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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Subject
Date Range
2011 2019


The past two decades have been monumental in the advancement of microchips designed for a diverse range of medical applications and bio-analysis. Owing to the remarkable progress in micro-fabrication technology, complex chemical and electro-mechanical features can now be integrated into chip-scale devices for use in biosensing and physiological measurements. Some of these devices have made enormous contributions in the study of complex biochemical processes occurring at the molecular and cellular levels while others overcame the challenges of replicating various functions of human organs as implant systems. This thesis presents test data and analysis of two such systems. First, an ISFET …

Contributors
Mamun, Samiha, Christen, Jennifer Blain, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2011

An accurate sense of upper limb position is crucial to reaching movements where sensory information about upper limb position and target location is combined to specify critical features of the movement plan. This dissertation was dedicated to studying the mechanisms of how the brain estimates the limb position in space and the consequences of misestimation of limb position on movements. Two independent but related studies were performed. The first involved characterizing the neural mechanisms of limb position estimation in the non-human primate brain. Single unit recordings were obtained in area 5 of the posterior parietal cortex in order to examine …

Contributors
Shi, Ying, Buneo, Christopher A, Helms Tillery, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2011

Anticipatory planning of digit positions and forces is critical for successful dexterous object manipulation. Anticipatory (feedforward) planning bypasses the inherent delays in reflex responses and sensorimotor integration associated with reactive (feedback) control. It has been suggested that feedforward and feedback strategies can be distinguished based on the profile of grip and load force rates during the period between initial contact with the object and object lift. However, this has not been validated in tasks that do not constrain digit placement. The purposes of this thesis were (1) to validate the hypothesis that force rate profiles are indicative of the control …

Contributors
Cooperhouse, Michael Aaron, Santello, Marco, Helms Tillery, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2011

The ability to plan, execute, and control goal oriented reaching and grasping movements is among the most essential functions of the brain. Yet, these movements are inherently variable; a result of the noise pervading the neural signals underlying sensorimotor processing. The specific influences and interactions of these noise processes remain unclear. Thus several studies have been performed to elucidate the role and influence of sensorimotor noise on movement variability. The first study focuses on sensory integration and movement planning across the reaching workspace. An experiment was designed to examine the relative contributions of vision and proprioception to movement planning by …

Contributors
Apker, Gregory, Buneo, Christopher A, Helms Tillery, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2012

Gold nanoparticles as potential diagnostic, therapeutic and sensing systems have a long history of use in medicine, and have expanded to a variety of applications. Gold nanoparticles are attractive in biological applications due to their unique optical, chemical and biological properties. Particularly, gold nanorods (GNRs) are increasingly used due to superior optical property in the near infrared (NIR) window. Light absorbed by the nanorod can be dissipated as heat efficiently or re-emitted by the particle. However, the limitations for clinical translation of gold nanorods include low yields, poor stability, depth-restricted imaging, and resistance of cancer cells to hyperthermia, are severe. …

Contributors
Huang, Huang-Chiao, Rege, Kaushal, Sierks, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2012

This research investigated using impedance as a minimally invasive oral cancer-screening tool by modeling healthy and diseased tissue. This research developed an ultra-structurally based tissue model for oral mucosa that is versatile enough to be easily modified to mimic the passive electrical impedance responses of multiple benign and cancerous tissue types. This new model provides answers to biologically meaningful questions related to the impedance response of healthy and diseased tissues. This model breaks away from the old empirical top down "black box" Thèvinin equivalent model. The new tissue model developed here was created from a bottom up perspective resulting in …

Contributors
Pelletier, Peter Robert, Kozicki, Michael, Towe, Bruce, et al.
Created Date
2012

