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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Subject
Date Range
2010 2020


In recent years, many school districts, community colleges, and universities in California have implemented energy management-as-a-service (EMaaS). The purpose of this study was to analyzes how EMaaS has been realized in California schools, including how performance expectations and service guarantees have been met, how value is created and captured, and which trends are emerging in the pay-for-performance models. This study used a qualitative research design to identify patterns in the collected data and allow theories to be drawn from the emergent categories and themes. Ten in-depth interviews were conducted with a diverse pool of facility managers, energy practitioners, superintendents, and …

Contributors
Hawkins, Spencer, Sullivan, Kenneth, Parrish, Kristen, et al.
Created Date
2020

As the global community raises concerns regarding the ever-increasing urgency of climate change, efforts to explore innovative strategies in the fight against this anthropogenic threat is growing. Along with other greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, Direct Air Capture (DAC) or the technology of removing carbon dioxide directly from the air has received considerable attention. As an emerging technology, the cost of DAC has been the prime focus not only in scientific society but also between entrepreneurs and policymakers. While skeptics are concerned about the high cost and impact of DAC implementation at scales comparable to the magnitude of climate change, industrial …

Contributors
Azarabadi, Habib, Lackner, Klaus S, Allenby, Braden R, et al.
Created Date
2020

The science community has made efforts for over a half century to address sustainable development, which gave birth to sustainability science at the turn of the twenty-first century. Along with the development of sustainability science during the past two decades, a landscape sustainability science (LSS) perspective has been emerging. As interests in LSS continue to grow rapidly, scholars are wondering what LSS is about and how LSS fits into sustainability science, while practitioners are asking how LSS actually contributes to sustainability in the real world. To help address these questions, this dissertation research aims to explore the currently underused problem-driven, …

Contributors
Zhou, Bingbing, Wu, Jianguo, Aggarwal, Rimjhim, et al.
Created Date
2020

In 2018, building energy use accounted for over 40% of total primary energy consumption in the United States; moreover, buildings account for ~40% of national CO2 emissions. One method for curbing energy use in buildings is to apply Demand Side Management (DSM) strategies, which focus on reducing the energy demand through various technological and operational approaches in different building sectors. This PhD research examines the integration of DSM strategies in existing residential and commercial buildings in the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area, a hot-arid climate. The author proposes three different case studies to evaluate the effectiveness of one DSM strategy in …

Contributors
Askari Tari, Neda, Parrish, Kristen, Bryan, Harvey, et al.
Created Date
2020

The circular economy is viewed as a solution to many of the environmental and social ills that the linear economy has exacerbated. Whether it is through refill solutions or redesigning a cardboard shipping container, fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) brands are rethinking the way their products are delivered to consumers through business model innovations that promote circularity. The consumer plays the important, often overlooked, role of enabler within circular business models. This study aims to increase broader understanding of what motivates circular consumption of fast-moving consumer goods while analyzing the relationship between motivators and the behaviors required to participate. Semi-structured interviews …

Contributors
Brown, Jennifer B, Dooley, Kevin, Fischer, Daniel, et al.
Created Date
2020

Humans have modified land systems for centuries in pursuit of a wide range of social and ecological benefits. Recent decades have seen an increase in the magnitude and scale of land system modification (e.g., the Anthropocene) but also a growing recognition and interest in generating land systems that balance environmental and human well-being. This dissertation focused on three case studies operating at distinctive spatial scales in which broad socio-economic or political-institutional drivers affected land systems, with consequences for the environmental conditions of that system. Employing a land system architecture (LSA) framework and using landscape metrics to quantify landscape composition and …

Contributors
Stuhlmacher, Michelle, Turner, II, Billie L., Georgescu, Matei, et al.
Created Date
2020

Employee-owned businesses, benefit corporations, social enterprises, and other sustainability entrepreneurship innovations are responding to challenges such as climate change, economic inequalities, and unethical business behavior. Academic programs to date, however, often fall short in sufficiently equipping students with competencies in sustainability entrepreneurship – from a coherent set of learning objectives, through effective and engaging pedagogies, to rigorous assessment of learning outcomes. This dissertation contributes to bridging these gaps. The first study proposes a process-oriented and literature-based framework of sustainability entrepreneurship competencies. It offers a general vision for students, faculty, and entrepreneurs, as well as for the design of curricula, courses, …

Contributors
Foucrier, Tamsin, Wiek, Arnim, Basile, George, et al.
Created Date
2020

In this multi-media dissertation, water is used metaphorically to equate the process of learning with embracing change. Paradigm shifts needed for sustainability require transformative learning where one is open to being shaped by new knowledge and experience. Properties of water – such as molecular bonding and phase changes – uncover lessons for humans’ adaptability. Given that human bodies are comprised mostly of water – what implications exist for human capacity to similarly undergo continuous change? An arts- based research methodology is practiced to produce a four-chapter project. Artistic methods of data collection and communication retain subjective complexity of lived experiences …

Contributors
Movahed, Neda Y, Manuel-Navarrete, David, Lerman, Liz, et al.
Created Date
2020

This research investigates the biophysical and institutional mechanisms affecting the distribution of metals in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona. To date, a long-term, interdisciplinary perspective on metal pollution in the region has been lacking. To address this gap, I integrated approaches from environmental chemistry, historical geography, and institutional economics to study the history of metal pollution in the desert. First, by analyzing the chemistry embodied in the sequentially-grown spines of long-lived cacti, I created a record of metal pollution that details biogeochemical trends in the desert since the 1980s. These data suggest that metal pollution is not simply a legacy …

Contributors
Hester, Cyrus Matthew, Larson, Kelli L, Laubichler, Manfred D, et al.
Created Date
2019

Institutions of higher learning can be centers of meaning-making and learning and are expected to play a pivotal role in a global shift toward sustainability. Despite recent innovations, much sustainability education today is still delivered using traditional pedagogies common across higher education. Therefore, students and facilitators should continue innovating along pedagogical themes consistent with the goals of sustainability: transformation and emancipation. Yet, more clarity is needed about pedagogical approaches that will transform and emancipate students, allowing them to become innovators that change existing structures and systems. My dissertation attempts to address this need using three approaches. First, I present a …

Contributors
Papenfuss, Jason, Merritt, Eileen, Manuel-Navarrete, David, et al.
Created Date
2019

Demand for green energy alternatives to provide stable and reliable energy solutions has increased over the years which has led to the rapid expansion of global markets in renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Newest amongst these technologies is the Bifacial PV modules, which harvests incident radiation from both sides of the module. The overall power generation can be significantly increased by using these bifacial modules. The purpose of this research is to investigate and maximize the effect of back reflectors, designed to increase the efficiency of the module by utilizing the intercell light passing through the …

Contributors
MARTIN, PEDRO JESSE, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Phelan, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2019

As urban populations rapidly increase in an era of climate change and multiple social and environmental uncertainties, scientists and governments are cultivating knowledge and solutions for the sustainable growth and maintenance of cities. Although substantial literature focuses on urban water resource management related to both human and ecological sustainability, few studies assess the unique role of waterway restorations to bridge anthropocentric and ecological concerns in urban environments. To address this gap, my study addressed if well-established sustainability principles are evoked during the nascent discourse of recently proposed urban waterway developments along over fifty miles of Arizona’s Salt River. In this …

Contributors
Horvath, Veronica Nicole, White, Dave D, Mirumachi, Naho, et al.
Created Date
2019

Many global development initiatives focus on improving access to safe and affordable water. Governments and infrastructure in rapidly urbanizing cities struggle to meet the increased demand for water, especially in peri-urban and informal settlements of sub-Saharan Africa. The private sector, in the form of small water enterprises (SWEs), plays an increasing role in satisfying demand for water, but their greater effects have seldom been investigated. This research explores how SWEs affect access to household water in a peri-urban settlement of Accra, Ghana and investigates their social, economic, and environmental impacts in the community. This research also examines how SWEs influence …

