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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Contributor
Date Range
2011 2020


ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have suggested a link between nut consumption and weight. The possible effects of regular nut consumption as a method of weight loss has shown minimal results with 2-3 servings of nut products per day. This 8 week study sought to investigate the effect of more modest nut consumption (1 oz./day, 5 days/week) on dietary compensation in healthy overweight individuals. Overweight and obese participants (n = 28) were recruited from the local community and were randomly assigned to either almond (NUT) or control (CON) group in this randomized, parallel-arm study. Subjects were instructed to eat their respective foods …

Contributors
Jahns, Marshall, Johnston, Carol, Hall, Richard, et al.
Created Date
2011

Nut consumption, specifically almonds, have been shown to help maintain weight and influence disease risk factors in adult populations. Limited studies have been conducted examining the effect of a small dose of almonds on energy intake and body weight. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pre-meal almond consumption on energy intake and weight in overweight and obese adults. In this study included 21, overweight or obese, participants who were considered healthy or had a controlled disease state. This 8-week parallel arm study, participants were randomized to consume an isocaloric amount of almonds, (1 oz) serving, …

Contributors
Mcbride, Lindsey Ann, Johnston, Carol, Swan, Pamela, et al.
Created Date
2011

Dietary self-monitoring has been shown to be a predictor of weight loss success and is a prevalent part of behavioral weight control programs. As more weight loss applications have become available on smartphones, this feasibility study investigated whether the use of a smartphone application, or a smartphone memo feature would improve dietary self-monitoring over the traditional paper-and-pencil method. The study also looked at whether the difference in methods would affect weight loss. Forty-seven adults (BMI 25 to 40 kg/m2) completed an 8-week study focused on tracking the difference in adherence to a self-monitoring protocol and subsequent weight loss. Participants owning …

Contributors
Cunningham, Barbara Kay, Wharton, Christopher, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012

The antioxidant, antihistamine, and chemotactic properties of vitamin C provide the theoretical basis linking vitamin C supplementation to combating the common cold; yet, the clinical evidence is mixed. To date, vitamin C intervention trials have not systematically recorded cold symptoms daily or looked at fluctuations in plasma histamine over an extended period. Also, trials have not been conducted in individuals with marginal vitamin C status. This study examined the impact of vitamin C supplementation during cold season on specific cold symptoms in a population with low plasma vitamin C concentrations. Healthy young males who were not regular smokers or training …

Contributors
Osterday, Gillean Marie, Johnston, Carol, Beezhold, Bonnie, et al.
Created Date
2012

Vitamin C is a micronutrient with many important physiological roles. It can function as a reducing agent, a free radical scavenger, and an enzyme cofactor. Much research has examined the potential of vitamin C supplements to enhance exercise capacity in trained athletes; however, little is known regarding the effects of vitamin C supplements on the promotion of leisure-time physical activity in the general population. This area deserves attention since 1/3 of Americans have below adequate vitamin C status, and since aversion to exercise, fatigue, and altered mood states are the earliest signs of poor vitamin C status. This study analyzed …

Contributors
Schumacher, Sara S., Johnston, Carol, Appel, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2012

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the LoseIt Smart Phone app by Fit Now Inc. for nutritional quality among users during an 8 week behavioral modification weight loss protocol. All participants owned smart phones and were cluster randomized to either a control group using paper and pencil record keeping, a memo group using a memo function on their smart phones, or the LoseIt app group which was composed of the participants who owned iPhones. Thirty one participants completed the study protocol: 10 participants from the LoseIt app group, 10 participants from the memo group, and 11 participants from the paper and pencil …

Contributors
Cowan, David Kevin, Johnston, Carol, Wharton, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2011

The evaluation of nutritional status by dietary intake assessment is fundamental to nutrition research. Accurate assessment allows for health professional-moderated diet adjustment in order to promote disease prevention and management. However, dietary intake can be extremely challenging to measure properly as reliability and accuracy are essential. As technology use has become more prevalent in recent years, an assortment of online, web-based diet analysis methods have begun to emerge. Are these modern methods as accurate as the traditional methods? The aim of this study was to compare and contrast diet analyses from a feeding trial in which both subject-coded (using the …

Contributors
Schohl, Brooke Betina, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2012

