data analysis of the Athletes for Life 3 (AFL3) program investigated the efficacy of a randomized controlled 12-week community-based, family-focused exercise and dietary behavior intervention program in improving the home food environment of families with children between the ages of 6 and 11 years old. A total of twenty-six adults from Phoenix, Arizona allowed research staff into their homes to assess variety of food availability, using …

Contributors
Ghan, Emily, Vega-López, Sonia, Bruening, Meg, et al.
Created Date
2016

This study explores how newspapers framed the weight-loss drugs Xenical®(orlistat) and Alli® (over-the-counter orlistat) during the time period of three months prior to their approvals by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration until one year after each became available on the market. As of June 2011, orlistat is the only weight-loss drug available for long-term use in the U.S. Newspapers are influential sources of information about health issues. Agenda-setting, framing, and priming in news articles can have a powerful effect on public perceptions and behaviors. To conduct the content analysis, researchers first developed a codebook containing variables that described the …

Contributors
Lehmann, Jessica, Hampl, Jeffrey S, Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon, et al.
Created Date
2011

Despite recent strides for awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, prevalence remains high with estimates suggesting one third of Americans have hypertension. The hypotensive effects of potassium and magnesium have been known and administered in a clinical setting for nearly a century. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of taking a potassium/magnesium supplement to help reduce blood pressure in individuals with mildly-moderately elevated blood pressure. In this randomized, controlled crossover trial, potassium and magnesium supplementation was explored among healthy adults with mildly elevated blood pressure in Phoenix, Arizona. Subjects (n = 12) were randomly assigned to …

Contributors
Pawloski, Jason Richard, Johnston, Carol, Vega-Lopez, Sonia, et al.
Created Date
2015

Chronic diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer are leading causes of death in the United States. Although they result from a host of personal and environmental factors, diet remains a critical way to reduce the risk. Plant-based diets in particular are associated with reduction in risk for chronic disease due to an intake that closely mirrors the Dietary Guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption, fiber, and fat intake. Additionally, plant-based diets offer a sustainable alternative in relation to food production as they often require fewer natural resources overall. While there are many benefits to following a plant-based diet, …

Contributors
Incollingo, April, Wharton, Christopher, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2020

There are multivariate factors that not only play a role in an individual's ability to lose weight, but may create barriers to his or her success. One such factor is internalized weight bias (IWB), which is inversely associated with weight loss outcomes and body satisfaction, and directly associated with psychosocial maladjustments such as depression and binge eating. This study examined the relationship between internalized weight bias and weight loss outcomes using a coding scheme developed for an online weight loss forum to see whether results would be consistent with self-administered surveys that measure IWB. The coding scheme was developed using …

Contributors
Escajeda, Janessa, Hekler, Eric, Barroso, Cristina, et al.
Created Date
2015

Dietary counseling from a registered dietitian has been shown in previous studies to aid in weight loss for those receiving counseling. With the increasing use of smartphone diet/weight loss applications (app), this study sought to investigate if an iPhone diet app providing feedback from a registered dietitian improved weight loss and bio-markers of health. Twenty-four healthy adults who owned iPhones (BMI > 24 kg/m2) completed this trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three app groups: the MyDietitian app with daily feedback from a registered dietitian (n=7), the MyDietitian app without feedback (n=7), and the MyPlate feedback control app …

Contributors
Thompson-Felty, Claudia, Johnston, Carol, Wharton, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2014

The effects of iron and chromium blood concentrations have been linked to blood glucose control in diabetics. It is suggested that iron causes oxidative stress in the beta cells of the pancreas and adipocytes creating insulin insufficiency and resistance. Chromium is believed to increase the action of insulin through its biologically active molecule chromodulin. Both of these mechanisms are not clear. This 20 week case study tests the feasibility of combining iron depletion therapy followed by chromium supplementation to improve insulin sensitivity. This single case study followed a protocol of two blood donations separated by eight weeks followed by chromium …

Contributors
Jarrett, Nia M., Johnston, Carol, Lespron, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2015

Drinking vinegar is a popularly discussed remedy for relieving heartburn symptom, as can be read on many websites; however, there has been no scientific research or theory to support its efficacy. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over research study tested the efficacy of the organic apple cider vinegar, with mother, on alleviation of the heartburn symptom related to Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). A minimum of one week separated the four trial arms: chili (placebo), antacid after chili meal (positive control), vinegar added to chili, and diluted vinegar after chili meal. Twenty grams of vinegar were used in both vinegar treatments, and …