Contributors
Mallue, Natalie, White, Dave D., Allenby, Brad, et al.
Created Date
2019

Sustainability and environmental justice, two fields that developed parallel to each other, are both insufficient to deal with the challenges posed by institutional environmental violence (IEV). This thesis examines the discursive history of sustainability and critiques its focus on science-based technical solutions to large-scale global problems. It further analyzes the gaps in sustainability discourse that can be filled by environmental justice, such as the challenges posed by environmental racism. Despite this, neither field is able to contend with IEV in a meaningful way, which this thesis argues using the case study of the Flint Water Crisis (FWC). The FWC has …

Contributors
West, Madison, Graffy, Elisabeth, Klinsky, Sonja, et al.
Created Date
2019

The built environment is responsible for a significant portion of global waste generation. Construction and demolition (C&D) waste requires significant landfill areas and costs billions of dollars. New business models that reduce this waste may prove to be financially beneficial and generally more sustainable. One such model is referred to as the “Circular Economy” (CE), which promotes the efficient use of materials to minimize waste generation and raw material consumption. CE is achieved by maximizing the life of materials and components and by reclaiming the typically wasted value at the end of their life. This thesis identifies the potential opportunities …

Contributors
Aldaaja, Mohammad, El Asmar, Mounir, Buch, Rajesh, et al.
Created Date
2019

Cities are increasingly using nature-based approaches to address urban sustainability challenges. These solutions leverage the ecological processes associated with existing or newly constructed Urban Ecological Infrastructure (UEI) to address issues through ecosystem services (e.g. stormwater retention or treatment). The growing use of UEI to address urban sustainability challenges can bring together teams of urban researchers and practitioners to co-produce UEI design, monitoring and maintenance. However, this co-production process received little attention in the literature, and has not been studied in the Phoenix Metro Area. I examined several components of a co-produced design process and related project outcomes associated with a …

Contributors
Sanchez, Christopher Allen, Childers, Daniel L, Cheng, Chingwen, et al.
Created Date
2019

Development throughout the course of history has traditionally resulted in the demise of biodiversity. As humans strive to develop their daily livelihoods, it is often at the expense of nearby wildlife and the environment. Conservation non-governmental organizations (NGOs), among other actors in the global agenda, have blossomed in the past century with the realization that there is an immediate need for conservation action. Unlike government agencies, conservation NGOs have an independent, potentially more objective outlook on procedures and policies that would benefit certain regions or certain species the most. They often have national and international government support, in addition to …

Contributors
Prickett, Laura Elizabeth, Parmentier, Mary Jane, Zachary, Gregg, et al.
Created Date
2019

Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) is an important ecosystem process that, in drylands, is most frequently limited by water availability. Water availability for plants is in part controlled by the water holding capacity of soils. Available water holding capacity (AWHC) of soils is strongly influenced by soil texture and depth. This study drew upon localized rain gauge data and four data-sets of cover-line and biomass data to estimate ANPP and to determine annual precipitation (PPT). I measured soil depth to caliche and texture by layer of 112 plots across the four landscape units for which estimation of ANPP were available. …

Contributors
Wagner, Svenja K, Sala, Osvaldo E, Cease, Arianne, et al.
Created Date
2019

Societies seeking sustainability are transitioning from fossil fuels to clean, renewable energy sources to mitigate dangerous climate change. Energy transitions involve ethically controversial decisions that affect current and future generations’ well-being. As energy systems in the United States transition towards renewable energy, American Indian reservations with abundant energy sources are some of the most significantly impacted communities. Strikingly, energy ethicists have not yet developed a systematic approach for prescribing ethical action within the context of energy decisions. This dissertation reinvents energy ethics as a distinct sub-discipline of applied ethics, integrating virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism with Sioux, Navajo, and Hopi …

Contributors
Bethem, Jacob, DesRoches, Tyler, Pasqualetti, Martin J, et al.
Created Date
2019

The world has been continuously urbanized and is currently accommodating more than half of the human population. Despite that cities cover only less than 3% of the Earth’s land surface area, they emerged as hotspots of anthropogenic activities. The drastic land use changes, complex three-dimensional urban terrain, and anthropogenic heat emissions alter the transport of mass, heat, and momentum, especially within the urban canopy layer. As a result, cities are confronting numerous environmental challenges such as exacerbated heat stress, frequent air pollution episodes, degraded water quality, increased energy consumption and water use, etc. Green infrastructure, in particular, the use of …

Contributors
Wang, Chenghao, Wang, Zhihua, Myint, Soe W., et al.
Created Date
2019

Tucked peacefully into mountains just north of the City of São Paulo, the largest metropolitan area in South America, sits the Cantareira Reservoir System. This massive water catchment network received worldwide coverage in 2014 and 2015 as one of the worst droughts in a century hit the region, threatening to collapse the system. In the years since the peak of the drought, the media has changed its focus, the reservoirs have begun a slow recovery, but the people of the region have had to live with the consequences of this difficult period. Faced with an uncertain future, the people continue …

Contributors
Staats, Cody B., Parmentier, Mary Jane C., Haglund, LaDawn, et al.
Created Date
2019

Urban heat is a growing problem that impacts public health, water and energy use, and the economy and affects population subgroups differently. Exposure and sensitivity, two key factors in determining vulnerability, have been widely researched. This dissertation focuses on the adaptive capacity component of heat vulnerability at the individual, household, and community scale. Using a mixed methods approach and metropolitan Phoenix as a test site, I explored how vulnerable communities understand and adapt to increasing extreme urban heat to uncover adaptive capacity that is not being operationalized well through current heat vulnerability frameworks. Twenty-three open-ended interviews were conducted where residents …

Contributors
Guardaro, Melissa Mitten, Redman, Charles L, Hondula, David M, et al.
Created Date
2019

Breeding seeds to include desirable traits (increased yield, drought/temperature resistance, etc.) is a growing and important method of establishing food security. However, besides breeder intuition, few decision-making tools exist that can provide the breeders with credible evidence to make decisions on which seeds to progress to further stages of development. This thesis attempts to create a chance-constrained knapsack optimization model, which the breeder can use to make better decisions about seed progression and help reduce the levels of risk in their selections. The model’s objective is to select seed varieties out of a larger pool of varieties and maximize the …

Contributors
Ozcan, Ozkan Meric, Armbruster, Dieter, Gel, Esma, et al.
Created Date
2019

This dissertation combines three research projects to examine the people affecting and affected by urban environmental change across multiple scales of decision making. In the Phoenix Metropolitan area and the Colorado River Basin, I study the social influence around the implementation of water use innovations among city-level stakeholders (Chapter 2) and I emphasize that water insecurity still exists in wealthy cities (Chapter 3). In Chapter 4, I ultimately consider grassroots solutions for achieving resource security alongside positive social change in a historically underserved community. In this dissertation, I have conceptualized my research questions by envisioning urban change as an opportunity …

Contributors
DeMyers, Christine, Wutich, Amber, White, Dave, et al.
Created Date
2019

This dissertation aims at developing novel materials and processing routes using alkali activated aluminosilicate binders for porous (lightweight) geopolymer matrices and 3D-printing concrete applications. The major research objectives are executed in different stages. Stage 1 includes developing synthesis routes, microstructural characterization, and performance characterization of a family of economical, multifunctional porous ceramics developed through geopolymerization of an abundant volcanic tuff (aluminosilicate mineral) as the primary source material. Metakaolin, silica fume, alumina powder, and pure silicon powder are also used as additional ingredients when necessary and activated by potassium-based alkaline agents. In Stage 2, a processing route was developed to synthesize …

Contributors
ALGHAMDI, HUSSAM SUHAIL, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2019