Determining the factors associated with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in the household may help in understanding the varying complexities that contribute to obesity among children and help design interventions to impact children's food consumption behaviors. This study examined factors that are associated with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in children's home food environments (HFE). Data was collected from a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1708 households, with at least one child between 3-18 years of age, located in five low-income New Jersey cities. HFE was assessed based on responses to a set of six items that …

Contributors
Berry, Andrea I., Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012

The purpose of this study was to gather qualitative data on different and novel methods used to self-monitor diet and exercise during a weight loss study. Participants who used either a traditional paper and pencil method or a smart phone weight loss app for diet and exercise tracking were recruited for focus groups. Focus group discussions centered on the liked and disliked aspects of recording, perceived behavior changes, and suggestions for improved self-monitoring. Focus groups were organized based on the method of self-monitoring. The app group tracked calorie intake and expenditure via the "Lose It" app on their smart phones. …

Contributors
Sterner, Danielle, Wharton, Christopher, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012

Birds have plasma glucose levels that are 1.5-2 times greater than mammals of similar body mass in addition to higher free fatty acid concentrations, both of which would typically impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation if observed in mammals. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation can be stimulated in mammals through the use of acetylcholine (ACh), which primarily acts through nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated pathways, with varying reliance on endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). Very few studies have been conducted on small resistance systemic arteries from birds. The hypothesis was that because birds have naturally high glucose and free fatty acid concentrations, ACh-induced vasodilation of isolated …

Contributors
Jarrett, Catherine Lee, Sweazea, Karen L, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2012

Background: Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health issues worldwide. Small, feasible lifestyle changes are necessary to obtain and maintain weight loss. Clinical evidence is inconclusive about whether meal preloading is an example of a small change that could potentially increase the likelihood of weight loss and weight maintenance. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine if consuming 23 grams of peanuts, as a meal preload, before a carbohydrate-rich meal will lower post prandial glycemia and insulinemia and increase satiety in the 2 hour period after a carbohydrate-rich meal. Design: 15 healthy, non-diabetic adults without …

Contributors
Fleming, Katie Raylene, Johnston, Carol, Wharton, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2012

The popularization of energy drink use as a supplement to exercise is steadily increasing, especially among young adult males. However, the effects of energy drinks on muscular performance in young adults have yet to be clearly elucidated. Eight male subjects (mean age: 23.3 ± 4.3 yrs, height: 181.0 ± 5.3 cm, fat percent 17.8 ± 5.2%, and weight 85.3 ± 12.6 kg) completed this randomized double-blinded cross over study. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in acute muscular strength and endurance and Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores between three treatments (RockStar, sugar-free RockStar, and sugar-free caffeine-free …

Contributors
Hawley, Michelle Mae, Swan, Pamela, Campbell, Kathryn, et al.
Created Date
2012

The unpleasant bitter taste found in many nutritious vegetables may deter people from consuming a healthy diet. We investigated individual differences in taste perception and whether these differences influence the effectiveness of bitterness masking. To test whether phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) `supertasters' also taste salt and sugar with greater intensity, as suggested by Bartoshuk and colleagues (2004), we infused strips of paper with salt water or sugar water. The bitterness rating of the PTC strip had a significant positive linear relationship with ratings of both the intensity of sweet and salt, but the effect sizes were very low, suggesting that the PTC …

Contributors
Wilkie, Lynn Melissa, Phillips, Elizabeth D, Cohen, Adam, et al.
Created Date
2012

Many people with or at risk for diabetes have difficulty maintaining normal postprandial blood glucose levels (120-140 mg/dl). Research has shown that vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia. The purpose of this study was to examine a possible mechanism by which vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia, particularly the effect of vinegar ingestion on gut fermentation. In this parallel arm randomized control trial, the effects of daily ingestion of vinegar on gut fermentation markers were observed among adults at risk for type 2 diabetes in Phoenix, Arizona. Subjects (n=14) were randomly assigned to treatments consisting of a vinegar drink (1.5g acetic acid) or a …

Contributors
White, Serena Elsa, Johnston, Carol, Appel, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2013