Current treatment methods for cerebral aneurysms are providing life-saving measures for patients suffering from these blood vessel wall protrusions; however, the drawbacks present unfortunate circumstances in the invasive procedure or with efficient occlusion of the aneurysms. With the advancement of medical devices, liquid-to-solid gelling materials that could be delivered endovascularly have gained interest. The development of these systems stems from the need to circumvent surgical methods and the requirement for improved occlusion of aneurysms to prevent recanalization and potential complications. The work presented herein reports on a liquid-to-solid gelling material, which undergoes gelation via dual mechanisms. Using a temperature-responsive polymer, …

Contributors
Bearat, Hanin H., Vernon, Brent L, Frakes, David, et al.
Created Date
2012

There is a tremendous need for wireless biological signals acquisition for the microelectrode-based neural interface to reduce the mechanical impacts introduced by wire-interconnects system. Long wire connections impede the ability to continuously record the neural signal for chronic application from the rodent's brain. Furthermore, connecting and/or disconnecting Omnetics interconnects often introduces mechanical stress which causes blood vessel to rupture and leads to trauma to the brain tissue. Following the initial implantation trauma, glial tissue formation around the microelectrode and may possibly lead to the microelectrode signal degradation. The aim of this project is to design, develop, and test a compact …

Contributors
Zhou, Li, Muthuswamy, Jitendran, Sutanto, Jemmy, et al.
Created Date
2012

Interictal spikes, together with seizures, have been recognized as the two hallmarks of epilepsy, a brain disorder that 1% of the world's population suffers from. Even though the presence of spikes in brain's electromagnetic activity has diagnostic value, their dynamics are still elusive. It was an objective of this dissertation to formulate a mathematical framework within which the dynamics of interictal spikes could be thoroughly investigated. A new epileptic spike detection algorithm was developed by employing data adaptive morphological filters. The performance of the spike detection algorithm was favorably compared with others in the literature. A novel spike spatial synchronization …

Contributors
Krishnan, Balu, Iasemidis, Leonidas, Tsakalis, Kostantinos, et al.
Created Date
2012

Effective tactile sensing in prosthetic and robotic hands is crucial for improving the functionality of such hands and enhancing the user's experience. Thus, improving the range of tactile sensing capabilities is essential for developing versatile artificial hands. Multimodal tactile sensors called BioTacs, which include a hydrophone and a force electrode array, were used to understand how grip force, contact angle, object texture, and slip direction may be encoded in the sensor data. Findings show that slip induced under conditions of high contact angles and grip forces resulted in significant changes in both AC and DC pressure magnitude and rate of …

Contributors
Hsia, Albert, Santos, Veronica J, Santello, Marco, et al.
Created Date
2012

Research on developing new algorithms to improve information on brain functionality and structure is ongoing. Studying neural activity through dipole source localization with electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) sensor measurements can lead to diagnosis and treatment of a brain disorder and can also identify the area of the brain from where the disorder has originated. Designing advanced localization algorithms that can adapt to environmental changes is considered a significant shift from manual diagnosis which is based on the knowledge and observation of the doctor, to an adaptive and improved brain disorder diagnosis as these algorithms can track activities that might …

Contributors
Michael, Stefanos, Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia, Chakrabarti, Chaitali, et al.
Created Date
2012

The effects of specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) on transgene expression in combination with a novel polymer as a delivery vehicle are investigated in this research. Polymer vectors, although safer than viruses, are notorious for low levels of gene expression. In this investigation, the use of an emerging chemotherapeutic anti-cancer drug molecule, HDACi, was used to enhance the polymer-mediated gene expression. HDACi are capable of inhibiting deacetylation activities of histones and other non-histone proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus, as well as increase transcriptional activities necessary for gene expression. In a prior study, a parallel synthesis and screening of polymers …

Contributors
Lehrman, Jennifer Nicole, Rege, Kaushal, Caplan, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2012

Human operators have difficulty driving cranes quickly, accurately, and safely because of the slow response of heavy crane structures, non-intuitive control interfaces, and payload oscillations. Recently, a novel hand-motion crane control system has been proposed to improve performance by coupling an intuitive control interface with an element that reduces the complex oscillatory behavior of the payload. Hand-motion control allows operators to drive a crane by simply moving a hand-held radio-frequency tag through the desired path. Real-time location sensors are used to track the movements of the tag and the tag position is used in a feedback control loop to drive …

