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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Subject
Date Range
2011 2020


Growing concern about obesity prevalence among youth has prompted the examination of socio-environmental influences that shape the development of eating and activity behaviors believed to regulate weight. Given the presumed significance of close friendships during adolescence, the present investigation assessed longitudinal relations between friends' physical activity, sedentary activity, and healthy eating behaviors and explored whether friends' obesity-promoting behaviors are linked to heightened obesity risk among adolescents. This prospective study utilized two Waves of data from 862 reciprocal and 1908 nonreciprocal same-sex friend dyads participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. To account for nonindependence tied to membership in …

Contributors
Slutzky, Carly, Updegraff, Kimberly A, Simpkins, Sandra D, et al.
Created Date
2011

I examined the role of children's or teacher's effortful control (EC) in children's academic functioning in early elementary school in two separate studies. In Study 1, I tested longitudinal relations between parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions in kindergarten, children's EC in first grade, and children's reading or math achievement in second grade (N = 291). In the fall of each school year, parents reported their positive or negative reactions and parents and teachers reported on children's EC. Standardized achievement tests assessed achievement each spring. Results from autoregressive panel mediation models demonstrated that constructs exhibited consistency across study …

Contributors
Swanson, Jodi Michelle, Valiente, Carlos, Bradley, Robert H, et al.
Created Date
2011

The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal relations of maternal behaviors, children`s temperamental negative emotionality, and children`s emotion perception processes, including emotion perception accuracy (EPA) and emotion perception bias (EPB), to children`s conduct disorder symptoms in a normative sample. Separate structural equation models were conducted to assess whether parenting or children`s proneness to negative emotions at 24-30 (T2), 36-42 (T3) and 48-54 (T4) months predicted children`s EPA and EPB over time, and whether T3 and T4 children`s emotion perception processes were predictive of children`s conduct disorder at 72 months of age (T5). None of the hypothesized longitudinal …

Contributors
Seyed Nozadi, Sara, Spinrad, Tracy L., Eisenberg, Nancy, et al.
Created Date
2011

The main objective of this study was to use a genetically-informative design to examine the putative influences of maternal perceived prenatal stress, obstetrical complications, and gestational age on infant dysregulation, competence, and developmental maturity. Specifically, whether or not prenatal and obstetrical environmental conditions modified the heritability of infant outcomes was examined. A total of 291 mothers were interviewed when their twin infants were 12 months of age. Pregnancy and twin birth medical records were obtained to code obstetrical data. Utilizing behavioral genetic models, results indicated maternal perceived prenatal stress moderated genetic and environmental influences on developmental maturity whereas obstetrical complications …

Contributors
Mcdonald, Kristy Lynn, Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn S, Fabricius, William, et al.
Created Date
2011

Anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of anxiety-related bodily sensations) has been earmarked as a significant risk factor in the development and maintenance of pathological anxiety in adults and children. Given the potential implications of heightened AS, recent research has focused on investigating the etiology and developmental course of elevated AS; however, most of this work has been conducted with adults and is retrospective in nature. Data from college students show that early anxiety-related learning experiences may be a primary source of heightened AS levels, but it remains unclear whether AS in children is linked to their learning experiences (i.e., parental …

Contributors
Holly, Lindsay Elizabeth, Pina, Armando A, Crnic, Keith A, et al.
Created Date
2012

Family plays an important yet understudied role in the development of psychopathology during childhood, particularly for children at developmental risk. Indeed, much of the research on families has actually concentrated more on risk processes in individual family members or within-family subsystems. In general, important and complex associations have been found among family-related constructs such as marital conflict, parent-child relationships, parental depression, and parenting stress, which have in turn been found to contribute to the emergence of children's behavioral problems. Research has begun to emerge that certain family system constructs, such as cohesion, organization, and control may influence children's development, but …

Contributors
Gerstein, Emily Davis, Crnic, Keith A, Aiken, Leona, et al.
Created Date
2012