Background: Research in animal models suggests that fish oil ingestion may impair immunity and increase risk for infection. To date there are no studies examining this relationship between fish oil ingestion and risk for infection in humans. Objective: The primary aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-arm study was to examine the effect of 400 mg of EPA and 200 mg of DHA, the main components of fish oil (FO) supplements, on the incidence of symptoms related to upper respiratory tract infections in healthy young females, at a large southwestern university. Design: Healthy young women between 18 and 38 years …

Contributors
Gutierrez, Megan, Johnston, Carol, Appel, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2013

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which vinegar has been shown to reduce postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Fifteen male and female subjects were recruited, ages 20-60y, who had no prior history of gastrointestinal (GI) disease or resections impacting normal GI function, were non-smokers, were non-vegetarian/vegan, were not taking any medications known to alter (glucose) metabolism, and were free of chronic disease including diabetes. Subjects were instructed to …

Contributors
Medved, Emily, Johnston, Carol, Sweazea, Karen, et al.
Created Date
2012

Dietary protein is known to increase postprandial thermogenesis more so than carbohydrates or fats, probably related to the fact that amino acids have no immediate form of storage in the body and can become toxic if not readily incorporated into body tissues or excreted. It is also well documented that subjects report greater satiety on high- versus low-protein diets and that subject compliance tends to be greater on high-protein diets, thus contributing to their popularity. What is not as well known is how a high-protein diet affects resting metabolic rate over time, and what is even less well known is …

Contributors
Moore, Amy, Johnston, Carol, Appel, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2012

The Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Participants Short Version (REAP-S), represents a method for rapid diet quality assessment, however, few studies have tested its validity. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) and the Diet Quality Index Revised (DQI-R) are tools that effectively assess diet quality, however, both are complex and time consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of the REAP-S against the HEI-2005 and the DQI-R. Fifty males, 18 to 33 years of age, completed the REAP-S as well as a 24-hour diet recall. HEI-2005 and DQI-R scores were determined for each 24-hour recall. Scores …

Contributors
Fawcett, Rachael, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2012

Background. Research suggests that non-O blood types are at an increased risk of thrombosis and related health complications in cardiovascular disease (CVD). This is due in part to higher concentrations of von Willebrand factor (VWF), an important factor involved in blood clotting. Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a vegetarian-like diet on blood coagulation and other health parameters in adults with type A blood compared to type O blood over a four week intervention. Given the lack of previous research on blood type and diet, it was hypothesized that no difference in blood coagulation …

Contributors
Brown, Jennifer Marie, Johnston, Carol, Martin, Keith, et al.
Created Date
2013

Objective: Vinegar consumption studies have demonstrated possible therapeutic effects in reducing HbA1c and postprandial glycemia. The purpose of the study was to closely examine the effects of a commercial vinegar drink on daily fluctuations in fasting glucose concentrations and postprandial glycemia, and on HbA1c, in individuals at risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D). Design: Thirteen women and one man (21-62 y; mean, 46.0±3.9 y) participated in this 12-week parallel-arm trial. Participants were recruited from a campus community and were healthy and not diabetic by self-report. Participants were not prescribed oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin; other medications were allowed if …

Contributors
Quagliano, Samantha Elizabeth, Johnston, Carol, Appel, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2013

Objective: The purpose of this randomized parallel arm trial was to demonstrate the effects of daily fish oil supplementation (600mg per day for eight weeks) on body composition and body mass in young healthy women, aged 18-38, at a large southwestern university. Design: 26 non-obese (mean BMI 23.7±0.6 kg/m2), healthy women (18-38y; mean, 23.5±1.1 y) from a southwestern Arizona university campus community completed the study. Subjects were healthy, non-smokers, consuming less than 3.5 oz of fish per week according to self-report. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: FISH (600 mg omega-3 fatty acids provided in one gel capsule …

Contributors
Teran, Bianca Maria, Johnston, Carol, Johnson, Melinda, et al.
Created Date
2013

In 2002, a scientifically derived food guide pyramid for vegetarians, the Modified Food Guide for Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and Vegans was published and well received. Now that 10 years have passed, new scientific literature regarding the bioavailability of the nutrients of key concern in vegetarian diets has been published, and the graphical format of the nation's food guide has evolved from a pyramid shape into a circular plate. The objective of this research was to examine the post-2002 literature regarding the bioavailability of key nutrients in vegetarian diets; to use this information to update the recommendations made in the 2002 Modified Food …