Contributors
Ragunathan, Sudarshan, Frakes, David, Singhose, William, et al.
Created Date
2012

Approximately 1% of the world population suffers from epilepsy. Continuous long-term electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring is the gold-standard for recording epileptic seizures and assisting in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. However, this process still requires that seizures are visually detected and marked by experienced and trained electroencephalographers. The motivation for the development of an automated seizure detection algorithm in this research was to assist physicians in such a laborious, time consuming and expensive task. Seizures in the EEG vary in duration (seconds to minutes), morphology and severity (clinical to subclinical, occurrence rate) within the same patient and across …

Contributors
Venkataraman, Vinay, Jassemidis, Leonidas, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2012

Due to heterogeneity at the cellular level, single cell analysis (SCA) has become a necessity to study cellomics for the early detection of diseases like cancer. Development of single cell manipulation systems is very critical for performing SCA. In this thesis, electrorotation (ROT) chips to trap and rotate single cells using electrokinetic forces have been developed. The ROT chip mainly consists of a set of closely spaced metal electrodes (60µm interspacing between opposite electrodes) that forms a closed electric field cage (electrocage) when driven with high frequency AC voltages. Cells were flowed through a microchannel to the electrocage where they …

Contributors
Soundappa Elango, Iniyan, Meldrum, Deirdre R, Christen, Jennifer Blain, et al.
Created Date
2012

The world of healthcare can be seen as dynamic, often an area where technology and science meet to consummate a greater good for humanity. This relationship has been working well for the last century as evident by the average life expectancy change. For the greater of the last five decades the average life expectancy at birth increased globally by almost 20 years. In the United States specifically, life expectancy has grown from 50 years in 1900 to 78 years in 2009. That is a 76% increase in just over a century. As great as this increase sounds for humanity it …

Contributors
Lester, Bryan, Forzani, Erica, Xian, Xiaojun, et al.
Created Date
2012

Development of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health concern (5% - 50% of TBI cases). A significant problem in TBI management is the inability to predict which patients will develop PTE. Such prediction, followed by timely treatment, could be highly beneficial to TBI patients. Six male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a controlled cortical impact (CCI). A 6mm piston was pneumatically driven 3mm into the right parietal cortex with velocity of 5.5m/s. The rats were subsequently implanted with 6 intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) electrodes. Long-term (14-week) continuous EEG recordings were conducted. Using linear (coherence) and …

Contributors
Tobin, Edward, Iasemidis, Leonidas, Tsakalis, Konstantinos, et al.
Created Date
2012

Aqueous solutions of temperature-responsive copolymers based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) hold promise for medical applications because they can be delivered as liquids and quickly form gels in the body without organic solvents or chemical reaction. However, their gelation is often followed by phase-separation and shrinking. Gel shrinking and water loss is a major limitation to using NIPAAm-based gels for nearly any biomedical application. In this work, a graft copolymer design was used to synthesize polymers which combine the convenient injectability of poly(NIPAAm) with gel water content controlled by hydrophilic side-chain grafts based on Jeffamine® M-1000 acrylamide (JAAm). The first segment of …

Contributors
Overstreet, Derek, Caplan, Michael, Massia, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2012

Approximately 1.7 million people in the United States are living with limb loss and are in need of more sophisticated devices that better mimic human function. In the Human Machine Integration Laboratory, a powered, transtibial prosthetic ankle was designed and build that allows a person to regain ankle function with improved ankle kinematics and kinetics. The ankle allows a person to walk normally and up and down stairs, but volitional control is still an issue. This research tackled the problem of giving the user more control over the prosthetic ankle using a force/torque circuit. When the user presses against a …