This study investigated the role of broad cognitive processes in the development of mathematics skills among children and adolescents. The participants for this study were a subsample of a nationally representative sample used in the standardization of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement, Normative Update (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2007). Participants were between 5 years old and 18 years old (N = 4721; mean of 10.98 years, median of 10.00 years, standard deviation of 3.48 years), and were 50.7% male and 49.3% female. Structural equation models supported the theoretical suggestion that broad …

Contributors
Calderon, Carlos, Caterino, Linda, Nakagawa, Kathryn, et al.
Created Date
2012

The purpose of this study was to examine whether dispositional sadness predicted children's prosocial behavior, and whether empathy-related responding (i.e., sympathy, personal distress) mediated this relation. It was hypothesized that children who were dispositionally sad, but well-regulated (i.e., moderate to high in effortful control), would experience sympathy versus personal distress, and thus would engage in more prosocial behaviors than children who were not well-regulated. Constructs were measured across three time points, when children were 18-, 30-, and 42-months old. In addition, early effortful control (at 18 months) was investigated as a potential moderator of the relation between dispositional sadness and …

Contributors
Edwards, Alison, Eisenberg, Nancy, Spinrad, Tracy, et al.
Created Date
2012

ABSTRACT The major hypothesis tested in this research is that the psychological well-being and life satisfaction of elderly adult individuals can be predicted from religiosity (organizational and non-organizational religious beliefs and behaviors). The sample consisted of 142 adults between the ages of 65-90, with the majority in the 65-70 age group (48%) (SD = 1.176). The entire sample resides in the state of Arizona, in both urban and rural communities. Participants were administered a questionnaire which requested demographic information, and three instruments: the Duke University Religion Index (the DUREL), and the Affect Balance Scale and the Life Satisfaction Index - …

Contributors
Moreno-Weinert, Inez, Moore, Elsie, Nakagawa, Kathryn, et al.
Created Date
2012

A model of the effects of early adolescents' temperament (negative emotionality and inhibitory control) and threat appraisals on resulting status in the bullying dynamic was examined. Specifically, I examined the hypothesis that negative emotionality and passive victim versus bully-victim status would be mediated by threat appraisals, and that mediated effect would be moderated by levels of inhibitory control. The study used a sample of 56 early adolescents ages 7–16. Temperament characteristics were measured using the EATQ–R (Capaldi & Rothbart, 1992). Threat appraisals were assessed using items from Hunter, Boyle, and Warden (2004). Bullying and victimization were measured using items created …

Contributors
Mintert, Jeffrey, Miller, Paul A, Roberts, Nicole A, et al.
Created Date
2012

This multiple case study examined Mexican mothers' beliefs on social and moral development in light of their adaptation to the United States. Super and Harkness' (1986, 2002) ecocultural framework and more specifically, the concept of the developmental niche, guided the analysis. Participants were five Mexican immigrant mothers living in the Phoenix metropolitan area with children between three and four years old. Using participant observation, mothers were shadowed during the day for a period of nine months and were interviewed four times. Additionally, a Q-sort activity on cultural values and a vignette activity were conducted. Evidence of continuity in the importance …

Contributors
Fuster Baraona, Delia Tamara, Arzubiaga, Angela, Tobin, Joseph, et al.
Created Date
2012

This study examines the relations among three aspects of temperament (shyness, impulsivity, and effortful control), resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) recorded during a calming film and RSA suppression during three behavioral measures of effortful control, and adjustment (anxiety and externalizing behavior) in a sample of 101 preschool-age children. Principal components analysis was used to create composites for effortful control, shyness, impulsivity, anxiety, and externalizing behavior, and hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the study hypotheses. As expected, baseline RSA was negatively related to effortful control in shy children, but was unrelated to effortful control in children who were not …

Contributors
Sulik, Michael John, Eisenberg, Nancy, Spinrad, Tracy L., et al.
Created Date
2012

In response to the recent publication and media coverage of several books that support educating boys and girls separately, more public schools in the United States are beginning to offer same-sex schooling options. Indeed, students may be more comfortable interacting solely with same-sex peers, as boys and girls often have difficulty in their interactions with each other; however, given that boys and girls often interact beyond the classroom, researchers must discover why boys and girls suffer difficult other-sex interactions and determine what can be done to improve them. We present two studies aimed at examining such processes. Both studies were …