Contributors
Fladell, Lauren, Johnston, Carol, Vaughan, Linda, et al.
Created Date
2013

This study was designed to influence consumer habits, specifically those relating to purchases of fruits, vegetables, and junk food. Previous studies have clearly shown the ineffectiveness of simply describing the health benefits of eating more fruits and vegetables (F/V). In contrast, this study aimed to change the result by changing the message: providing participants with insight into the hidden agendas of food companies and grocery stores, provide useful tips on how to include children when selecting F/V, and emphasizing the importance of parental modeling in regard to food purchases. Participants of this study were separated into two groups, the tour …

Contributors
Kinsfather, Diana Llelven, Johnston, Carol, Hekler, Eric, et al.
Created Date
2013

Health knowledge alone does not appear to lead to sustained healthy behavior, suggesting the need for alternative methods for improving diet. Recent research shows a possible role of moral contexts of food production on diet related behaviors; however no studies have been conducted to specifically explore the relationship between moral constructs and food consumption. This study examined the relationship between fast food consumption and two measures of morality, Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ), specifically harm/care and purity/sanctity foundations, and the Ethical Concern in food choice (EC) questionnaire, which includes animal welfare, environment protection, political values, and religion subscales. The study also …

Contributors
Martinelli, Sarah, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, Hekler, Eric B., et al.
Created Date
2013

Background: Previous research suggests a healthy eater schema (i.e., identifying yourself as a healthy eater) may be a useful concept to target in interventions. A "stealth" intervention that discussed the moral issues related to food worked better at promoting healthful eating than an intervention focused on the health benefits. No research has explored the relationship between moral foundations, a theoretical model focused on delineating core "foundations" for making a moral decision, and healthy eater self-identity or self-efficacy. Purpose: We explored the relationship between moral foundations (i.e., harm/care, fairness/reciprocity, in-group/loyalty, authority/respect, & purity/sanctity) and health eater self-identity and fruit and vegetable …

Contributors
Kiser, Sarah, Hekler, Eric B, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2013

There are several visual dimensions of food that can affect food intake, example portion size, color, and variety. This dissertation elucidates the effect of number of pieces of food on preference and amount of food consumed in humans and motivation for food in animals. Chapter 2 Experiment 1 showed that rats preferred and also ran faster for multiple pieces (30, 10 mg pellets) than an equicaloric, single piece of food (300 mg) showing that multiple pieces of food are more rewarding than a single piece. Chapter 2 Experiment 2 showed that rats preferred a 30-pellet food portion clustered together rather …

Contributors
Bajaj, Devina, Phillips, Elizabeth D, Cohen, Adam, et al.
Created Date
2013

In October, 2009, participants of the Arizona Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) began receiving monthly Cash Value Vouchers (CVV) worth between six and 10 dollars towards the purchase of fresh fruits and vegetables. Data from the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) showed CVV redemption rates in the first two years of the program were lower than the national average of 77% redemption. In response, the ADHS WIC Food List was expanded to also include canned and frozen fruits and vegetables. More recent data from ADHS suggest that redemption rates are improving, but variably exist …

Contributors
Bertmann, Farryl Mw, Wharton, Christopher, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2013

Obesity is currently a prevalent health concern in the United States. Essential to combating it are accurate methods of assessing individual dietary intake under ad libitum conditions. The acoustical monitoring system (AMS), consisting of a throat microphone and jaw strain sensor, has been proposed as a non-invasive method for tracking free-living eating events. This study assessed the accuracy of eating events tracked by the AMS, compared to the validated vending machine system used by the NIDDK in Phoenix. Application of AMS data toward estimation of mass and calories consumed was also considered. In this study, 10 participants wore the AMS …

Contributors
Steinke, Amanda, Johnston, Carol, Votruba, Susanne, et al.
Created Date
2013

The body is capable of regulating hunger in several ways. Some of these hunger regulation methods are innate, such as genetics, and some, such as the responses to stress and to the smell of food, are innate but can be affected by body conditions such as BMI and physical activity. Further, some hunger regulation methods stem from learned behaviors originating from cultural pressures or parenting styles. These latter regulation methods for hunger can be grouped into the categories: emotion, environment, and physical. The factors that regulate hunger can also influence the incidence of disordered eating, such as eating in the …