Participatory approaches to policy-making and research are thought to “open up” technical decision-making to broader considerations, empower diverse public audiences, and inform policies that address pluralistic public goods. Many studies of participatory efforts focus on specific features or outcomes of those efforts, such as the format of a participatory event or the opinions of participants. While valuable, such research has not resolved conceptual problems and critiques of participatory efforts regarding, for example, their reinforcement of expert perspectives or their inability to impact policy- and decision-making. I studied two participatory efforts using survey data collected from participants, interviews with policy makers …

Contributors
Weller, Nicholas A, Childers, Daniel L, Bennett, Ira, et al.
Created Date
2019

Sustainable food systems have been studied extensively in recent times and the Food-Energy-Water (FEW) nexus framework has been one of the most common frameworks used. The dissertation intends to examine and quantitatively model the food system interaction with the energy system and the water system. Traditional FEW nexus studies have focused on food production alone. While this approach is informative, it is insufficient since food is extensively traded. Various food miles studies have highlighted the extensive virtual energy and virtual water footprint of food. This highlights the need for transport, and storage needs to be considered as part of the …

Contributors
Natarajan, Mukunth, Chester, Mikhail, Lobo, Jose, et al.
Created Date
2019

In many social-ecological systems, shared resources play a critical role in supporting the livelihoods of rural populations. Physical infrastructure enables resource access and reduces the variability of resource supply. In order for the infrastructure to remain functional, institutions must incentivize individuals to engage in provision and maintenance. The objective of my dissertation is to understand key formal and informal institutions that affect provision of shared infrastructure and the policy tools that may improve infrastructure provision. I examine these questions in the context of irrigation systems in India because infrastructure maintenance is a persistent challenge and system function is critical for …

Contributors
Vallury, Sechindra, Abbott, Joshua K, Anderies, John M, et al.
Created Date
2019

This dissertation advances the capability of water infrastructure utilities to anticipate and adapt to vulnerabilities in their systems from temperature increase and interdependencies with other infrastructure systems. Impact assessment models of increased heat and interdependencies were developed which incorporate probability, spatial, temporal, and operational information. Key findings from the models are that with increased heat the increased likelihood of water quality non-compliances is particularly concerning, the anticipated increases in different hardware components generate different levels of concern starting with iron pipes, then pumps, and then PVC pipes, the effects of temperature increase on hardware components and on service losses are …

Contributors
Bondank, Emily Nicole, Chester, Mikhail V, Ruddell, Benjamin L, et al.
Created Date
2019

This dissertation seeks to understand and study the process of attention harvesting and knowledge production on typical online Q&A communities. Goals of this study include quantifying the attention harvesting and online knowledge, damping the effect of competition for attention on knowledge production, and examining the diversity of user behaviors on question answering. Project 1 starts with a simplistic discrete time model on a scale-free network and provides the method to measure the attention harvested. Further, project 1 highlights the effect of distractions on harvesting productive attention and in the end concludes which factors are influential and sensitive to the attention …

Contributors
Yu, Fan, Janssen, Marcus A, Kang, Yun, et al.
Created Date
2019

Sustainability research and action in communities should be holistic, integrating sociocultural, biogeophysical, and spiritual components and their temporal and spatial dynamics toward the aim of co-creating thriving living systems. Yet scientists and practitioners still struggle with such integration. Regenerative development (RD) offers a way forward. RD focuses on shifting the consciousness and thinking underlying (un)sustainability as well as their manifestation in the physical world, creating increasingly higher levels of health and vitality for all life across scales. However, tools are nascent and relatively insular. Until recently, no empirical scientific research studies had been published on RD processes and outcomes. My …

Contributors
Gibbons, Leah, Cloutier, Scott A, Coseo, Paul J, et al.
Created Date
2019

The intent of this study was to identify the most viable among a proposive sample of emerging sustainable construction technologies with respect to the Twin Cities Metropolitan Geographic Area. With space heating and space cooling accounting for such a significant portion of energy consumption in Twin Cities homes, a representative sample of homes was analyzed for annual heating and cooling loads. For each home a series of heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) and envelope equipment was modeled in order to provide data for various sustainable home construction technologies. The result was a specific amount of energy savings from baseline construction …

Contributors
McKilligan, Ryan, Sullivan, Kenneth, Stone, Brian, et al.
Created Date
2019

Raising future generations is a culturally diverse, universally technological human project. This research brought the everyday work of raising children into the domain of sustainability scholarship, by first proposing a model of childrearing as a globally distributed socio-technical system, and then exploring the model with participants in two nodes – an elementary and middle school, and a children’s museum. In the process, the research objective shifted towards using methods that were less academic and more relevant to childrearing agents. The focus on participatory survey data was abandoned, in favor of autoethnographic documentation of a long-term engagement with a third node …

Contributors
Cazel-Jahn, Angela, Blue Swadener, Elizabeth, Allenby, Braden, et al.
Created Date
2019

Human connection is fundamental for a shift toward sustainable societies. Small groups of people working in response to their unique conditions and environment can find joy in the co-creation of a shared existence. A collaborative network of related efforts can contribute to a broader understanding of resilience and adaptation, aiming toward a regenerative relationship with the Earth and all species. Such an approach ameliorates both pervasive loneliness and extreme inequity that have grown from modern consumerist individualism, through a strong focus on trust, respect and authenticity. I have created a structure to pursue these goals as an applied Sustainability researcher …

Contributors
Falstad, Beth Ann G, Cloutier, Scott, Gee, James, et al.
Created Date
2019

Moderate physical activity, such as walking and biking, positively affects physical and mental health. Outdoor thermal comfort is an important prerequisite for incentivizing an active lifestyle. Thus, extreme heat poses significant challenges for people who are outdoors by choice or necessity. The type and qualities of built infrastructure determine the intensity and duration of individual exposure to heat. As cities globally are shifting priorities towards non-motorized and public transit travel, more residents are expected to experience the city on their feet. Thus, physical conditions as well as psychological perception of the environment that affect thermal comfort will become paramount. Phoenix, …

Contributors
Dzyuban, Yuliya, Redman, Charles L., Coseo, Paul J., et al.
Created Date
2019

The phenomenon of global warming and climate change has increasingly attracted attention by researchers in the field of supply chain and operations management. Firms have developed efficient plans and intervention measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. While a majority of research in supply chain management has adopted a firm-centric view to study environmental management, this dissertation focuses on the context of GHG emissions reduction by considering a firm’s vertical and horizontal relationships with other parties, and the associated spillover effects. A theoretical framework is first proposed to facilitate the field's understanding of the possible spillover effects in GHG emissions …

Contributors
Song, Sining, Kull, Thomas, Carter, Craig, et al.
Created Date
2018

Engagement as a concept and emerging theory has been explored, but key elements have not been clearly described, and as such, work has not been comprehensive in nature. Research was needed to explore the concept and theory of engagement in general, as well its application to the study of volunteer tourism. Additional research was also needed to incorporate youth perspectives of a volunteer tourism program, along with exploration of engagement impacts on program youth. The purpose of this case study was to explore participant engagement in a volunteer tourism youth education program and impacts on program youth as perceived by …

Contributors
Olsen, Lana Margaret, Andereck, Kathleen, Buzinde, Christine, et al.
Created Date
2018

Use of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in newly designed asphalt mixtures is becoming a common practice. Depending on the percentage of RAP, the stiffness of the hot mix asphalt (HMA) increases by incorporating RAP in mixes. In a climatic area such as the City of Phoenix, RAP properties are expected to be more oxidized and aged compared to other regions across the US. Therefore, there are concerns about the cracking behavior and long-term performance of asphalt mixes with high percentage of RAP. The use of Organosilane (OS) in this study was hypothesized to reduce the additional cracking potential and improve …