Contributors
Fronczyk, Adam Jerald, Sugar, Thomas G, Helms-Tillery, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2012

Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the communication between supraspinal circuits and spinal circuits distal to the injury. This disruption causes changes in the motor abilities of the affected individual, but it can also be used as an opportunity to study motor control in the absence or limited presence of control from the brain. In the case of incomplete paraplegia, locomotion is impaired and often results in increased incidence of foot drag and decreased postural stability after injury. The overall goal of this work is to understand how changes in kinematics of movement and neural control of muscles effect locomotor coordination …

Contributors
Hillen, Brian, Jung, Ranu, Abbas, James, et al.
Created Date
2012

Multiple Sclerosis, an autoimmune disease, is one of the most common neurological disorder in which demyelinating of the axon occurs. The main symptoms of MS disease are fatigue, vision problems, stability issue, balance problems. Unfortunately, currently available treatments for this disease do not always guarantee the improvement of the condition of the MS patient and there has not been an accurate mechanism to measure the effectiveness of the treatment due to inter-patient heterogeneity. The factors that count for varying the performance of MS patients include environmental setting, weather, psychological status, dressing style and more. Also, patients may react differently while …

Contributors
Yin, Siyang, He, Jiping, Pizziconi, Vincent, et al.
Created Date
2012

Single cell analysis has become increasingly important in understanding disease onset, progression, treatment and prognosis, especially when applied to cancer where cellular responses are highly heterogeneous. Through the advent of single cell computerized tomography (Cell-CT), researchers and clinicians now have the ability to obtain high resolution three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of single cells. Yet to date, no live-cell compatible version of the technology exists. In this thesis, a microfluidic chip with the ability to rotate live single cells in hydrodynamic microvortices about an axis parallel to the optical focal plane has been demonstrated. The chip utilizes a novel 3D microchamber design …

Contributors
Myers, Jakrey, Meldrum, Deirdre, Johnson, Roger, et al.
Created Date
2012

This dissertation presents methods for the evaluation of ocular surface protection during natural blink function. The evaluation of ocular surface protection is especially important in the diagnosis of dry eye and the evaluation of dry eye severity in clinical trials. Dry eye is a highly prevalent disease affecting vast numbers (between 11% and 22%) of an aging population. There is only one approved therapy with limited efficacy, which results in a huge unmet need. The reason so few drugs have reached approval is a lack of a recognized therapeutic pathway with reproducible endpoints. While the interplay between blink function and …

Contributors
Abelson, Richard Barrett, Montgomery, Douglas, Borror, Connie, et al.
Created Date
2012

Biosensors offer excellent diagnostic methods through precise quantification of bodily fluid biomarkers and could fill an important niche in diagnostic screening. The long term goal of this research is the development of an impedance immunosensor for easy-to-use, rapid, sensitive and selective simultaneously multiplexed quantification of bodily fluid disease biomarkers. To test the hypothesis that various cytokines induce empirically determinable response frequencies when captured by printed circuit board (PCB) impedance immunosensor surface, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods were used to test PCB biosensors versus multiple cytokine biomarkers to determine limits of detection, background interaction and response at …

Contributors
Fairchild, Aaron Benjamin, La Belle, Jeffrey T, Muthuswamy, Jitendran, et al.
Created Date
2012

This dissertation provides a fundamental understanding of the properties of mesoporous carbon based materials and the utilization of those properties into different applications such as electrodes materials for super capacitors, adsorbents for water treatments and biosensors. The thickness of mesoporous carbon films on Si substrates are measured by Ellipsometry method and pore size distribution has been calculated by Kelvin equation based on toluene adsorption and desorption isotherms monitored by Ellipsometer. The addition of organometallics cobalt and vanalyl acetylacetonate in the synthesis precursor leads to the metal oxides in the carbon framework, which largely decreased the shrink of the framework during …

Contributors
Dai, Mingzhi, Vogt, Bryan D, La Belle, Jeffrey T, et al.
Created Date
2012