Contributors
Yeh, Zoe, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2016

Mobile healthy food retailers are a novel alleviation technique to address disparities in access to urban produce stores in food desert communities. Such retailers, which tend to exclusively stock produce items, have become significantly more popular in the past decade, but many are unable to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, when local and federal grants and scholarships are no longer available for a mobile food retailer, they must stop operating which poses serious health risks to consumers who rely on their services. To address these issues, a framework was established in this dissertation to aid mobile food retailers with reaching economic …

Contributors
Wishon, Christopher John, Villalobos, Rene, Fowler, John, et al.
Created Date
2016

The strips in Mark's Feminist Froze to Default in an Implementation String transfer the lives of feminists absent and imagined, overbearing and empathetic--cross dressers, lethal injectors, expats, planets, and Canadian survivalists--in an autumn to characteristic, unsettle, and reassess controller utterances of masculinity. Dissertation/Thesis

Contributors
McElroy, Alexander, McNally, Thomas M, Ball, Sally, et al.
Created Date
2015

ABSTRACT Many natural interventions have been effective at lowering postprandial glucose concentrations (PPG) in research trials and, theoretically, should have favorable effects on the prevention and management of T2DM. Natural interventions include vinegar, nuts and exercise. Green tea has been demonstrated to also possessing antiglycemic effects. Thus, green tea, and its most abundant catechin EGCG, are being consumed for its potential health benefits in cancer prevention and in its inhibitory effects on α-amylase. Many studies have found EGCG to inhibit α-amylase an enzyme needed in the breakdown of carbohydrates (CHO). Other studies have looked at EGCG and its potential for …

Contributors
Romash, Roni Genna, Johnston, Carol, Dixon, Kathleen, et al.
Created Date
2018

Availability and accessibility of foods in the home influence dietary behaviors. However, much of the literature involving measurement of the home food environment (HFE) has examined only self-reported data, and home food inventory tools have not been used to assess behavior change intervention efficacy. Thus, this quasi-experimental study was conducted to test the preliminary efficacy of a 10-week dietary behavioral intervention on the HFE, measured through the presence of fruits, vegetables, and sources of sugars in the household. Participants included 23 parents (21 females; age=36±5.5) of children 6-11 years old living in an ethnically diverse community within a Southwestern metropolitan …

Contributors
Cassinat, Rachel, Vega-Lopez, Sonia, Bruening, Meredith, et al.
Created Date
2015

In recent years, overall consumption of meat products has been decreasing, and at the same time vegetarianism is on the rise. A variety of factors are likely driving changes in consumers' attitudes towards, and consumption of, meat products. Although concern regarding animal welfare may contribute to these trends, growing consumer interest in the roles that production and processing of meat play in terms of environmental degradation could also impact individuals' decisions about the inclusion of meat in their diets. Because these factors could be related to moral attitudes as well, the purpose of this study was to explore the relations …

Contributors
Bond, Leeann, Wharton, Christopher, Hekler, Eric, et al.
Created Date
2013

Sustainability, as it relates to nutrition, affects all aspects of food from systems-level production to consumption. Viability of local food systems in the southwest of the United States has been largely understudied. In order to address this gap in the literature, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 farmers in Arizona and New Mexico to determine best practices, challenges and barriers to farming. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded for themes. Many trends were consistent with those reported elsewhere in the US, but the importance of water emerged, a unique need not explicitly noted in other regional studies. Vegetarian diets are …

Contributors
Lynch, Heidi, Wharton, Christopher M, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2017

Among the general US population, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality for Mexican-Americans. CVD is less prevalent among Mexican-Americans than non-Hispanic Whites or African Americans. However, there is limited research regarding the factors associated with increased CVD risk among Mexican-Americans. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the effects of non-biological factors (income, education, employment, acculturation) and diet on CVD risk factors in 75 Mexican-American adults (26 males, 49 females; age=37.6±9.3 y, BMI=28.9±5.3 kg/m2, systolic BP=117±11 mmHg, diastolic BP=73±9 mmHg, LDL cholesterol=114±32 mg/dL, HDL cholesterol=44±11 mg/dL, triglycerides=115±61 mg/dL, serum glucose=92±7 mg/dL). Aside from collecting anthropometric measurements, …

Contributors
Farr, Kristin, Vega-Lopez, Sonia, Shaibi, Gabriel Q, et al.
Created Date
2011

Healthy lifestyle behaviors including quality nutrition have been shown to successfully prevent chronic disease or minimize symptoms. However, many physicians lack the knowledge and skills to provide adequate nutrition counseling and education for their patients. A major component of this problem is that medical schools are not required to teach nutrition education. The purpose of this feasibility study was to compare the changes in the perceived importance of nutrition in the medical field in medical students before and after participating in a week-long interactive nutrition course in order to determine if a week-long course can positively influence students’ perceptions of …