Contributors
Didonato, Matthew Daniel, Martin, Carol L, Amazeen, Polemnia G, et al.
Created Date
2012

Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) was used to study the role of child individual, parental, and environmental predictors of anxiety across childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal growth modeling was used to examine the influence of behavioral inhibition, parental control, parental anxiety and stressful life events on the developmental progression of anxiety from 4 to 15 years of age. Based on these data, it appears that there are significant developmental differences between the role of child individual, parental and environmental risk factors. These results highlight the importance of considering developmental factors when assessing and …

Contributors
Zerr, Argero Anne, Pina, Armando A, Bradley, Robert H, et al.
Created Date
2012

The present study examined the relations of children's effortful control (EC), emotion understanding, maladjustment, social competence, and relationship quality with nonparental caregivers in a sample of 30-, 42-, and 54-month olds. EC was measured with mothers' and caregivers' reports, as well as observed behavioral tasks. Emotion understanding was assessed by asking children to identify emotions during a puppet task. Mothers and caregivers also reported on children's problem behaviors and social competence. Caregivers provided reports of the quality of their relationship with children. Results from longitudinal structural equation models indicated that even after controlling for sex, SES, language ability, and previous …

Contributors
Silva, Kassondra Michelle, Spinrad, Tracy L., Eisenberg, Nancy, et al.
Created Date
2012

The moderating effects of five characteristics of peers--their effortful control, anger, sadness, aggression, and positive peer behavior--were investigated in two separate series of analyses of preschooler's social behavior: (a) the relation between children's own effortful control and social behavior, and (b) the relation between children's shyness and reticent behavior. Latent variable interactions were conducted in a structural equation framework. Peer context anger and effortful control, albeit with unexpected results, interacted with children's own characteristics to predict their behavior in both the EC and shy model series; these were the only significant interactions obtained for the EC model series. The relation …

Contributors
Huerta, Snjezana, Eisenberg, Nancy, Spinrad, Tracy, et al.
Created Date
2012

The study of tomboys offers useful insights for the field of gender development. Tomboys have been the focus of several studies aimed at defining what a tomboy is (Bailey, Bechtold, & Berenbaum, 2002; Plumb & Cowan, 1984; Williams, Goodman, & Green, 1985) and what it means for children and adults who are tomboys (Morgan, 1998; Williams et al., 1985). These and further questions necessitate understanding the correlates and consequences for children exhibiting tomboy behaviors. This study aims to address these gaps in the literature as part of a longitudinal study assessing children's gendered attitudes, relationships, and beliefs. A group of …

Contributors
England, Dawn Elizabeth, Martin, Carol L, Zosuls, Kristina, et al.
Created Date
2012

The primary goals of this study were to empirically identify subgroups of socially withdrawn youth in late childhood using latent profile analysis and to examine profiles of students' scholastic adjustment. Further, comparisons of the academic functioning for different subtypes of withdrawn children, with particular emphasis on socially disinterested and socially avoidant youth, were made. Participants were 358 fifth grade children. Results indicated that theoretical subtypes of socially withdrawn youth emerge among fifth grade students (i.e., shy, socially disinterested, socially avoidant, and nonwithdrawn). Additionally, associations among subtype membership and various indices of academic engagement and achievement demonstrated unique academic profiles depending …

Contributors
Sechler, Casey M., Ladd, Gary W., Kochel, Karen P., et al.
Created Date
2012

This dissertation used an evolutionary approach to examine the antecedents and outcomes to early pubertal development in girls in four major ethnic groups (i.e., European American, African American, Hispanic American, and Asian American). In the first study, logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the links between socioeconomic status (SES), parenting behaviors, and father absence to pubertal development across and within ethnic groups. SES and father absence predicted earlier pubertal development among European, African, and Hispanic Americans but not for Asian Americans. In the second study, growth curves were estimated for sexual outcomes across ethnic groups. Early developing European and African …