The goal of the works presented in this volume is to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probe for non-invasive detection of extracellular matrix (ECM) underlying fenestrated endothelia. The ECM is the scaffold that supports tissue structure in all organs. In fenestrated structures the such as the kidney glomerulus and the hepatic sinusoid the ECM serves a unique role in blood filtration and is directly exposed to blood plasma. An assessment of the ECM in fenestrated organs such as the kidney and liver reports on the organ's ability to filter blood - a process critical to maintaining homeostasis. Unfortunately, clinical …

Contributors
Beeman, Scott Charles, Bennett, Kevin M, Kodibagkar, Vikram D, et al.
Created Date
2012

Over the past fifty years, the development of sensors for biological applications has increased dramatically. This rapid growth can be attributed in part to the reduction in feature size, which the electronics industry has pioneered over the same period. The decrease in feature size has led to the production of microscale sensors that are used for sensing applications, ranging from whole-body monitoring down to molecular sensing. Unfortunately, sensors are often developed without regard to how they will be integrated into biological systems. The complexities of integration are underappreciated. Integration involves more than simply making electrical connections. Interfacing microscale sensors with …

Contributors
Welch, David, Blain Christen, Jennifer, Muthuswamy, Jitendran, et al.
Created Date
2012

The object of this study is to charac terize the effect of focused ultrasound stimulation (FUS) on the rat ce rvix which has been observed to speed its ripening during pregnancy. Ce rvical ripening is required for successful fetal delivery. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=36) were used. On day 14 of gestation, the FUS system was placed on the body surface of the rat over the cervix and ultrasound energy was applied to cervix for variable times up to 1 hour in the control group, the FUS system was placed on rats but no energy was applied. Daily measurement of cervix …

Contributors
Luo, Daishen, Towe, Bruce C, Wang, Xiao, et al.
Created Date
2012

Our ability to estimate the position of our body parts in space, a fundamentally proprioceptive process, is crucial for interacting with the environment and movement control. For proprioception to support these actions, the Central Nervous System has to rely on a stored internal representation of the body parts in space. However, relatively little is known about this internal representation of arm position. To this end, I developed a method to map proprioceptive estimates of hand location across a 2-d workspace. In this task, I moved each subject's hand to a target location while the subject's eyes were closed. After returning …

Contributors
Rincon Gonzalez, Liliana, Helms Tillery, Stephen I, Buneo, Christopher A, et al.
Created Date
2012

Millions of Americans live with motor impairments resulting from a stroke and the best way to administer rehabilitative therapy to achieve recovery is not well understood. Adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation (AMRR) is a novel integration of motion capture technology and high-level media computing that provides precise kinematic measurements and engaging multimodal feedback for self-assessment during a therapeutic task. The AMRR system was evaluated in a small (N=3) cohort of stroke survivors to determine best practices for administering adaptive, media-based therapy. A proof of concept study followed, examining changes in clinical scale and kinematic performances among a group of stroke survivors …

Contributors
Duff, Margaret Rose, Rikakis, Thanassis, He, Jiping, et al.
Created Date
2012

Sensitivity is a fundamental challenge for in vivo molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, I improve the sensitivity of metal nanoparticle contrast agents by strategically incorporating pure and doped metal oxides in the nanoparticle core, forming a soluble, monodisperse, contrast agent with adjustable T2 or T1 relaxivity (r2 or r1). I first developed a simplified technique to incorporate iron oxides in apoferritin to form "magnetoferritin" for nM-level detection with T2- and T2* weighting. I then explored whether the crystal could be chemically modified to form a particle with high r1. I first adsorbed Mn2+ ions to metal binding sites in …

Contributors
Clavijo Jordan, Maria Veronica, Bennett, Kevin M, Kodibagkar, Vikram, et al.
Created Date
2012

Ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays and X-rays, are becoming more widely used. These high-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation are present in nuclear energy, astrophysics, and the medical field. As more and more people have the opportunity to be exposed to ionizing radiation, the necessity for coming up with simple and quick methods of radiation detection is increasing. In this work, two systems were explored for their ability to simply detect ionizing radiation. Gold nanoparticles were formed via radiolysis of water in the presence of Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) and also in the presence of cationic polymers. Gold nanoparticle formation is …

Contributors
Walker, Candace, Rege, Kaushal, Chang, John, et al.
Created Date
2012

Gene manipulation techniques, such as RNA interference (RNAi), offer a powerful method for elucidating gene function and discovery of novel therapeutic targets in a high-throughput fashion. In addition, RNAi is rapidly being adopted for treatment of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, etc. However, a major challenge in both of the aforementioned applications is the efficient delivery of siRNA molecules, plasmids or transcription factors to primary cells such as neurons. A majority of the current non-viral techniques, including chemical transfection, bulk electroporation and sonoporation fail to deliver with adequate efficiencies and the required spatial and temporal control. …

Contributors
Patel, Chetan, Muthuswamy, Jitendran, Helms Tillery, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2012

The use of electromyography (EMG) signals to characterize muscle fatigue has been widely accepted. Initial work on characterizing muscle fatigue during isometric contractions demonstrated that its frequency decreases while its amplitude increases with the onset of fatigue. More recent work concentrated on developing techniques to characterize dynamic contractions for use in clinical and training applications. Studies demonstrated that as fatigue progresses, the EMG signal undergoes a shift in frequency, and different physiological mechanisms on the possible cause of the shift were considered. Time-frequency processing, using the Wigner distribution or spectrogram, is one of the techniques used to estimate the instantaneous …

Contributors
Austin, Hiroko, Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia, Kovvali, Narayan, et al.
Created Date
2012

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading neurodegenerative disease, affecting roughly 8% of people 65 years of age or older. There exists an imperative need to develop a non-invasive test for the earlier detection of AD. The use of biomarkers is a promising option that examines the toxic mechanisms and metabolic pathways that cause Alzheimer's disease, eventually leading to an early diagnostic method. This thesis presents the use of oligomeric beta-amyloid as a biomarker to detect Alzheimer's disease via a specialized enzyme-linked protein assay. Specifically, this paper details the optimization and development of a novel phage capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) …

Contributors
Brownlee, Taylor, Sierks, Michael, Williams, Stephanie, et al.
Created Date
2013

Image resolution limits the extent to which zooming enhances clarity, restricts the size digital photographs can be printed at, and, in the context of medical images, can prevent a diagnosis. Interpolation is the supplementing of known data with estimated values based on a function or model involving some or all of the known samples. The selection of the contributing data points and the specifics of how they are used to define the interpolated values influences how effectively the interpolation algorithm is able to estimate the underlying, continuous signal. The main contributions of this dissertation are three fold: 1) Reframing edge-directed …

Contributors
Zwart, Christine M., Frakes, David H, Karam, Lina, et al.
Created Date
2013

Changes to the microenvironment of the endothelium can produce significant changes in the response of endothelial cells to stimuli. Human Aortic Endothelial Cells (HAECs) are tested in vitro for their fluid shear stress response when their substrates, and the solute concentrations of the fluids to which they are exposed, are modulated, and for their nitric oxide expression when they are exposed to hyperglycemic conditions. ImageJ is used to quantify either the degree of cellular alignment and elongation with the direction of flow, or the relative NO expression using the fluorochrome DAF-2. First, the results of Brower, et.al. are replicated: HAECs …

Contributors
Lehnhardt, Eric, Caplan, Michael R, Targovnik, Jerome, et al.
Created Date
2013

In order to successfully implement a neural prosthetic system, it is necessary to understand the control of limb movements and the representation of body position in the nervous system. As this development process continues, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the way multiple sensory modalities are used in limb representation. In a previous study, Shi et al. (2013) examined the multimodal basis of limb position in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) as monkeys reached to and held their arm at various target locations in a frontal plane. Visual feedback was withheld in half the trials, though non-visual (i.e. somatic) …