Contributors
Kaligotla, Phani Sasank, Kaloush, Kamil, Mamlouk, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2018

Resilience is emerging as the preferred way to improve the protection of infrastructure systems beyond established risk management practices. Massive damages experienced during tragedies like Hurricane Katrina showed that risk analysis is incapable to prevent unforeseen infrastructure failures and shifted expert focus towards resilience to absorb and recover from adverse events. Recent, exponential growth in research is now producing consensus on how to think about infrastructure resilience centered on definitions and models from influential organizations like the US National Academy of Sciences. Despite widespread efforts, massive infrastructure failures in 2017 demonstrate that resilience is still not working, raising the question: …

Contributors
Eisenberg, Daniel Alexander, Seager, Thomas P., Park, Jeryang, et al.
Created Date
2018

Adaptation and transformation have emerged as a key themes for human-environment research, especially in the context of rapid social-ecological changes. The 2008 global financial crisis constitutes a major driver of change with social-ecological ramifications that have yet to be fully explored. Using Greece, the poster child of the euro-crisis as a case-study, this dissertation examines how adaptive capacity is mobilized and even enhanced in times of crisis, paying particular attention to the role played by natural capital. To do so, I focus on the back-to-land trend whereby urbanites seek to engage in food production post-crisis (2008-onwards). In-depth qualitative analysis of …

Contributors
Benessaiah, Karina, Turner II, Billie L., Eakin, Hallie, et al.
Created Date
2018

Criticisms of technocratic and managerial sustainability responses to global environmental change have led scholars to argue for transformative shifts in ideology, policy, and practice favoring alternative, plural transformation pathways to sustainability. This raises key debates around how we build transformative capacity and who will lead the way. To further this critical dialogue, this dissertation explores the potential for sustainability experiential learning (SEL) to serve as a capacity building mechanism for global ecological citizenship in support of transformation pathways to sustainable wellbeing. In the process it considers how the next generation of those primed for sustainability leadership identify with and negotiate …

Contributors
Gwiszcz, Julianna Marie, Eder, James, Haglund, LaDawn, et al.
Created Date
2018

High performing and sustainable building certification bodies continue to update their requirements, leading to scope modification of certifications, and an increasing number of viable sources of environmental information for building materials. In conjunction, the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry is seeing increasing demand for such environmental product information. The industry and certifications are moving from using single attribute environmental information about building materials to lifecycle based information to inform their design decisions. This dissertation seeks to understand the current practices, and then focus on strategies to effectively utilize newer sources of environmental product information in high performance building design. …

Contributors
Burke, Rebekah, Parrish, Kristen, Gibson, G. Edward, et al.
Created Date
2018

In recent years, 40% of the total world energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is because of buildings. Out of that 60% of building energy consumption is due to HVAC systems. Under current trends these values will increase in coming years. So, it is important to identify passive cooling or heating technologies to meet this need. The concept of thermal energy storage (TES), as noted by many authors, is a promising way to rectify indoor temperature fluctuations. Due to its high energy density and the use of latent energy, Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are an efficient choice to use as …

Contributors
Prem Anand Jayaprabha, Jyothis Anand, Phelan, Patrick, Wang, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2018

Today, we use resources faster than they can be replaced. Construction consumes more resources than any other industry and has one of the largest waste streams. Resource consumption and waste generation are expected to grow as the global population increases. The circular economy (CE) is based on the concept of a closed-loop cycle (CLC) and proposes a solution that, in theory, can eliminate the environmental impacts caused by construction and demolition (C&D) waste and increase the efficiency of resources’ use. In a CLC, building materials are reused, remanufactured, recycled, and reintegrated into other buildings (or into other sectors) without creating …

Contributors
Campos da Cruz Rios, Fernanda, Grau, David, Chong, Oswald, et al.
Created Date
2018

The volume of end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules is increasing as the global PV market increases, and the global PV waste streams are expected to reach 250,000 metric tons by the end of 2020. If the recycling processes are not in place, there would be 60 million tons of end-of-life PV modules lying in the landfills by 2050, that may not become a not-so-sustainable way of sourcing energy since all PV modules could contain certain amount of toxic substances. Currently in the United States, PV modules are categorized as general waste and can be disposed in landfills. However, potential leaching of …

Contributors
Leslie, Joswin, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Srinivasan, Devarajan, et al.
Created Date
2018

Motivated by the need for cities to prepare and be resilient to unpredictable future weather conditions, this dissertation advances a novel infrastructure development theory of “safe-to-fail” to increase the adaptive capacity of cities to climate change. Current infrastructure development is primarily reliant on identifying probable risks to engineered systems and making infrastructure reliable to maintain its function up to a designed system capacity. However, alterations happening in the earth system (e.g., atmosphere, oceans, land, and ice) and in human systems (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, population, land-use, technology, and natural resource use) are increasing the uncertainties in weather predictions and risk …

Contributors
Kim, Yeowon, Chester, Mikhail, Eakin, Hallie, et al.
Created Date
2018

One of the key infrastructures of any community or facility is the energy system which consists of utility power plants, distributed generation technologies, and building heating and cooling systems. In general, there are two dimensions to “sustainability” as it applies to an engineered system. It needs to be designed, operated, and managed such that its environmental impacts and costs are minimal (energy efficient design and operation), and also be designed and configured in a way that it is resilient in confronting disruptions posed by natural, manmade, or random events. In this regard, development of quantitative sustainability metrics in support of …

Contributors
Moslehi, Salim, Reddy, T. Agami, Lackner, Klaus S, et al.
Created Date
2018

Electricity infrastructure vulnerabilities were assessed for future heat waves due to climate change. Critical processes and component relationships were identified and characterized with consideration for the terminal event of service outages, including cascading failures in transmission-level components that can result in blackouts. The most critical dependency identified was the increase in peak electricity demand with higher air temperatures. Historical and future air temperatures were characterized within and across Los Angeles County, California (LAC) and Maricopa County (Phoenix), Arizona. LAC was identified as more vulnerable to heat waves than Phoenix due to a wider distribution of historical temperatures. Two approaches were …

Contributors
Burillo, Daniel, Chester, Mikhail V, Ruddell, Benjamin, et al.
Created Date
2018

The United States building sector was the most significant carbon emission contributor (over 40%). The United States government is trying to decrease carbon emissions by enacting policies, but emissions increased by approximately 7 percent in the U.S. between 1990 and 2013. To reduce emissions, investigating the factors affecting carbon emissions should be a priority. Therefore, in this dissertation, this research examine the relationship between carbon emissions and the factors affecting them from macro and micro perspectives. From a macroscopic perspective, the relationship between carbon dioxide, energy resource consumption, energy prices, GDP (gross domestic product), waste generation, and recycling waste generation …

Contributors
Lee, Seungtaek, Chong, Oswald, Sullivan, Kenneth, et al.
Created Date
2018

Consumers can purchase local food through intermediated marketing channels, such as grocery stores, or through direct-to-consumer marketing channels, for instance, farmers markets. While the number of farms that utilize direct-to-consumer outlets keeps increasing, the direct-to-consumer sales remain lower than intermediated sales. If consumers prefer to purchase local food through intermediated channels, then policies designed to support direct channels may be misguided. Using a variety of experiments, this dissertation investigates consumer preferences for local food and their demand differentiated by marketing channel. In the first essay, I examine the existing literature on consumer preferences for local food by applying meta-regression analysis …

Contributors
Printezis, Iryna, Richards, Timothy J, Grebitus, Carola, et al.
Created Date
2018

Being a remarkably versatile and inexpensive building material, concrete has found tremendous use in development of modern infrastructure and is the most widely used material in the world. Extensive research in the field of concrete has led to the development of a wide array of concretes with applications ranging from building of skyscrapers to paving of highways. These varied applications require special cementitious composites which can satisfy the demand for enhanced functionalities such as high strength, high durability and improved thermal characteristics among others. The current study focuses on the fundamental understanding of such functional composites, from their microstructural design …

