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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Subject
Date Range
2010 2019


In eukaryotes, DNA is packed in a highly condensed and hierarchically organized structure called chromatin, in which DNA tightly wraps around the histone octamer consisting of one histone 3-histone 4 (H3-H4) tetramer and two histone 2A- histone 2B (H2A-H2B) dimers with 147 base pairs in an almost two left handed turns. Almost all DNA dependent cellular processes, such as DNA duplication, transcription, DNA repair and recombination, take place in the chromatin form. Based on the critical importance of appropriate chromatin condensation, this thesis focused on the folding behavior of the nucleosome array reconstituted using different templates with various controllable factors …

Contributors
Fu, Qiang, Lindsay, Stuart M, Yan, Hao, et al.
Created Date
2010

A novel small metal-binding protein (SmbP), with only 93 residues and no similarity to other known proteins, has been isolated from the periplasm of Nitrosomonas europaea. It is characterized by its high percentage (17%) of histidines, a motif of ten repeats of seven residues, a four α-helix bundle structure, and a high binding affinity to about six equivalents of Cu2+. The goal of this study is to investigate the Cu2+ binding sites in SmbP and to understand how Cu2+ stabilizes the protein. Preliminary folding experiments indicated that Cu2+ greatly stabilizes SmbP. In this study, protein folding data from circular dichroism …

Contributors
Yan, Qin, Francisco, Wilson A, Allen, James, et al.
Created Date
2010

In oxygenic photosynthesis, Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) are two transmembrane protein complexes that catalyze the main step of energy conversion; the light induced charge separation that drives an electron transfer reaction across the thylakoid membrane. Current knowledge of the structure of PSI and PSII is based on three structures: PSI and PSII from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elonagatus and the PSI/light harvesting complex I (PSI-LHCI) of the plant, Pisum sativum. To improve the knowledge of these important membrane protein complexes from a wider spectrum of photosynthetic organisms, photosynthetic apparatus of the thermo-acidophilic red alga, Galdieria sulphuraria and …

Contributors
Thangaraj, Balakumar, Fromme, Petra, Shock, Everett, et al.
Created Date
2010

The metalloenzyme quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (QueD) catalyzes the oxidative decomposition of the aromatic compound, quercetin. The most recently characterized example is a product of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis (BsQueD); all previous examples were fungal enzymes from the genus Aspergillus (AQueD). AQueD contains a single atom of Cu(II) per monomer. However, BsQueD, over expressed in Escherichia coli, contains Mn(II) and has two metal-binding sites, and therefore two possible active sites per monomer. To understand the contribution of each site to BsQueD's activity, the N-terminal and C-terminal metal-binding sites have been mutated individually in an effort to disrupt metal binding. In wild type …

Contributors
Bowen, Sara, Francisco, Wilson A, Allen, James, et al.
Created Date
2010

Enzymes which regulate the metabolic reactions for sustaining all living things, are the engines of life. The discovery of molecules that are able to control enzyme activity is of great interest for therapeutics and the biocatalysis industry. Peptides are promising enzyme modulators due to their large chemical diversity and the existence of well-established methods for library synthesis. Microarrays represent a powerful tool for screening thousands of molecules, on a small chip, for candidates that interact with enzymes and modulate their functions. In this work, a method is presented for screening high-density arrays to discover peptides that bind and modulate enzyme …

Contributors
Fu, Jinglin, Woodbury, Neal W, Johnston, Stephen A, et al.
Created Date
2010

Protein crystallization has become an extremely important tool in biochemistry since the first structure of the protein Myoglobin was solved in 1958. Survival of motor neuron protein has proved to be an elusive target in regards to producing crystals of sufficient quality for X-ray diffraction. One form of Survival of motor neuron protein has been found to be a cause of the disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy that currently affects 1 in 6000 live births. The production, purification and crystallization of Survival of motor neuron protein are detailed. The Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein from Pelodictyon phaeum is responsible for the transfer of …

Contributors
Larson, Chadwick Robert, Allen, James P, Francisco, Wilson, et al.
Created Date
2010

In an effort to begin validating the large number of discovered candidate biomarkers, proteomics is beginning to shift from shotgun proteomic experiments towards targeted proteomic approaches that provide solutions to automation and economic concerns. Such approaches to validate biomarkers necessitate the mass spectrometric analysis of hundreds to thousands of human samples. As this takes place, a serendipitous opportunity has become evident. By the virtue that as one narrows the focus towards "single" protein targets (instead of entire proteomes) using pan-antibody-based enrichment techniques, a discovery science has emerged, so to speak. This is due to the largely unknown context in which …