Contributors
Dyson, Keith, Buneo, Christopher A, Helms-Tillery, Stephen I, et al.
Created Date
2013

This research is focused on two separate but related topics. The first uses an electroencephalographic (EEG) brain-computer interface (BCI) to explore the phenomenon of motor learning transfer. The second takes a closer look at the EEG-BCI itself and tests an alternate way of mapping EEG signals into machine commands. We test whether motor learning transfer is more related to use of shared neural structures between imagery and motor execution or to more generalized cognitive factors. Using an EEG-BCI, we train one group of participants to control the movements of a cursor using embodied motor imagery. A second group is trained …

Contributors
Da Silva, Flavio J.K., Mcbeath, Michael K, Helms Tillery, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2013

Statistical process control (SPC) and predictive analytics have been used in industrial manufacturing and design, but up until now have not been applied to threshold data of vital sign monitoring in remote care settings. In this study of 20 elders with COPD and/or CHF, extended months of peak flow monitoring (FEV1) using telemedicine are examined to determine when an earlier or later clinical intervention may have been advised. This study demonstrated that SPC may bring less than a 2.0% increase in clinician workload while providing more robust statistically-derived thresholds than clinician-derived thresholds. Using a random K-fold model, FEV1 output was …

Contributors
Fralick, Celeste Rachelle, Muthuswamy, Jitendran, O'Shea, Terrance, et al.
Created Date
2013

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis which is the condition of plaque buildup on the inside of the coronary artery wall is the main cause of CHD. Rupture of unstable atherosclerotic coronary plaque is known to be the cause of acute coronary syndrome. The composition of plaque is important for detection of plaque vulnerability. Due to prognostic importance of early stage identification, non-invasive assessment of plaque characterization is necessary. Computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a non-invasive alternative to coronary angiography. Recently, dual energy CT (DECT) coronary angiography has been performed clinically. DECT …

Contributors
Yamak, Didem, Akay, Metin, Muthuswamy, Jit, et al.
Created Date
2013

Controlled release formulations for local, in vivo drug delivery are of growing interest to device manufacturers, research scientists, and clinicians; however, most research characterizing controlled release formulations occurs in vitro because the spatial and temporal distribution of drug delivery is difficult to measure in vivo. In this work, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of local drug delivery is performed to visualize and quantify the time resolved distribution of MRI contrast agents. I find it is possible to visualize contrast agent distributions in near real time from local delivery vehicles using MRI. Three dimensional T1 maps are processed to produce …

Contributors
Giers, Morgan Boresi, Caplan, Michael R, Massia, Stephen P, et al.
Created Date
2013

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States and novel methods of treating advanced malignancies are of high importance. Of these deaths, prostate cancer and breast cancer are the second most fatal carcinomas in men and women respectively, while pancreatic cancer is the fourth most fatal in both men and women. Developing new drugs for the treatment of cancer is both a slow and expensive process. It is estimated that it takes an average of 15 years and an expense of $800 million to bring a single new drug to the market. However, it is also …

Contributors
Taylor, David, Rege, Kaushal, Jayaraman, Arul, et al.
Created Date
2013

Electrical neural activity detection and tracking have many applications in medical research and brain computer interface technologies. In this thesis, we focus on the development of advanced signal processing algorithms to track neural activity and on the mapping of these algorithms onto hardware to enable real-time tracking. At the heart of these algorithms is particle filtering (PF), a sequential Monte Carlo technique used to estimate the unknown parameters of dynamic systems. First, we analyze the bottlenecks in existing PF algorithms, and we propose a new parallel PF (PPF) algorithm based on the independent Metropolis-Hastings (IMH) algorithm. We show that the …

Contributors
Miao, Lifeng, Chakrabarti, Chaitali, Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia, et al.
Created Date
2013