Contributors
Arora, Aashay, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2018

The Energiewende aims to drastically reduce Germany’s greenhouse gas emissions, without relying on nuclear power, while maintaining a secure and affordable energy supply. Since 2000 the country’s renewable-energy share has increased exponentially, accounting in 2017 for over a third of Germany's gross electricity consumption. This unprecedented achievement is the result of policies, tools, and institutional arrangements intended to steer society to a low-carbon economy. Despite its resounding success in renewable-energy deployment, the Energiewende is not on track to meet its decarbonization goals. Energiewende rules and regulations have generated numerous undesired consequences, and have cost much more than anticipated, a burden …

Contributors
Sturm, Christine, Sarewitz, Daniel, Miller, Clark, et al.
Created Date
2018

Corporations work to reduce their negative impacts on the environment and society by adopting Sustainable business (SB) practices. Businesses create competitive advantages via practices such as waste minimization, green product design, compliance with regulations, and stakeholder relations. Normative models indicate that businesses should adopt similar sustainability practices, however, contingency theory suggests that effectiveness of practices depends on the context of the business. The literature highlights the importance of organizational culture as a moderating variable between SB practices and outcomes, however this link has not been empirically examined. This thesis presents the development and testing of a theoretical model, using configuration …

Contributors
Behravesh, Shirley-Ann, Dooley, Kevin, Basile, George, et al.
Created Date
2017

City governments are increasingly incorporating urban and peri-urban agriculture into their policies and programs, a trend seen as advancing sustainability, development, and food security. Urban governance can provide new opportunities for farmers, but it also creates structures to control their activities, lands, and purposes. This study focused on Mexico City, which is celebrated for its agricultural traditions and policies. The study examined: 1) the functions of urban and peri-urban agriculture that the Government of Mexico City (GMC) manages and prioritizes; 2) how the GMC’s policies have framed farmers, and how that framing affects farmers’ identity and purpose; and 3) how …

Contributors
Bausch, Julia Christine, Eakin, Hallie C, Lerner, Amy M, et al.
Created Date
2017

Effective Altruism (EA), a moral philosophy concerned with accomplishing the greatest possible good in one’s lifetime, sees little utilitarian and/or humanitarian value in the arts. EA suggests that amidst so much global strife, the time, energy, and finances expended to create fleeting art would be put to better, more practical use in the fight against poverty. However, EA has yet to sufficiently account for sustainable art practice — an art form deeply rooted in utilitarianism and humanitarianism — and the possibility of its accompanying aesthetics as a constituent of utilitarian/humanitarian theories. The first chapter of this thesis illustrates an intersection …

Contributors
Nemelka, Kevin Wendell, Hoy, Meredith, Mesch, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2017

As the number of travelers around the world grows, the importance of managing tourism destinations in a sustainable manner becomes increasingly important. Sustainable tourism has long been discussed as necessary for managing tourism responsibly, yet adoption of sustainable strategies and operationalization has been slow. Initiatives and programs often focus on environmental components of sustainability and the role of large companies. Certification programs are one way in which destinations are operationalizing community-wide sustainable tourism and small businesses are engaging in sustainability initiatives and recognition. Using social cognitive theory as the research framework, this study examined internal and external motives and their …

Contributors
Roberg, Kari, Vogt, Christine, Andereck, Kathleen, et al.
Created Date
2017

Distributed Renewable energy generators are now contributing a significant amount of energy into the energy grid. Consequently, reliability adequacy of such energy generators will depend on making accurate forecasts of energy produced by them. Power outputs of Solar PV systems depend on the stochastic variation of environmental factors (solar irradiance, ambient temperature & wind speed) and random mechanical failures/repairs. Monte Carlo Simulation which is typically used to model such problems becomes too computationally intensive leading to simplifying state-space assumptions. Multi-state models for power system reliability offer a higher flexibility in providing a description of system state evolution and an accurate …

Contributors
Kadloor, Nikhil, Kuitche, Joseph, Pan, Rong, et al.
Created Date
2017

ABSTRACT The tourism industry continues to mature as many consumers are demanding more responsible and sustainable development. Mindfulness has been studied in tourism as a cognitive trait recognized by actively processing information through an acute sensitivity to an individual's environment and openness to new information. Mindfulness has been shown to predict behaviors related to tourism and recreation. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been extensively applied to understand human behavior. Despite TPB's extensive history in the social sciences, researchers continue to incorporate new social factors to explain behavior. This study employs an emerging psychological construct, mindfulness, into the TPB …

Contributors
Azzi, Maya Violette, Vogt, Christine A, Buzinde, Christine, et al.
Created Date
2017

The performance of the Alpha Sprayed Polyurethane Foam (SPF) roofing system is perceived as not an economical option when compared to a 20-year modified bitumen roofing system. Today, the majority of roofs are being replaced, rather than newly installed. The coating manufacturer, Neogard, implemented the Alpha roofing program to identify the best contractors in the industry and to measure their roof performance. The Alpha roof system has shown consistent high performance on over 230 million square feet of surveyed roof. The author proposes to identify if the Alpha roof system is renewable, has proven performance that competes with the traditional …

Contributors
Zulanas IV, Charles Joseph, Kashiwagi, Dean T, Kashiwagi, Jacob S, et al.
Created Date
2017

Large-scale land acquisition (LaSLA), also called "land grabbing" refers to the buying or leasing of large tracts of land, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by foreign investors to produce food and biofuel to send back home. Since 2007, LaSLA has become an important development issue due to the opportunities and threats for SSA countries. LaSLA has the potential to create local jobs, transfer technology, build infrastructure, and modernize SSA's agriculture. Nonetheless, it can also aggravate food insecurity, perpetuate corruption, degrade ecosystems, cause conflicts, and displace local communities. What drives LaSLA, what are its impacts on local people, and under what …

Contributors
Nkansah-Dwamena, Ernest, Kinzig, Ann, Minteer, Ben, et al.
Created Date
2017

The resilience of infrastructure essential to public health, safety, and well-being remains a priority among Federal agencies and institutions. National policies and guidelines enacted by these entities call for a holistic approach to resilience and effectively acknowledge the complex, multi-organizational, and socio-technical integration of critical infrastructure. However, the concept of holism is seldom discussed in literature. As a result, resilience knowledge among disciplines resides in near isolation, inhibiting opportunities for collaboration and offering partial solutions to complex problems. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge about how human resilience and the capacity to develop and comprehend increasing levels of complexity can influence, …

Contributors
Thomas, John E., Seager, Thomas P, Clark, Susan, et al.
Created Date
2017

The solar energy sector has been growing rapidly over the past decade. Growth in renewable electricity generation using photovoltaic (PV) systems is accompanied by an increased awareness of the fault conditions developing during the operational lifetime of these systems. While the annual energy losses caused by faults in PV systems could reach up to 18.9% of their total capacity, emerging technologies and models are driving for greater efficiency to assure the reliability of a product under its actual application. The objectives of this dissertation consist of (1) reviewing the state of the art and practice of prognostics and health management …

Contributors
Chokor, Abbas, El Asmar, Mounir, Chong, Oswald, et al.
Created Date
2017

For a country like India which is highly vulnerable to climate change, the need to focus on adaptation in tandem with traditional development is immense, as the two are inextricably tied together. As a prominent actor working at the intersection of these two fields, NGOs need to be prepared for the emerging challenges of climate change. While research indicates that investments in learning can be beneficial for this purpose, there are limited studies looking into organizational learning within NGOs working on climate change adaptation. This study uses a multiple case study design to explore learning mechanisms, and trace learning over …