Contributors
Becnel, Jennifer, Simpkins, Sandra, Christopher, Scott, et al.
Created Date
2013

The present study was designed to extend previous research on early adolescents' involvement in electronic aggression and victimization. A new measure for electronic victimization and aggression was created for this study in order to better assess this type of peer harassment in early adolescence. The first goal of the study was to describe young adolescents' involvement in electronic aggression and victimization by exploring the links between electronic victimization and aggression and (a) youth demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, ethnicity), (b) involvement in traditional forms of aggression and victimization, and (c) gender of the aggression/victimization context (i.e., same-sex aggressor -victim versus other-sex …

Contributors
Martin, Melissa Sue, Updegraff, Kimberly A, Ladd, Becky, et al.
Created Date
2013

The current study expands prior work on children's coping with peer victimization by employing person-centered analyses to identify discrete classes of coping behavior, associations with children's maladjustment, and patterns of stability and change over time. Specifically, data were collected at two longitudinal time points from 515 middle school children who reported experiencing at least occasional peer victimization (284 girls, 231 boys; Mage = 8 years, 5 months, SDage = 10.38 months). Three active, behavioral coping strategies were examined: support seeking from teachers, support seeking from friends, and retaliation. A series of cross-sectional latent profile analyses suggested that coping styles may …

Contributors
Visconti, Kari Jeanne, Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky, Ladd, Gary W, et al.
Created Date
2013

Although aggression is sometimes thought to be maladaptive, evolutionary theories of resource control and dominance posit that aggression may be used to gain and maintain high social prominence within the peer group. The success of using aggression to increase social prominence may depend on the form of aggression used (relational versus physical), the gender of the aggressor, and the prominence of the victim. Thus, the current study examined the associations between aggression and victimization and social prominence. In addition, the current study extended previous research by examining multiple forms of aggression and victimization and conceptualizing and measuring social prominence using …

Contributors
Andrews, Naomi Cynthia Zabrack, Hanish, Laura D, Martin, Carol Lynn, et al.
Created Date
2013

Communication skills within dating contexts are developed during the adolescent years, and are associated with a lifelong ability to have satisfying, enduring, and non-violent partnerships. As such, they are currently and increasingly implemented into both more general forms of healthy relationship education, as well as that targeting the prevention of teen dating violence specifically. Reaching Mexican American youth with culturally and developmentally appropriate relationship education, including communication skills, may be particularly important given their earlier transitions to marital and parenting relationships, acculturative stressors that present them with unique coupling challenges, and their higher rates of teen dating violence as compared …

Contributors
Adams, Heidi L., Rankin Williams, Lela, Marsiglia, Flavio, et al.
Created Date
2013

The purpose of the current study was to use structural equation modeling-based quantitative genetic models to characterize latent genetic and environmental influences on proneness to three discrete negative emotions in middle childhood, according to mother-report, father-report and in-home observation. One primary aim was to test the extent to which covariance among the three emotions could be accounted for by a single, common genetically- and environmentally-influenced negative emotionality factor. A second aim was to examine the extent to which different reporters appeared to be tapping into the same genetically- and environmentally-influenced aspects of each emotion. According to mother- and father-report, moderate …

Contributors
Clifford, Sierra, Lemery, Kathryn, Shiota, Michelle, et al.
Created Date
2013

Although anxiety may be developmentally appropriate, it can become problematic in some youth. From an ecological perspective, social systems, like family and friendships, are theorized to influence developmental trajectories toward (mal)adjustment, but empirical evidence is scant with regard to the relative impact of subjective satisfaction with family and friendship on anxiety problem development. This thesis study used a subsample of approximately 50% Hispanic/Latino clinic-referred youth (n = 71, ages 6-16 years). Overall, results suggest that the effect of friendship satisfaction on anxiety varied as a function of age but not ethnicity, such that there was a significant negative relationship between …

Contributors
Humphrey, Julia, Pina, Armando A, Doane, Leah, et al.
Created Date
2013