Contributors
Oran, Paul, Nelson, Randall, Hayes, Mark, et al.
Created Date
2011

A major goal of synthetic biology is to recapitulate emergent properties of life. Despite a significant body of work, a longstanding question that remains to be answered is how such a complex system arose? In this dissertation, synthetic nucleic acid molecules with alternative sugar-phosphate backbones were investigated as potential ancestors of DNA and RNA. Threose nucleic acid (TNA) is capable of forming stable helical structures with complementary strands of itself and RNA. This provides a plausible mechanism for genetic information transfer between TNA and RNA. Therefore TNA has been proposed as a potential RNA progenitor. Using molecular evolution, functional sequences …

Contributors
Zhang, Su, Chaut, John C, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, et al.
Created Date
2011

Mexican Americans have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association of hyperglycemia with traditional CVD risk factors in this population has been established, but there is limited data regarding other non-traditional CVD risk factors. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate CVD risk among Mexican Americans by measuring concentrations of lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cholesterol in low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions. Eighty overweight/obese Mexican-American adults participating in the Maricopa Insulin Resistance Initiative were randomly selected from each of the following four groups (n = 20 per group): nomolipidemic/normoglycemic controls …

Contributors
Neupane, Srijana, Vega-Lopez, Sonia, Shaibi, Gabriel Q, et al.
Created Date
2011

Natural products that target the DNA of cancer cells have been an important source of knowledge and understanding in the development of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. Bleomycin (BLM) exemplifies this class of DNA damaging agent. The ability of BLM to chelate metal ions and effect oxidative damage of the deoxyribose sugar moiety of DNA has been studied extensively for four decades. Here, the study of BLM A5 was conducted using a previously isolated library of hairpin DNAs found to bind strongly to metal free BLM. The ability of BLM to effect single-stranded was then extensively characterized on both the 3′ and …

Contributors
Segerman, Zachary Jay, Hecht, Sidney M, Levitus, Marcia, et al.
Created Date
2011

Telomerase ribonucleoprotein is a unique reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA repeats to chromosome ends. Telomerase RNA (TER) is extremely divergent in size, sequence and has to date only been identified in vertebrate, yeast, ciliate and plant species. Herein, the identification and characterization of TERs from an evolutionarily distinct group, filamentous fungi, is presented. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 69 TER sequences and mutagenesis analysis of in vitro reconstituted Neurospora telomerase, we discovered a conserved functional core in filamentous fungal TERs sharing homologous structural features with vertebrate TERs. This core contains the template-pseudoknot and P6/P6.1 domains, essential for enzymatic activity, …

Contributors
Qi, Xiaodong, Chen, Julian, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, et al.
Created Date
2011

The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 performs oxygenic photosynthesis. Light energy conversion in photosynthesis takes place in photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) that contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy that is utilized as a driving force for photosynthesis. However, excess light energy may lead to formation of reactive oxygen species that cause damage to photosynthetic complexes, which subsequently need repair or replacement. To gain insight in the degradation/biogenesis dynamics of the photosystems, the lifetimes of photosynthetic proteins and chlorophyll were determined by a combined stable-isotope (15N) and mass spectrometry method. The lifetimes of PSII and PSI proteins ranged …

Contributors
Yao, Cheng I Daniel, Vermaas, Wim, Fromme, Petra, et al.
Created Date
2011

Telomerase is a specialized enzyme that adds telomeric DNA repeats to the chromosome ends to counterbalance the progressive telomere shortening over cell divisions. It has two essential core components, a catalytic telomerase reverse transcriptase protein (TERT), and a telomerase RNA (TR). TERT synthesizes telomeric DNA by reverse transcribing a short template sequence in TR. Unlike TERT, TR is extremely divergent in size, sequence and structure and has only been identified in three evolutionarily distant groups. The lack of knowledge on TR from important model organisms has been a roadblock for vigorous studies on telomerase regulation. To address this issue, a …

Contributors
Li, Yang, Chen, Julian Jl, Yan, Hao, et al.
Created Date
2011

ATP synthase is a large multimeric protein complex responsible for generating the energy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in most organisms. The catalysis involves the rotation of a ring of c-subunits, which is driven by the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. This dissertation reports how the eukaryotic c-subunit from spinach chloroplast ATP synthase has successfully been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified in mg quantities by incorporating a unique combination of methods. Expression was accomplished using a codon optimized gene for the c-subunit, and it was expressed as an attachment to the larger, more soluble, native maltose binding protein (MBP-c1). The fusion protein …