Contributors
Nautiyal, Snigdha, Klinsky, Sonja, Eakin, Hallie, et al.
Created Date
2017

Commercial buildings in the United States account for 19% of the total energy consumption annually. Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which serves as the benchmark for all the commercial buildings provides critical input for EnergyStar models. Smart energy management technologies, sensors, innovative demand response programs, and updated versions of certification programs elevate the opportunity to mitigate energy-related problems (blackouts and overproduction) and guides energy managers to optimize the consumption characteristics. With increasing advancements in technologies relying on the ‘Big Data,' codes and certification programs such as the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), and the Leadership …

Contributors
Naganathan, Hariharan, Chong, Oswald W, Ariaratnam, Samuel T, et al.
Created Date
2017

Our dependence on fossil fuels is driving anthropogenic climate change. Solar energy is the most abundant and cleanest alternative to fossil fuels, but its practicability is influenced by a complex interplay of factors (policy, geospatial, and market) and scales (global, national, urban). This thesis provides a holistic evaluation of these factors and scales with the goal of improving our understanding of the mechanisms and challenges of transitioning to solar energy. This analysis used geospatial, demographic, policy, legislative record, environmental, and industry data, plus a series of semi-structured, in-person interviews. Methods included geostatistical calculation, statistical linear regression and multivariate modeling, and …

Contributors
Herche, Wesley, Melnick, Rob, Boone, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2017

Chloride solutions have historically been used to stabilize roads and to prevent dust; however, very little work has been done on investigating the soil stabilizing benefits from interactions between salt solutions and different soil types. The primary goal of this research was to analyze the feasibility of utilizing a salt waste product as an economically and environmentally responsible means of dust control and/or soil stabilization. Specifically, this study documents an investigation leading to the understanding of how the addition of saline based waste products, when using a soil stabilizer, modifies the strength behavior of soils. The scope of work included …

Contributors
Fakih, Ali, Kaloush, Kamil Elias, Zapata, Claudia E, et al.
Created Date
2017

ABSTRACT Recent studies indicate that there is a positive influence of nature and nature integrated built environments on human health and wellness in various physical, physiological and social domains. This thesis critically reviews formally and contextually three distinct residential typologies designed by renowned architects Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959), Lina Bo Bardi (1914-1992), and Ryue Nishizawa (1966-), in different periods and countries; the United States of America (USA), Brazil and Japan. Yet, the buildings analyzed in the research are relatively connected by means of nature and the natural elements in their constructed essence. This research focuses on the features of the …

Contributors
Orman, Pinar, Bernardi, Jose, Harmon-Vaughan, Elizabeth, et al.
Created Date
2017

Trees serve as a natural umbrella to mitigate insolation absorbed by features of the urban environment, especially building structures and pavements. For a desert community, trees are a particularly valuable asset because they contribute to energy conservation efforts, improve home values, allow for cost savings, and promote enhanced health and well-being. The main obstacle in creating a sustainable urban community in a desert city with trees is the scarceness and cost of irrigation water. Thus, strategically located and arranged desert trees with the fewest tree numbers possible potentially translate into significant energy, water and long-term cost savings as well as …

Contributors
Zhao, Qunshan, Wentz, Elizabeth A., Sailor, David J., et al.
Created Date
2017

Positive Youth Development (PYD) programs include intentional efforts by peers, adults, communities, schools, and organizations to provide opportunities for youth to increase their skills, abilities, and interests in positive activities. The goal of PYD is to provide positive outcomes where youth are viewed as resources to be developed rather than problems to be managed. Future generations rely on youth as active contributing members of society and PYD programs promote sustainable futures for young individuals and the community. PYD programs started in the United States and grew out of interest in prevention programs targeting risky behavior of youth. Interest is growing …

Contributors
Sieng, Michael, Cloutier, Scott, Dooley, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2017

Sustainability depends in part on our capacity to resolve dilemmas of the commons in Coupled Infrastructure Systems (CIS). Thus, we need to know more about how to incentivize individuals to take collective action to manage shared resources. Moreover, given that we will experience new and more extreme weather events due to climate change, we need to learn how to increase the robustness of CIS to those shocks. This dissertation studies irrigation systems to contribute to the development of an empirically based theory of commons governance for robust systems. I first studied the eight institutional design principles (DPs) for long enduring …

Contributors
Rubinos, Cathy Alida, Anderies, John M, Abbott, Joshua K, et al.
Created Date
2017

Cities are hubs for economic and social development, but they are increasingly becoming hotspots of environmental problems and socio-economic inequalities. Because cities result from complex interactions among ecological, social and economic factors, environmental problems and socio-economic inequalities are often spatially interconnected, generating emergent environmental inequity issues due to the unfair distribution of environmental quality among socioeconomic groups. Since urban environmental quality is tightly related to the capacity of urban landscapes to provide ecosystem services, optimizing the allocation of ecosystem services within cities is a main goal for moving towards more equitable and sustainable cities. Nevertheless, we often lack the empirical …

Contributors
Fernandez, Ignacio, Wu, Jingle, Perrings, Charles, et al.
Created Date
2017

Passive cooling techniques, specifically passive downdraft cooling (PDC), have proven to be a solution that can address issues associated with air conditioning (AC). Globally, over 100 buildings have integrated PDC in its different forms, most of which use direct evaporative cooling. Even though all surveyed buildings were energy efficient and cost-effective and most surveyed buildings were thermally comfortable, application of PDC remains limited. This study aims to advance performance of the single stage passive downdraft evaporative cooling tower (PDECT), and expand its applicability beyond the hot dry conditions where it is typically used, by designing and testing a multi-stage passive …

Contributors
Al-Hassawi, Omar Dhia Sadulah, Bryan, Harvey, Reddy, T Agami, et al.
Created Date
2017

Studies of governance have focused on the interactions among diverse actors while implicitly recognizing the role of power within those relationships. Explicit power analyses of water governance coordination are needed to better understand the conditions for and barriers to sustainability. I therefore utilized a novel conceptual framework to analyze vertical and horizontal governance, along with power, to address how governance interactions affect water sustainability in terms of (1) interactions among governance actors across local to state levels; (2) coordination among actors at the local level; and (3) the exercise of power among assorted actors. I adopted a qualitative case study …

Contributors
Ayodele, Deborah Olufunmilola, Larson, Kelli L, Bolin, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2017

Ion exchange sorbents embedded with metal oxide nanoparticles can have high affinity and high capacity to simultaneously remove multiple oxygenated anion contaminants from drinking water. This research pursued answering the question, “Can synthesis methods of nano-composite sorbents be improved to increase sustainability and feasibility to remove hexavalent chromium and arsenic simultaneously from groundwater compared to existing sorbents?” Preliminary nano-composite sorbents outperformed existing sorbents in equilibrium tests, but struggled in packed bed applications and at low influent concentrations. The synthesis process was then tailored for weak base anion exchange (WBAX) while comparing titanium dioxide against iron hydroxide nanoparticles (Ti-WBAX and Fe-WBAX, …

Contributors
Gifford, James McKay, Westerhoff, Paul, Hristovski, Kiril, et al.
Created Date
2016

Energy use within urban building stocks is continuing to increase globally as populations expand and access to electricity improves. This projected increase in demand could require deployment of new generation capacity, but there is potential to offset some of this demand through modification of the buildings themselves. Building stocks are quasi-permanent infrastructures which have enduring influence on urban energy consumption, and research is needed to understand: 1) how development patterns constrain energy use decisions and 2) how cities can achieve energy and environmental goals given the constraints of the stock. This requires a thorough evaluation of both the growth of …

Contributors
Reyna, Janet Lorel, Chester, Mikhail V, Gurney, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2016