Contributors
Goett, Taylor, Johnston, Carol, Lee, Chong, et al.
Created Date
2013

ABSTRACT Vitamin C plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism because it is required for carnitine synthesis. Vitamin C has been shown to have an inverse relationship with weight and body fat percent in a number of studies. However, there has been limited research exploring the relationship between vitamin C status and fat oxidation. This cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between plasma vitamin C and fat oxidation in 69 participants and between plasma vitamin C and body fatness in 82 participants. Participants were measured for substrate utilization via indirect calorimetry while at rest and measured for body fatness via …

Contributors
Obermeyer, Lindsay, Johnston, Carol, Hall, Rick, et al.
Created Date
2014

Dietary counseling from a registered dietitian has been shown in previous studies to aid in weight loss for those receiving counseling. With the increasing use of smartphone diet/weight loss applications (app), this study sought to investigate if an iPhone diet app providing feedback from a registered dietitian improved weight loss and bio-markers of health. Twenty-four healthy adults who owned iPhones (BMI > 24 kg/m2) completed this trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three app groups: the MyDietitian app with daily feedback from a registered dietitian (n=7), the MyDietitian app without feedback (n=7), and the MyPlate feedback control app …

Contributors
Thompson-Felty, Claudia, Johnston, Carol, Wharton, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2014

ABSTRACT The hormone leptin is an important regulator of body weight and energy balance, while nitric oxide (NO) produced in the blood vessels is beneficial for preventing disease-induced impaired vasodilation and hypertension. Elevations in the free radical superoxide can result in impaired vasodilation through scavenging of NO. Omega 3 is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is beneficial at reducing body weight and in lowering many cardiovascular risk factors like atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to examine the change in plasma concentrations of leptin, nitric oxide, and the antioxidant superoxide dismutase in addition to examining the association between leptin and …

Contributors
Alanbagy, Samer, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2014

The omega-3 fatty acids in fatty fish and fish oil, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA), have been associated with a reduction in risk for cardiovascular disease. Blood type is a known contributor to risk for cardiovascular events. This study evaluated the effect of fish oil supplements on cardiovascular risk markers in adults with blood types A or O. An 8-week parallel-arm, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in healthy adult men and women with either blood type A (BTA) or blood type O (BTO). Participants were randomized to receive fish oil supplements (n=10 [3 BTA/7 BTO]; 2 g [containing …

Contributors
Herring, Dana, Johnston, Carol, Vega-López, Sonia, et al.
Created Date
2014

The unpleasant bitter taste found in many nutritious vegetables may deter their consumption. While bitterness suppression by prototypical tastants is well-studied in the chemical and pharmacological fields, mechanisms to reduce the bitterness of foods such as vegetables remain to be elucidated. Here tastants representing the taste primaries of salty and sweet were investigated as potential bitterness suppressors of three types of Brassicaceae vegetables. The secondary aim of these studies was to determine whether the bitter masking agents were differentially effective for bitter-sensitive and bitter-insensitive individuals. In all experiments, participants rated vegetables plain and with the addition of tastants. In Experiments …

Contributors
Wilkie, Lynn Melissa, Capaldi Phillips, Elizabeth D, Cohen, Adam, et al.
Created Date
2014

The common cold is a significant cause of morbidity world-wide, with human rhinovirus infections accounting for a majority colds suffered each year. While the symptoms of the common cold are generally mild and self-limiting, vulnerable populations such as individuals with asthma can experience severe secondary complications including acute asthma exacerbation which can result in severe morbidity. Most human rhinovirus types utilize Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as a receptor to enter cells and initiate infection. Expression of this cell-surface protein is elevated in the respiratory tract of asthma patients. The theoretical basis for this research is the observation that plasma measures …

Contributors
Gnant, Lindsay, Johnston, Carol, Sweazea, Karen, et al.
Created Date
2014

Long term high fat diets (HFD) are correlated with the development of diabetes and kidney disease. However, the impact of short term high fat intake on the etiology of kidney disease has not been well-studied. Therefore, this study examined the impact of a six week HFD (60% fat) on kidney structure and function in young male Sprague-Dawley rats. Previous studies have shown that these animals develop indices of diabetes compared to rats fed a standard rodent chow (5% fat) for six weeks. The hypothesis of this study is that six weeks of HFD will lead to early stages of kidney …