This study examined four research questions investigating relationships among the experience of trauma, identity development, distress, and positive change. There were 908 participants in the study, ranging in age from 18 to 24 which is known as the period of emerging adulthood. Participants completed an online survey regarding their exposure to trauma and reactions to these experiences. The first research question examined the experience of trauma for the sample. The second question examined group differences among the participant's identity status, gender, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status on the hypothesized variables. In general, comparisons among the four identity status …

Contributors
Wiley, Rachel Elizabeth, Robinson-Kurpius, Sharon, Stamm, Jill, et al.
Created Date
2013

Accumulating evidence implicates exposure to adverse childhood experiences in the development of hypocortisolism in the long-term, and researchers are increasingly examining individual-level mechanisms that may underlie, exacerbate or attenuate this relation among at-risk populations. The current study takes a developmentally and theoretically informed approach to examining episodic childhood stressors, inherent and voluntary self-regulation, and physiological reactivity among a longitudinal sample of youth who experienced parental divorce. Participants were drawn from a larger randomized controlled trial of a preventive intervention for children of divorce between the ages of 9 and 12. The current sample included 159 young adults (mean age = …

Contributors
Hagan, Melissa J., Luecken, Linda, Mackinnon, David, et al.
Created Date
2013

Several decades of research have concluded that child social functioning is a critical predictor of wellbeing across various developmental domains. Most scientists agree that both genetic and environmental influences play defining roles in social behavior; the processes by which they concurrently affect child development, however, has been the subject of less research. This work examines distinct mechanisms that shape child prosociality by examining genetic and environmental influences on development, via two empirical studies. The first study analyzed the evocative-reactive and the evocative-socially-mediated hypotheses as gene-environment correlation (rGE) mechanisms connecting the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) …

Contributors
Meek, Shantel Elizabeth, Jahromi, Laudan B, Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn, et al.
Created Date
2013

This study examined the relations between cognitive ability, socioemotional competency (SEC), and achievement in gifted children. Data were collected on children between the ages of 8 and 15 years (n = 124). Children were assessed via teacher reports of SEC, standardized cognitive assessment, and standardized achievement assessment. Composite achievement significantly correlated with all areas of SEC on the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA). Cognitive ability significantly correlated with all areas of SEC as well. Composite cognitive ability significantly correlated with all composite achievement, as well as with achievement in all subject areas assessed. Achievement scores tended to be higher in …

Contributors
Kong, Tiffany, Caterino, Linda, Naglieri, Jack, et al.
Created Date
2013

ABSTRACT The present study examined the relationship between the experience of trauma during childhood (ages birth -12 years) and life satisfaction in adulthood (ages of 30-45) in a sample of convenience consisting of eight (8) adults, six (6) women and two (2) men, who volunteered to participate in this qualitative study, and self-identified as having experienced trauma between birth and age 12 years. Participants were asked to describe the trauma(s) they experienced in childhood and to discuss their thoughts and feelings about present circumstances in their lives, and how their lives have been impacted by the trauma they experienced. Data …

Contributors
Crawford, Sarah, Moore, Elsie, Stamm, Jill, et al.
Created Date
2013

Generativity was first described by Erikson (1963) as an adult's concern for and commitment to promoting the welfare and development of future generations. Generativity is juxtaposed by stagnation in Erikson's stage of midlife (35-65 years old). The developmental hurdle faced at this point in the developmental cycle is whether a person will produce something of real value, both in the present and impacting future generations. Generative adults seek to give something back to society, generally behaving in a way to make the world a better place for others with no personal gain attached. The goal of the current study was …

Contributors
Hauser, David Lang, Kinnier, Richard T., Homer, Judith, et al.
Created Date
2013

Using data from an eight-year longitudinal study of 214 children's social and emotional development, I conducted three studies to (1) examine patterns of agreement for internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) symptomatology among different informants (mothers, fathers, teachers, and adolescents) using a recently developed structural equation modeling approach for multi-trait, multi-method data; (2) examine the developmental trajectories for INT and EXT and predict individual differences in symptom development using temperament and parenting variables; and (3) describe patterns of INT and EXT co-occurrence and predict these patterns from temperament and parenting. In Study 1, longitudinal invariance was established for mothers', fathers' and …