Humans' ability to perform fine object and tool manipulation is a defining feature of their sensorimotor repertoire. How the central nervous system builds and maintains internal representations of such skilled hand-object interactions has attracted significant attention over the past three decades. Nevertheless, two major gaps exist: a) how digit positions and forces are coordinated during natural manipulation tasks, and b) what mechanisms underlie the formation and retention of internal representations of dexterous manipulation. This dissertation addresses these two questions through five experiments that are based on novel grip devices and experimental protocols. It was found that high-level representation of manipulation …

Contributors
Fu, Qiushi, Santello, Marco, Helms Tillery, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2013

Reaching movements are subject to noise in both the planning and execution phases of movement production. Although the effects of these noise sources in estimating and/or controlling endpoint position have been examined in many studies, the independent effects of limb configuration on endpoint variability have been largely ignored. The present study investigated the effects of arm configuration on the interaction between planning noise and execution noise. Subjects performed reaching movements to three targets located in a frontal plane. At the starting position, subjects matched one of two desired arm configuration 'templates' namely "adducted" and "abducted". These arm configurations were obtained …

Contributors
Lakshminarayanan, Kishor, Buneo, Christopher, Santello, Marco, et al.
Created Date
2013

Doppler radar can be used to measure respiration and heart rate without contact and through obstacles. In this work, a Doppler radar architecture at 2.4 GHz and a new signal processing algorithm to estimate the respiration and heart rate are presented. The received signal is dominated by the transceiver noise, LO phase noise and clutter which reduces the signal-to-noise ratio of the desired signal. The proposed architecture and algorithm are used to mitigate these issues and obtain an accurate estimate of the heart and respiration rate. Quadrature low-IF transceiver architecture is adopted to resolve null point problem as well as …

Contributors
Khunti, Hitesh, Kiaei, Sayfe, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, et al.
Created Date
2013

A cerebral aneurysm is a bulging of a blood vessel in the brain. Aneurysmal rupture affects 25,000 people each year and is associated with a 45% mortality rate. Therefore, it is critically important to treat cerebral aneurysms effectively before they rupture. Endovascular coiling is the most effective treatment for cerebral aneurysms. During coiling process, series of metallic coils are deployed into the aneurysmal sack with the intent of reaching a sufficient packing density (PD). Coils packing can facilitate thrombus formation and help seal off the aneurysm from circulation over time. While coiling is effective, high rates of treatment failure have …

Contributors
Indahlastari, Aprinda, Frakes, David, Chong, Brian, et al.
Created Date
2013

When surgical resection becomes necessary to alleviate a patient's epileptiform activity, that patient is monitored by video synchronized with electrocorticography (ECoG) to determine the type and location of seizure focus. This provides a unique opportunity for researchers to gather neurophysiological data with high temporal and spatial resolution; these data are assessed prior to surgical resection to ensure the preservation of the patient's quality of life, e.g. avoid the removal of brain tissue required for speech processing. Currently considered the "gold standard" for the mapping of cortex, electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) involves the systematic activation of pairs of electrodes to localize …

Contributors
Lingo Vangilder, Jennapher Lindsey, Helms Tillery, Stephen I, Wahnoun, Remy, et al.
Created Date
2013

Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) within somatosensory cortex can produce artificial sensations including touch, pressure, and vibration. There is significant interest in using ICMS to provide sensory feedback for a prosthetic limb. In such a system, information recorded from sensors on the prosthetic would be translated into electrical stimulation and delivered directly to the brain, providing feedback about features of objects in contact with the prosthetic. To achieve this goal, multiple simultaneous streams of information will need to be encoded by ICMS in a manner that produces robust, reliable, and discriminable sensations. The first segment of this work focuses on the discriminability …

Contributors
Overstreet, Cynthia Kay, Helms Tillery, Stephen I, Santos, Veronica, et al.
Created Date
2013