Contributors
Crinigan, Catherine, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2015

Diet quality is closely intertwined with overall health status and deserves close examination. Healthcare providers are stretched thin in the current stressed system and would benefit from a validated tool for rapid assessment of diet quality. The Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Participants Short Version (REAP-S) represents one such option. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the REAP-S and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) for scoring the diet quality of omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan diets. Eighty-one healthy male and female subjects with an average age of 30.9 years completed the REAP-S as well …

Contributors
Bliss, Courtney, Johnston, Carol, Tasevska, Natasha, et al.
Created Date
2015

ABSTRACT Asthma is a high-stress, chronic medical condition; 1 in 12 adults in the United States combat the bronchoconstriction from asthma. However, there are very few strong studies indicating any alternative therapy for asthmatics, particularly following a cold incidence. Vitamin C has been proven to be effective for other high-stress populations, but the asthmatic population has not yet been trialed. This study examined the effectiveness of vitamin C supplementation during the cold season on cold incidence and asthmatic symptoms. Asthmatics, otherwise-healthy, who were non-smokers and non-athletes between the ages of 18 and 55 with low plasma vitamin C concentrations were …

Contributors
Earhart, Kathryn Michelle, Johnston, Carol, Sweazea, Karen, et al.
Created Date
2015

The effects of iron and chromium blood concentrations have been linked to blood glucose control in diabetics. It is suggested that iron causes oxidative stress in the beta cells of the pancreas and adipocytes creating insulin insufficiency and resistance. Chromium is believed to increase the action of insulin through its biologically active molecule chromodulin. Both of these mechanisms are not clear. This 20 week case study tests the feasibility of combining iron depletion therapy followed by chromium supplementation to improve insulin sensitivity. This single case study followed a protocol of two blood donations separated by eight weeks followed by chromium …

Contributors
Jarrett, Nia M., Johnston, Carol, Lespron, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2015

Background: Individuals in the general populations with a known gluten disorder is believed to be 6% and it is unclear why the gluten free diet (GFD) has risen sharply (28%) in recent years. However, science has revealed that gluten can cause colonic changes in those undiagnosed with a known gluten disorder. The ramifications of these changes are unknown. Three common ingredients found in gluten free products, such as pasta, are corn quinoa and rice. Evidence from the scientific literature has shown that corn and quinoa can produce more colonic hydrogen than refined wheat and rice, indicating that corn and quinoa …

Contributors
Snyder, Darren Lawrence, Johnston, Carol, Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam, et al.
Created Date
2015

There is a considerable amount of research stating that vegetarian diets have an alkalizing effect while the typical western diet is acid-forming. There is substantial evidence regarding the health benefits of an alkaline diet. Although vegetarian diets demonstrate the ability to foster these health benefits, many people are still not willing to adopt a completely vegetarian diet. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of following a vegan diet two or three days per week on acid-base balance in a healthy college student population aged 18-30. METHODS: In a one-week interventional design, 23 people were randomly assigned to follow a vegan diet …

Contributors
Cosgrove, Kelly, Johnston, Carol, Sweazea, Karen, et al.
Created Date
2015

Nutrition instruction has become more accessible; it is no longer relegated to the doctor’s office, dietitian briefing, outpatient clinic, or hospital. Now it is available in people’s hands, pockets, and purses via their smartphone. Since nutrition instruction has become more accessible, health professionals and members of the general public are increasingly interested in using smartphone apps to assist with health-related dietary changes. With more and more of the population required to follow certain dietary recommendations and/or monitor specific nutrient intake, commercially available apps may be a useful and cost-effective resource for the public. The purpose of this four-week intervention was …

Contributors
Ipjian, Michelle Lauren, Johnston, Carol, Shepard, Christina, et al.
Created Date
2016

Despite recent strides for awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, prevalence remains high with estimates suggesting one third of Americans have hypertension. The hypotensive effects of potassium and magnesium have been known and administered in a clinical setting for nearly a century. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of taking a potassium/magnesium supplement to help reduce blood pressure in individuals with mildly-moderately elevated blood pressure. In this randomized, controlled crossover trial, potassium and magnesium supplementation was explored among healthy adults with mildly elevated blood pressure in Phoenix, Arizona. Subjects (n = 12) were randomly assigned to …