Contributors
Sulik, Michael John, Eisenberg, Nancy, Spinrad, Tracy L, et al.
Created Date
2013

This dissertation examined Mexican American individuals' romantic relationships within two distinct developmental periods, adolescence and adulthood. Study 1 used latent class analysis to explore whether 12th grade Mexican Americans' (N = 218) romantic relationship characteristics, cultural values, and gender created unique romantic relationship profiles. Results suggested a three-class solution: higher quality, satisfactory quality, and lower quality romantic relationships. Subsequently, associations between profiles and adolescents' adjustment variables were examined via regression analyses. Adolescents with higher and satisfactory quality romantic relationships reported greater future family expectations, higher self-esteem, and fewer externalizing symptoms than adolescents with lower quality romantic relationships. Similarly, adolescents with …

Contributors
Moosmann, Danyel Arlyssa Vargas, Roosa, Mark W, Christopher, F. Scott, et al.
Created Date
2014

Research regarding social competence is growing rapidly, but there remain a few aspects of social development that merit more attention. The presented pair of studies were planned to address two such areas in the social development literature, specifically the longitudinal trajectories of social competence and the role of social competence in second language development in language minority (LM) students. The goal of the first investigation was to examine the developmental trends of interpersonal skills (IS) across the early childhood and elementary school years in a nationally representative, U.S. sample. The goal of the second study was to examine whether differing …

Contributors
Didonato, Alicia Moss, Wilcox, M. Jeanne, Bradley, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2014

Mexican-origin adolescent females have the highest birthrate of all other ethnic groups in the U.S. Further, teen mothers are at significant risk for poor outcomes, including low educational attainment. Therefore, examining predictors of Mexican-origin teen mothers' educational attainment was the main goal of the current study. Future-oriented beliefs such as educational aspirations and expectations are suggested to have positive implications for adolescents' educational attainment in general. Therefore, guided by bioecological, social capital, status attainment, social learning, and collective socialization of neighborhood theories, the current study examined neighborhood, maternal, and cultural predictors of 190 Mexican-origin parenting adolescents' educational aspirations, expectations, and …

Contributors
Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth C., Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J., Updegraff, Kimberly A., et al.
Created Date
2014

Guided by Belsky's Determinants of Parenting Process Model, the goal of the present study was to examine how mothers' personality (i.e., Conscientiousness) and behaviors (i.e., sensitivity, structure, and negative control) relate to children's developmental outcomes, such as internalization (i.e., committed compliance and effortful control) and academic adaptation. A multi-method, longitudinal model included five waves of data to examine the processes of the relations among variables. Mothers' Conscientiousness was measured via self-reported data when children were 18 months of age (N = 256), mothers' parenting behaviors were measured through observational laboratory tasks when children were 30 months (N = 230), children's …

Contributors
Kopystynska, Olena, Spinrad, Tracy L., Eisenberg, Nancy, et al.
Created Date
2014

This study investigated father-child Activation Theory and the impact of activative fathering on children's dysregulation and social skills. The sample followed 145 families of typically developing children across ages 4 to 6. Fathering and mothering behaviors were coded via naturalistic observations at child age 4, children's dysregulation was coded during a laboratory puzzle task at age 5, and children's social skills were rated by parents and teachers at age 6. Results found support for a constellation of activative fathering behaviors unique to father-child interactions. Activative fathering, net of mothering behaviors, predicted decreased behavioral dysregulation one year later. Support was not …

Contributors
Stevenson, Matthew Mark, Crnic, Keith, Dishion, Thomas, et al.
Created Date
2014

The current study delineated the developmental trajectories of early childhood externalizing and internalizing symptoms reported by mothers and fathers, and examined the role of the 18-month observed parenting quality × Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) interaction in predicting these trajectories. Child sex was tested as a covariate and moderator. It was found that children's low baseline RSA or high RSA reactivity , in comparison to high baseline RSA or low RSA reactivity , was more reactive as a function of early parenting quality when predicting the development of early childhood problem symptoms. Differential patterns of the interaction between parenting quality and …