Contributors
Lawrence, Robert Michael, Fromme, Petra, Chen, Julian J.L., et al.
Created Date
2011

In the 1970s James Watson recognized the inability of conventional DNA replication machinery to replicate the extreme termini of chromosomes known as telomeres. This inability is due to the requirement of a building block primer and was termed the end replication problem. Telomerase is nature's answer to the end replication problem. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein which extends telomeres through reverse transcriptase activity by reiteratively copying a short intrinsic RNA sequence to generate 3' telomeric extensions. Telomeres protect chromosomes from erosion of coding genes during replication, as well as differentiate native chromosome ends from double stranded breaks. However, controlled erosion of …

Contributors
Bley, Christopher James, Chen, Julian, Allen, James, et al.
Created Date
2011

A potential new class of cancer chemotherapeutic agents has been synthesized by varying the 2 position of a benzimidazole based extended amidine. Compounds 6-amino-2-chloromethyl-4-imino-1-(2-methansulfonoxyethyl)-5-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (1A) and 6-amino-2-hydroxypropyl-4-imino-1-(2-methansulfonoxyethyl)-5-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (1B) were assayed at the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Developmental Therapeutic Program (DTP) and found to be cytotoxic at sub-micromolar concentrations, and have shown between a 100 and a 1000-fold increase in specificity towards lung, colon, CNS, and melanoma cell lines. These ATP mimics have been found to correlate with sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), a protein implicated in drug resistance and cell survival in various cancer cell lines. Using the DTP COMPARE algorithm, compounds …

Contributors
Darzi, Evan Rashied, Skibo, Edward, Gould, Ian, et al.
Created Date
2011

A synbody is a newly developed protein binding peptide which can be rapidly produced by chemical methods. The advantages of the synbody producing process make it a potential human proteome binding reagent. Most of the synbodies are designed to bind to specific proteins. The peptides incorporated in a synbody are discovered with peptide microarray technology. Nevertheless, the targets for unknown synbodies can also be discovered by searching through a protein mixture. The first part of this thesis mainly focuses on the process of target searching, which was performed with immunoprecipitation assays and mass spectrometry analysis. Proteins are pulled down from …

Contributors
Sun, Minyao, Johnston, Stephen Albert, Diehnelt, Chris Wayne, et al.
Created Date
2011

Many natural and synthetic quinones have shown biological and pharmacological activity. Some of them have also shown anticancer activity. Ubiquinone (CoQ10) which is a natural quinone, is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in generation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Cellular oxidative stress is key feature of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Friedreich's ataxia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The increased generation of reactive oxygen species damages cell membranes and leads to cell death. Analogues of ubiquinone in the form of pyrimidinols and pyridinols, were effective in protecting Friedreich's ataxia lymphocytes from oxidative stress- induced cell death. There …

Contributors
Raghav, Nidhi, Hecht, Sidney M, Gould, Ian R, et al.
Created Date
2011

Like most other phototrophic organisms the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 produces carotenoids. These pigments often bind to proteins and assume various functions in light harvesting, protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein stabilization. One hypothesis was that carotenoids bind to the surface (S-)layer protein. In this work the Synechocystis S-layer protein was identified as Sll1951 and the effect on the carotenoid composition of this prokaryote by disruption of sll1951 was studied. Loss of the S-layer, which was demonstrated by electron microscopy, did not result in loss of carotenoids or changes in the carotenoid profile of the mutant, which …

Contributors
Trautner, Christoph, Vermaas, Willem Fj, Chandler, Douglas E, et al.
Created Date
2011

Conformational changes in biomolecules often take place on longer timescales than are easily accessible with unbiased molecular dynamics simulations, necessitating the use of enhanced sampling techniques, such as adaptive umbrella sampling. In this technique, the conformational free energy is calculated in terms of a designated set of reaction coordinates. At the same time, estimates of this free energy are subtracted from the potential energy in order to remove free energy barriers and cause conformational changes to take place more rapidly. This dissertation presents applications of adaptive umbrella sampling to a variety of biomolecular systems. The first study investigated the effects …

Contributors
Spiriti, Justin Matthew, Van Der Vaart, Arjan, Chizmeshya, Andrew, et al.
Created Date
2011