Contributors
Pawloski, Jason Richard, Johnston, Carol, Vega-Lopez, Sonia, et al.
Created Date
2015

ABSTRACT Objective: This research examined the effectiveness of a weight loss diet incorporating high protein pasta and breakfast cereal products as compared to a weight loss diet using conventional versions of gluten-free pasta and breakfast cereal. Design: In a 6-week parallel-arm food trial (representing the first phase of a 12-week cross-over trial), 26 overweight and obese (Mean BMI 43.1 ± 12.4 kg/m²) participants, free of related comorbidities, were randomly assigned to the Zone diet (~29% energy intake from protein) or a control diet (~9% energy from protein). Participants were included in the trial if they satisfied the criteria for elevated …

Contributors
James, Andrew, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2015

Vitamin D deficiency has been previously associated with a higher Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk, a condition marked by dependent living and severe cognitive impairment. AD is histologically defined by the presence of brain amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Ways to enhance Aβ clearance have been examined in order to sustain cognition and delay AD onset. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that vitamin D might enhance brain Aβ transportation to the periphery by up-regulating P-glycoprotein production. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on plasma Aβ in an older population. …

Contributors
Miller, Brendan Joseph, Johnston, Carol, Whisner, Corrie, et al.
Created Date
2015

Background: Smartphone diet tracking applications (apps) are increasing in popularity but may not adequately address the important concerns of proper intake and of diet quality. Two novel weight loss apps were designed based on the popular dietary frameworks: MyPlate and FoodLists. MyPlate, the dietary guidelines put forth by the U.S. government, encourages a balanced diet from five primary food groups, but does not specify intake limits. The Food Lists set upper intake limits on all food groups except vegetables, and these guidelines extend to include fats, sweets, and alcohol. Objective: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine …

Contributors
Scholtz, Cameron, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2016

Drinking vinegar is a popularly discussed remedy for relieving heartburn symptom, as can be read on many websites; however, there has been no scientific research or theory to support its efficacy. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over research study tested the efficacy of the organic apple cider vinegar, with mother, on alleviation of the heartburn symptom related to Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). A minimum of one week separated the four trial arms: chili (placebo), antacid after chili meal (positive control), vinegar added to chili, and diluted vinegar after chili meal. Twenty grams of vinegar were used in both vinegar treatments, and …

Contributors
Yeh, Zoe, Johnston, Carol, Mayol-Kreiser, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2016

The glycation of plasma proteins leading to the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and subsequent damage is a driving factor in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. The overall research objective was to elucidate the mechanisms by which birds prevent protein glycation in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. This was accomplished through the specific purpose of examining the impact of temperature and glucose concentration on the percent glycation of chicken serum albumin (CSA) in comparison to human serum albumin (HSA). Purified CSA and HSA solutions prepared at four different glucose concentrations (0 mM, 5.56 mM, 11.11 …

Contributors
Zuck, Jessica Ann, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2016

Vitamin B12, found only in animal products, is a water-soluble vitamin important for DNA methylation, purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and the myelination of nerves. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include anemia, gait disturbances, altered vibration proprioception, impaired vision, psychosis, depression, dementia-like illness, and ultimately death. Because vegetarians and vegans consume fewer animal products in their diet than omnivores, they are inherently more at risk for developing these symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between nervous system markers (balance, dexterity, and vibration sensitivity) and markers of vitamin B12 nutriture (serum B12 …

Contributors
Arnold, Taylor Ann, Johnston, Carol, Whisner, Corrie, et al.
Created Date
2016

Birds have shown promise as models of diabetes due to health and longevity despite naturally high plasma glucose concentrations, a condition which in diabetic humans leads to protein glycation and various complications. Research into mechanisms that protect birds from high plasma glucose have shown that some species of birds have naturally low levels of protein glycation. Some hypothesize a diet rich in carotenoids and other antioxidants protects birds from protein glycation and oxidative damage. There is little research, however, into the amount of protein glycation in birds of prey, which consume a high protein, high fat diet. No studies have …

Contributors
Ingram, Tana Dawn, Sweazea, Karen, Johnston, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2017