Contributors
Li, Yi, Eisenberg, Nancy, Spinrad, Tracy, et al.
Created Date
2014

Organized activity participation is associated with a wide array of positive developmental outcomes. Latinos are one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic groups in the U.S., yet are less likely to participate in organized activities than their peers. Theoretically, the alignment or fit between adolescents' and their activities' characteristics is critical to support youths' use and engagement in organized activities. Using qualitative data in Study 1, I examined parents' and adolescents' perspectives and experiences related to several indicators of ethnicity and culture in their activities. Results suggested that alignment on Spanish-language use was critical for participation. However, some Latino …

Contributors
Vest, Andrea E., Simpkins, Sandra D, Menjivar, Cecilia, et al.
Created Date
2014

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health concern affecting up to half a million U.S. women annually. Mexican-American women experience substantially higher rates of PPD, and represent an underserved population with significant health disparities that put these women and their infants at greater risk for substantial psychological and developmental difficulties. The current study utilized data on perceived stress, depression, maternal parenting behavior, and infant social-emotional and cognitive development from 214 Mexican-American mother-infant dyads. The first analysis approach utilized a latent intercept (LI) model to examine how overall mean levels and within-person deviations of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and maternal …

Contributors
Ciciolla, Lucia, Crnic, Keith A, West, Stephen G, et al.
Created Date
2014

Researchers who have previously explored the relation of broad-based temperamental approach constructs, such as surgency/extraversion, exuberance, or behavioral approach sensitivity, to academic competence (AC) in early elementary school have often found conflicting results. Moreover, few researchers have examined the interaction between these approach reactivity constructs and effortful control (EC) in the prediction of AC. The goal of the current study was to examine the fine-tuned relations of different aspects of temperamental approach reactivity in early childhood (42 and 54 months; N=223), such as impulsivity, frustration, and positive affect, as well as EC, to AC during early elementary school (72 and …

Contributors
VanSchyndel, Sarah, Eisenberg, Nancy, Spinrad, Tracy L., et al.
Created Date
2014

Understanding sources of knowledge (e.g., seeing leads to knowing) is an important ability in young children’s theory of mind development. The research presented here measured if children were better at reporting their own versus another person’s knowledge states, which would indicate the presence of introspection. Children had to report when the person (self or other) had knowledge or ignorance after looking into one box and not looking into another box. In Study 1 (N = 66), 3- and 4-year-olds found the other-version of the task harder than the self-version whereas 5-year-olds performed near ceiling on both versions. This effect replicated …

Contributors
Gonzales, Christopher R., Fabricius, William, Spinrad, Tracy, et al.
Created Date
2015

Early Childhood Education (ECE) classroom quality has been gaining increased attention from researchers and policy makers, as the link between high quality early learning experiences and future success has become clear. The impact of ECE may be particularly important for low-income, ethnic minority youth, who may need additional support to reach the academic level of their higher-income, Caucasian peers. However, the definition of ECE quality does not currently include indicators of classroom practices and center-wide policies that intentionally address issues of culture, race, and ethnicity, topics that may be particularly relevant for the most academically at-risk children. Anti-bias education (ABE) …

Contributors
Gaias, Larissa Michelle, Dumka, Larry, Shivers, Eva M, et al.
Created Date
2015

The primary goal of this study was to extend previous research on traditional masculinity by examining the longitudinal associations between traditional masculinity, school engagement and attitudes toward school in a sample of middle school students. Following a sample of 338 (Mage = , SDage = , 54% male, 46% Latino) students from the 7th to 8th grades, I examined how students' self-reported endorsement of and adherence to physical toughness and emotional stoicism norms of masculinity were associated with their engagement with school and their attitudes of school liking and school avoidance. I also examined whether the endorsement and adherence to …