Residential air conditioning systems represent a critical load for many electric utilities, especially for those who serve customers in hot climates. In hot and dry climates, in particular, the cooling load is usually relatively low during night hours and early mornings and hits its maximum in the late afternoon. If electric loads could be shifted from peak hours (e.g., late afternoon) to off-peak hours (e.g., late morning), not only would building operation costs decrease, the need to run peaker plants, which typically use more fossil fuels than non-peaker plants, would also decrease. Thus, shifting electricity consumption from peak to off-peak …

Contributors
Arababadi, Reza Arababadi, Parrish, Kristen, Reddy, T A, et al.
Created Date
2016

This thesis examines using thermal energy storage as a demand side management tool for air-conditioning loads with the goal of increasing photovoltaic penetration. It uses Arizona State University (ASU) as a case study. The analysis is completed with a modeling approach using typical meteorological year (TMY) data, along with ASU’s historical load data. Sustainability, greenhouse gas emissions, carbon neutrality, and photovoltaic (PV) penetration are all considered along with potential economic impacts. By extrapolating the air-conditioning load profile from the existing data sets, it can be ensured that cooling demands can be met at all times under the new management method. …

Contributors
Routhier, Alexander Francis, Honsberg, Christiana, Fraser, Matthew, et al.
Created Date
2016

The application of microalgal biofilms in wastewater treatment has great advantages such as abolishing the need for energy intensive aerators and recovering nutrients as energy, thus reducing the energy requirement of wastewater treatment several-fold. A 162 cm2 algal biofilm reactor with good wastewater treatment performance and a regular harvesting procedure was studied at lab scale to gain an understanding of effectual parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT; 2.6 and 1.3 hrs), liquid level (LL; 0.5 and 1.0 cm), and solids retention time (SRT; 3 and 1.5 wks). A revised synthetic wastewater “Syntho 3.7” was used as a surrogate of …

Contributors
Halloum, Ibrahim Ammar, Torres, César I, Popat, Sudeep C, et al.
Created Date
2016

Schools all around the country are improving the performance of their buildings by adopting high performance design principles. Higher levels of energy efficiency can pave the way for K-12 Schools to achieve net zero energy (NZE) conditions, a state where the energy generated by on-site renewable sources are sufficient to meet the cumulative annual energy demands of the facility. A key capability for the proliferation of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) is the need for a design methodology that identifies the optimum mix of energy efficient design features to be incorporated into the building. The design methodology should take into …

Contributors
Islam, Mohammad Moshfiqul, Reddy, T. Agami, Bryan, Harvey J., et al.
Created Date
2016

ABSTRACT Intermediating between farmers and development projects, farmers’ organizations (FOs) have the potential to improve rural market access and promote equitable growth by reducing transaction costs, strengthening producer bargaining power, and enabling collective action. Capacity building of FOs is a cornerstone of rural development policies and programs, such as the United Nations World Food Programme’s Purchase for Progress (P4P) project, which partnered with 830 FOs representing 1.7 million farmers from 2008 through 2014. Despite significant donor investment, a unifying framework defining the concept and measurement of capacity building has eluded development practitioners. The core challenge originates from the paradigm shift …

Contributors
Amani, Sharon Mei, Aggarwal, Rimjhim M., Polidoro, Beth A., et al.
Created Date
2016

During summer 2014, a study was conducted as part of the Landscape Architecture Foundation Case Study Investigation to analyze features of three sustainably designed landscapes. Each project was located in a southwest desert city: Civic Space Park in Phoenix, AZ, the Pete V. Domenici US Courthouse Sustainable Landscape Retrofit in Albuquerque, NM, and George "Doc" Cavalliere Park in Scottsdale, AZ. The principal components of each case study were performance benefits that quantified ongoing ecosystem services. Performance benefits were developed from data provided by the designers and collected by the research team. The functionality of environmental, social, and economic sustainable features …

Contributors
Colter, Kaylee Renae, Martin, Chris, Coseo, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2016

The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), a small burrowing lagomorph that occupies the high alpine grassland ecosystems of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in western China, remains a controversial subject among policymakers and researchers. One line of evidence points to pikas being a pest, which has led to massive attempts to eradicate pika populations. Another point of view is that pikas are a keystone species and an ecosystem engineer in the grassland ecosystem of the QTP. The pika eradication program raises a difficult ethical and religious dilemma for local pastoralists, and is criticized for not being supported by scientific evidence. Complex interactions between …

Contributors
Choying, Palden, Smith, Andrew T, Wu, Jianguo, et al.
Created Date
2016

Phosphorus (P) is an essential resource for global food security, but global supplies are limited and demand is growing. Demand reductions are critical for achieving P sustainability, but recovery and re-use is also required. Wastewater treatment plants and livestock manures receive considerable attention for their P content, but municipal organic waste is another important source of P to address. Previous research identified the importance of diverting this waste stream from landfills for recovering P, but little has been done to identify the collection and processing mechanisms required, or address the existing economic barriers. In my research, I conducted a current …

Contributors
Stoltzfus, Jared Stoltzfus, Childers, Daniel, Basile, George, et al.
Created Date
2016

Beijing, in its Twelfth Five-Year Plan for the National Economic and Social Development of Beijing (2011 – 2015), affirmed its intention to become a leading “World City with Chinese characteristics.” This research is based on an assessment of the proposed strategies contained within the 12th Five-Year plan that are grounded in the set of indicators (variables) closely associated with world city status. Indicator selection (e.g., percentage of foreign born population) is based on review of shared characteristics of world cities (e.g., Tokyo, New York, Singapore) constrained by availability of Beijing data; plus the significant academic literature on the topic from …

Contributors
Lyon, Michael, Webster, Douglas, Quay, Raymond, et al.
Created Date
2016

To date, the production of algal biofuels is not economically sustainable due to the cost of production and the low cost of conventional fuels. As a result, interest has been shifting to high value products in the algae community to make up for the low economic potential of algal biofuels. The economic potential of high-value products does not however, eliminate the need to consider the environmental impacts. The majority of the environmental impacts associated with algal biofuels overlap with algal bioproducts in general (high-energy dewatering) due to the similarities in their production pathways. Selecting appropriate product sets is a critical …

Contributors
Barr, William James, Landis, Amy E, Westerhoff, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2016

With the need to address the world's growing energy demand, many new alternative and renewable energy sources are being researched and developed. Many of these technologies are in their infancy, still being too inefficient or too costly to implement on a large scale. This list of alternative energies include biofuels, geothermal power, solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectric power. This thesis focuses on developing a concentrating solar thermal energy unit for the application of an on-demand hot water system with phase change material. This system already has a prototype constructed and needs refinement in several areas in order to increase …

Contributors
Donovan, Benjamin James, Rajadas, John, Kannan, Arunachala, et al.
Created Date
2016

Three dilemmas plague governance of scientific research and technological innovation: the dilemma of orientation, the dilemma of legitimacy, and the dilemma of control. The dilemma of orientation risks innovation heedless of long-term implications. The dilemma of legitimacy grapples with delegation of authority in democracies, often at the expense of broader public interest. The dilemma of control poses that the undesirable implications of new technologies are hard to grasp, yet once grasped, all too difficult to remedy. That humanity has innovated itself into the sustainability crisis is a prime manifestation of these dilemmas. Responsible innovation (RI), with foci on anticipation, inclusion, …

Contributors
Bernstein, Michael Jordan, Wiek, Arnim, Wetmore, Jameson M, et al.
Created Date
2016

Scholars have highlighted the role of disturbance and crisis, including disasters, in enabling systemic change towards sustainability. However, there are relatively few empirical studies on how individuals and organizations are able to utilize disasters as opportunities for change towards sustainability. This dissertation addresses three questions applied to two case studies: First, what changes were pursued in the aftermath of disasters, and to what extent did these changes contribute to sustainability? Second, how were people (and their organizations) able to pursue change towards sustainability? Third, what can be learned about seeing and seizing opportunities for change towards sustainability in disaster contexts …