Contributors
Baum, Makenna, Johnston, Carol, Levinson, Simin, et al.
Created Date
2020

Objective: The purpose of this randomized parallel arm trial was to demonstrate the effects of daily fish oil supplementation (600mg per day for eight weeks) on body composition and body mass in young healthy women, aged 18-38, at a large southwestern university. Design: 26 non-obese (mean BMI 23.7±0.6 kg/m2), healthy women (18-38y; mean, 23.5±1.1 y) from a southwestern Arizona university campus community completed the study. Subjects were healthy, non-smokers, consuming less than 3.5 oz of fish per week according to self-report. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: FISH (600 mg omega-3 fatty acids provided in one gel capsule …

Contributors
Teran, Bianca Maria, Johnston, Carol, Johnson, Melinda, et al.
Created Date
2013

Cardiovascular disease has reached epidemic proportions resulting in its ranking as the number one cause of mortality in the Western world. A key player in the pathophysiology of vascular disease is oxidative stress due to free radical accumulation. This intervention study was conducted to evaluate any potential mediation of oxidative stress using a soil-derived organometallic compound (OMC) with suspected antioxidant properties. A 10-week study was conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 42) fed either a high-fat diet (HFD) consisting of 60% kcal from fat or a standard Chow diet containing only 6% kcals from fat. Rats from each diet …

Contributors
Watson, Deborah, Sweazea, Karen L, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2018

Background: Latinos have disproportionately high rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Family-based interventions may reduce chronic disease risk among Latinos across generations. Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Athletes for Life (AFL), a 12-week community-and-family-based behavioral intervention, for improving diet, physical activity (PA), anthropometrics, fitness, and biochemical outcomes among mostly Latino parents. Methods: Parents with at least one child 6-11 years of age were randomized to active AFL participation (n=14) or a wait-list control (n=14) group. AFL consisted of twice weekly 90 minute sessions (45 minutes of nutrition-focused lessons and 45 minutes of PA participation) designed to promote fruit …

Contributors
Chavez, Adrian, Vega-Lopez, Sonia, Crespo, Noe, et al.
Created Date
2015

Background: Higher intake of carbohydrates in the evening and later eating times has been associated with higher total energy intake (TEI)1-3 and higher risk of being overweight or obese.1,4 Though existing evidence indicates a link between added sugars intake and increased body mass index (BMI), the effect of daily patterns of added sugars intake on TEI and BMI is unknown. Research on added sugars has relied on self-report dietary assessments with limited days of dietary data, resulting in unreliable estimates. The purpose of this thesis was to describe patterns of added sugars consumption, and to investigate the relationship between dietary …

Contributors
Gunnerson, Hannah Marie, Tasevska, Natasha, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2019

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world, responsible for 17.3 million deaths annually. Aerobic activity and almond ingestion have a cardio-protective effect against cardiovascular disease, however, the synergistic effect of both interventions is not known. This 8-week randomized, parallel, two-arm study examined the combined effect of daily almond ingestion (2.5 ounces) and brisk walking (10,000 steps per day) compared to ingestion of an isocaloric placebo (4 Tbsp cookie butter) and brisk walking (10,000 steps per day) in sedentary adults on various markers of cardiovascular health. The additive effect of the daily walking intervention with almond consumption …

Contributors
Schwab, Emily, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2017

Vitamin C is a micronutrient with many important physiological roles. It can function as a reducing agent, a free radical scavenger, and an enzyme cofactor. Much research has examined the potential of vitamin C supplements to enhance exercise capacity in trained athletes; however, little is known regarding the effects of vitamin C supplements on the promotion of leisure-time physical activity in the general population. This area deserves attention since 1/3 of Americans have below adequate vitamin C status, and since aversion to exercise, fatigue, and altered mood states are the earliest signs of poor vitamin C status. This study analyzed …

Contributors
Schumacher, Sara S., Johnston, Carol, Appel, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2012

Background: Despite the reported improvements in glucose regulation associated with flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum) few clinical trials have been conducted in diabetic participants. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of ground flaxseed consumption at attenuating hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress as compared to a control in adults with non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes (T2D). Design: In a randomized parallel arm controlled efficacy trial, participants were asked to consume either 28 g/d ground flaxseed or the fiber-matched control (9 g/d ground psyllium husk) for 8 weeks. The study included 17 adults (9 male, 8 females; 46±14 y; BMI: 31.4±5.7 kg/m2) with a …