Contributors
Rogers, Adam Apffel, Updegraff, Kimberly A., Martin, Carol L, et al.
Created Date
2015

The present study tested 1) whether children’s bedtimes, wake times, and sleep durations change as they transition into kindergarten (TtoK), 2) if changes to children’s sleep schedules were contingent on their pre-kindergarten (T1) napping status and if T1 bedtimes were related to fall (T2) and spring (T3) bedtimes and durations, and 3) whether T1 sleep, changes to sleep from T1 to T2, and concurrent sleep quality were related to academic achievement and participation in 51 kindergarteners. It was hypothesized that 1) wake times would be earlier and sleep duration would be shorter during kindergarten (T2 and T3) than at T1, …

Contributors
Berger, Rebecca, Valiente, Carlos, Eisenberg, Nancy, et al.
Created Date
2015

The parent-child relationship is one of the earliest and most formative experiences for social and emotional development. Synchrony, defined as the rhythmic patterning and quality of mutual affect, engagement, and physiological attunement, has been identified as a critical quality of a healthy mother-infant relationship. Although the salience of the quality of family interaction has been well-established, clinical and developmental research has varied widely in methods for observing and identifying influential aspects of synchrony. In addition, modern dynamic perspectives presume multiple factors converge in a complex system influenced by both nature and nurture, in which individual traits, behavior, and environment are …

Contributors
Coburn, Shayna Skelley, Crnic, Keith A, Dishion, Thomas J, et al.
Created Date
2015

Described is a study investigating the feasibility and predictive value of the Teacher Feedback Coding System, a novel observational measure of teachers’ feedback provided to students in third grade classrooms. This measure assessed individual feedback events across three domains: feedback type, level of specificity and affect of the teacher. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed five factors indicating separate types of feedback: positive and negative academic-informative feedback, positive and negative behavioral-informative feedback, and an overall factor representing supportive feedback. Multilevel models revealed direct relations between teachers’ negative academic-informative feedback and students’ spring math achievement, as well as between teachers’ negative …

Contributors
McLean, Leigh, Connor, Carol M., Lemery, Kathryn, et al.
Created Date
2015

The purpose of this study was to examine whether maternal personality (i.e., Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) predicted maternal positive parenting (i.e., warmth/sensitivity and structure), and whether maternal parenting predicted children's regulation and sympathy and/or prosocial behavior. Additionally, the mediated effect of maternal warmth/sensitivity on the relation between maternal Agreeableness and children's regulation and the mediated effect of maternal structure on the relation between maternal Agreeableness and children's observed sympathy/prosocial behavior were investigated. Maternal personality was measured when children (N = 256 at Time 1) were 18 months old; maternal parenting was assessed when children were 18, 30, and 42 months old; …

Contributors
Edwards, Alison, Eisenberg, Nancy, Spinrad, Tracy L., et al.
Created Date
2015

The first half-year of infancy represents a salient time in which emotion expression assumes a more psychological character as opposed to a predominantly physiological one. Although previous research has demonstrated the relations between early parenting and later emotional competencies, there has been less of a focus on differentiating positive and negative emotion expression across the early infancy period. Thus, the current study investigates the growth of positive and negative emotion expression across early infancy in a low-income, Mexican-American sample, and examines the development of emotion expression as a function of early maternal emotion socialization and prenatal stress. Participants included 322 …

Contributors
Ross, Emily K., Crnic, Keith, Grimm, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2015

Anxiety and depression are among the most prevalent disorders in youth, with prevalence rates ranging from 15% to 25% for anxiety and 5% to 14% for depression. Anxiety and depressive disorders cause significant impairment, fail to spontaneously remit, and have been prospectively linked to problematic substance use and legal problems in adulthood. These disorders often share a high-degree of comorbidity in both clinical and community samples, with anxiety disorders typically preceding the onset of depression. Given the nature and consequences of anxiety and depressive disorders, a plethora of treatment and preventative interventions have been developed and tested with data showing …

Contributors
Stoll, Ryan, Pina, Armando A, MacKinnon, David, et al.
Created Date
2015