Contributors
Brundiers, Katja, Eakin, Hallie C, Sarewitz, Daniel, et al.
Created Date
2016

Bicyclist and pedestrian safety is a growing concern in San Francisco, CA, especially given the increasing numbers of residents choosing to bike and walk. Sharing the roads with automobiles, these alternative road users are particularly vulnerable to sustain serious injuries. With this in mind, it is important to identify the factors that influence the severity of bicyclist and pedestrian injuries in automobile collisions. This study uses traffic collision data gathered from California Highway Patrol’s Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS) to predict the most important determinants of injury severity, given that a collision has occurred. Multivariate binomial logistic regression models …

Contributors
McIntyre, Andrew, Salon, Deborah, Kuby, Mike, et al.
Created Date
2016

The combination of rapid urban growth and climate change places stringent constraints on multisector sustainability of cities. Green infrastructure provides a great potential for mitigating anthropogenic-induced urban environmental problems; nevertheless, studies at city and regional scales are inhibited by the deficiency in modelling the complex transport coupled water and energy inside urban canopies. This dissertation is devoted to incorporating hydrological processes and urban green infrastructure into an integrated atmosphere-urban modelling system, with the goal to improve the reliability and predictability of existing numerical tools. Based on the enhanced numerical tool, the effects of urban green infrastructure on environmental sustainability of …

Contributors
Yang, Jiachuan, Wang, Zhihua, Kaloush, Kamil, et al.
Created Date
2016

Recent research within the field of natural resource management has been devoted to studying the cognitive structures, called mental models, that guide people’s thoughts, actions, and decision-making. Artificial lighting threatens the sustainability of pristine night skies around the world and is growing worldwide at an average rate of six-percent per year. Despite these trends, stakeholders’ mental models of night skies have been unexplored. This study will address this gap by eliciting stakeholders’ mental models of dark skies. Scenario planning has become a pervasive tool across diverse sectors to analyze complex systems for making decisions under uncertainty. The theory of scenario …

Contributors
Hobbins, Robert Jonathan, Nyaupane, Gyan P, Budruk, Megha, et al.
Created Date
2016

Photovoltaics (PV) is an environmentally promising technology to meet climate goals and transition away from greenhouse-gas (GHG) intensive sources of electricity. The dominant approach to improve the environmental gains from PV is increasing the module efficiency and, thereby, the renewable electricity generated during use. While increasing the use-phase environmental benefits, this approach doesn’t address environmentally intensive PV manufacturing and recycling processes. Lifecycle assessment (LCA), the preferred framework to identify and address environmental hotspots in PV manufacturing and recycling, doesn’t account for time-sensitive climate impact of PV manufacturing GHG emissions and underestimates the climate benefit of manufacturing improvements. Furthermore, LCA is …

Contributors
Triplican Ravikumar, Dwarakanath, Seager, Thomas P, Fraser, Matthew P, et al.
Created Date
2016

Water resource systems have provided vital support to transformative growth in the Southwest United States; and for more than a century the Salt River Project (SRP) has served as a model of success among multipurpose federal reclamation projects, currently delivering approximately 40% of water demand in the metropolitan Phoenix area. Drought concerns have sensitized water management to risks posed by natural variability and forthcoming climate change. Full simulations originating in climate modeling have been the conventional approach to impacts assessment. But, once debatable climate projections are applied to hydrologic models challenged to accurately represent the region’s arid hydrology, the range …

Contributors
Murphy, Kevin William, Cerveny, Randall S., Balling, Jr., Robert C., et al.
Created Date
2016

For decades, load shifting control, one of the most effective peak demand management methods, has attracted attention from both researchers and engineers. Various load shifting controls have been developed and introduced in mainly commercial buildings. Utility companies typically penalize consumers with “demand rates”. This along with increased population and increased customer energy demand will only increase the need for load shifting. There have been many white papers, thesis papers and case studies written on the different types of Thermal Energy Storage and their uses. Previous papers have been written by Engineers, Manufacturers and Researchers. This thesis paper is unique because …

Contributors
Whitcraft, Daniel Scott, Sullivan, Kenneth, Okamura, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2016

With high potential for automobiles to cause air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, there is concern that automobiles accessing or egressing public transportation may cause emissions similar to regular automobile use. Due to limited literature and research that evaluates and discusses environmental impacts from first and last mile portions of transit trips, there is a lack of understanding on this topic. This research aims to comprehensively evaluate the life cycle impacts of first and last mile trips on multimodal transit. A case study of transit and automobile travel in the greater Los Angeles region is evaluated by using a comprehensive …

Contributors
Hoehne, Christopher Glenn, Chester, Mikhail V, Salon, Deborah, et al.
Created Date
2016

The aboveground surfaces of plants (i.e. the phyllosphere) comprise the largest biological interface on Earth (over 108 km2). The phyllosphere is a diverse microbial environment where bacterial inhabitants have been shown to sequester and degrade airborne pollutants (i.e. phylloremediation). However, phyllosphere dynamics are not well understood in urban environments, and this environment has never been studied in the City of Phoenix, which maintains roughly 92,000 city trees. The phyllosphere will grow if the City of Phoenix is able to achieve its goal of 25% canopy coverage by 2030, but this begs the question: How and where should the urban canopy …

Contributors
MacNeille, Benjamin, Childers, Daniel L, Garcia-Pichel, Ferran, et al.
Created Date
2016

Los Angeles, California and Phoenix, Arizona are two naturally water-scarce regions that rely on imported water to meet their local water needs. Both areas have been experiencing an ongoing drought that has negatively affected their local water supply. Populations in both cities continue to grow, increasing overall demand for water as the supply decreases. Water conservation is important for the sustainability of each town. However, the methods utilized to conserve residential water in the two areas differ drastically; Los Angeles has implemented involuntary water rationing and Phoenix has not. The widespread effectiveness of involuntary restrictions makes them a popular management …

Contributors
Turrentine, Heather Catherine, Klinsky, Sonja, Dooley, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2016

This study aimed to explore the relationship between international backpackers and local communities in the developing world. By investigating the role of technology design in a backpacking trip, this research analyzed the potential to improve Sustainable Tourism for both international backpackers and local communities. The idea of achieving sustainability in this research is to assess both economic and cultural impact through the assistance of technology. This study originates from a grounded theory approach triangulated from literature reviews and the researcher’s observations. The research tested the suitability of this theory by using qualitative research methods, then analyzed the appropriateness of its …

Contributors
Ho, Truc, Takamura, John, Vogt, Christine, et al.
Created Date
2016

Firms are increasingly being held accountable for the unsustainable actions of their suppliers. Stakeholders, regulatory agencies, and customers alike are calling for increased levels of transparency and higher standards of corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance for suppliers. While it is apparent that supplier performance is important, it remains unclear how the stock market weighs the CSR performance of a supplier relative to that of a focal firm. This dissertation focuses on whether these relative differences exist. In addition to capturing the magnitude of the difference in market impact between focal firm and supplier CSR events; I analyze the ways in …

Contributors
Rogers, Zachary Stewart, Carter, Craig, Dooley, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2016

'Attributional' Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) quantitatively tracks the potential environmental impacts of international value chains, in retrospective, while ensuring that burden shifting is avoided. Despite the growing popularity of LCA as a decision-support tool, there are numerous concerns relating to uncertainty and variability in LCA that affects its reliability and credibility. It is pertinent that some part of future research in LCA be guided towards increasing reliability and credibility for decision-making, while utilizing the LCA framework established by ISO 14040. In this dissertation, I have synthesized the present state of knowledge and application of uncertainty and variability in ‘attributional’ LCA, …

Contributors
Subramanian, Vairavan, Golden, Jay S, Chester, Mikhail V, et al.
Created Date
2016