Contributors
Ricklefs, Kristin, Sweazea, Karen L, Johnston, Carol S, et al.
Created Date
2015

It is widely recognized that dietary protein induces greater satiety compared to carbohydrate and fat. Two separate trials were conducted to assess the use of protein as a dietary approach to manage energy intake (EI). The first, crossover trial, examined 24– hour EI after consuming a high protein bar (HP) vs. a high carbohydrate (HC) bar upon awakening on two separate days and a control, no bar day. Of the 54 participants who entered the trial, 37 subjects completed the study in its entirety. Results showed there was no significant difference in mean EI between the intervention days when the …

Contributors
Trier, Catherine Marie, Johnston, Carol S., Swan, Pamela D., et al.
Created Date
2012

Objectives: To investigate the potential of vinegar supplementation as a means for reducing visceral fat in healthy overweight and obese adults, and to evaluate its effects on fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin. Subjects and Methods: Forty-five sedentary overweight and obese adult participants with a waist circumference greater than 32 inches for women and 37 inches for men were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the vinegar group (VIN, n=21) or the control group (CON, n=24), and instructed to consume either two tablespoons of liquid red wine vinegar (3.6g acetic acid) or a control pill (0.0225g acetic acid) twice …

Contributors
Gonzalez, Lisa Ann, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2019

No studies have evaluated the impact of tracking resting energy expenditure (REE) and modifiable health behaviors on gestational weight gain (GWG). In this controlled trial, pregnant women aged >18 years (X=29.8±4.9 years) with a gestational age (GA) <17 weeks were randomized to Breezing™ (N=16) or control (N=12) for 13 weeks. The Breezing™ group used a real-time metabolism tracker to obtain REE. Anthropometrics, diet, and sleep data were collected every 2 weeks. Rate of GWG was calculated as weight gain divided by total duration. Early (GA weeks 14-21), late (GA weeks 21-28), and overall (GA week 14-28) changes in macronutrients, sleep, …

Contributors
Vander Wyst, Kiley Bernhard, Whisner, Corrie M, Reifsnider, Elizabeth, et al.
Created Date
2019

Food deserts are the collection of deprived food environments and limit local residents from accessing healthy and affordable food. This dissertation research in San Lorenzo, Paraguay tests if the assumptions about food deserts in the Global North are also relevant to the Global South. In the Global South, the recent growth of supermarkets is transforming local food environments and may worsen residential food access, such as through emerging more food deserts globally. This dissertation research blends the tools, theories, and frameworks from clinical nutrition, public health, and anthropology to identify the form and impact of food deserts in the market …

Contributors
Gartin, Meredith, Brewis Slade, Alexandra, Boone, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2012

Exclusivity and duration of breastfeeding and the provision of human milk in the United States is suboptimal. In the absence of adequate banked donor human milk for distribution to all infants in need, many families choose to engage in the practice of Private Arrangement Milk Sharing (PAMS), partially facilitated through social media, to procure human milk for their infants. Evidence regarding the participant and infant characteristics and risk abatement practices is incomplete. This dissertation describes and explores the characteristics of recipient participants and infants, family constellation, donor screening practices, and related risk abatement strategies. Data was collected via on-line survey …

Contributors
Bond, Angela Bowen, Reifsnider, Elizabeth, Keller, Colleen, et al.
Created Date
2016

Background Hemodialysis (HD) patients elicit an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in addition to a selenium deficiency, possibly contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Objective To evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on CVD outcomes and antioxidant status in HD patients. Design A randomized controlled intervention trial conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants/setting The study included 27 maintenance HD patients (61.1+17.5y, 14M, 13F) receiving HD in the greater Phoenix, AZ area. Intervention Patients received one of three treatments daily: 2 Brazil nuts, (5g, 181µg/day of selenium as selenomethionine [predicted]), 1 tablet of selenium (200µg/day of selenium as selenomethionine), or control (3 …

Contributors
Sussman, Elizabeth Jessica, Johnston, Carol S, Boren, Kenneth, et al.
Created Date
2013

Dietary self-monitoring has been shown to be a predictor of weight loss success and is a prevalent part of behavioral weight control programs. As more weight loss applications have become available on smartphones, this feasibility study investigated whether the use of a smartphone application, or a smartphone memo feature would improve dietary self-monitoring over the traditional paper-and-pencil method. The study also looked at whether the difference in methods would affect weight loss. Forty-seven adults (BMI 25 to 40 kg/m2) completed an 8-week study focused on tracking the difference in adherence to a self-monitoring protocol and subsequent weight loss. Participants owning …

Contributors
Cunningham, Barbara Kay, Wharton, Christopher, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012