Skip to main content

ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Subject
Date Range
2010 2020


Electronic devices are gaining an increasing market share in the medical field. Medical devices are becoming more sophisticated, and encompassing more applications. Unlike consumer electronics, medical devices have far more limitations when it comes to area, power and most importantly reliability. The medical devices industry has recently seen the advantages of using Flash memory instead of Read Only Memory (ROM) for firmware storage, and in some cases to replace Electrically Programmable Read Only Memories (EEPROMs) in medical devices for frequent data storage. There are direct advantages to using Flash memory instead of Read Only Memory, most importantly the fact that …

Contributors
Hag, Eslam E., Kozicki, Michael N, Schroder, Dieter K, et al.
Created Date
2010

An investigation of phase noise in amplifier and voltage-controller oscillator (VCO) circuits was conducted to show that active direct-current (DC) bias techniques exhibit lower phase noise performance than traditional resistive DC bias techniques. Low-frequency high-gain amplifiers like those found in audio applications exhibit much better 1/f phase noise performance and can be used to bias amplifier or VCO circuits that work at much higher frequencies to reduce the phase modulation caused by higher frequency devices. An improvement in single-side-band (SSB) phase noise of 15 dB at offset frequencies less than 50 KHz was simulated and measured. Residual phase noise of …

Contributors
Baldwin, Jeremy Bart, Aberle, James, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, et al.
Created Date
2010

Distributed inference has applications in fields as varied as source localization, evaluation of network quality, and remote monitoring of wildlife habitats. In this dissertation, distributed inference algorithms over multiple-access channels are considered. The performance of these algorithms and the effects of wireless communication channels on the performance are studied. In a first class of problems, distributed inference over fading Gaussian multiple-access channels with amplify-and-forward is considered. Sensors observe a phenomenon and transmit their observations using the amplify-and-forward scheme to a fusion center (FC). Distributed estimation is considered with a single antenna at the FC, where the performance is evaluated using …

Contributors
Banavar, Mahesh Krishna, Tepedelenlioglu, Cihan, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2010

Graphene, a one atomic thick planar sheet of carbon atoms, has a zero gap band structure with a linear dispersion relation. This unique property makes graphene a favorite for physicists and engineers, who are trying to understand the mechanism of charge transport in graphene and using it as channel material for field effect transistor (FET) beyond silicon. Therefore, an in-depth exploring of these electrical properties of graphene is urgent, which is the purpose of this dissertation. In this dissertation, the charge transport and quantum capacitance of graphene were studied. Firstly, the transport properties of back-gated graphene transistor covering by high …

Contributors
Xia, Jilin, Tao, N.J., Ferry, David, et al.
Created Date
2010

ABSTRACT Ongoing research into wireless transceivers in the 60 GHz band is required to address the demand for high data rate communications systems at a frequency where signal propagation is challenging even over short ranges. This thesis proposes a mixer architecture in Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology that uses a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) operating at a fractional multiple of the desired output signal. The proposed topology is different from conventional subharmonic mixing in that the oscillator phase generation circuitry usually required for such a circuit is unnecessary. Analysis and simulations are performed on the proposed mixer circuit in …

Contributors
Martino, Todd Jeffrey, Kiaei, Sayfe, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, et al.
Created Date
2010

As the world energy demand increases, semiconductor devices with high energy conversion efficiency become more and more desirable. The energy conversion consists of two distinct processes, namely energy generation and usage. In this dissertation, novel multi-junction solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are proposed and studied for high energy conversion efficiency in both processes, respectively. The first half of this dissertation discusses the practically achievable energy conversion efficiency limit of solar cells. Since the demonstration of the Si solar cell in 1954, the performance of solar cells has been improved tremendously and recently reached 41.6% energy conversion efficiency. However, …

Contributors
Wu, Songnan, Zhang, Yong-Hang, Menendez, Jose, et al.
Created Date
2010

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with data acquisition on a non-rectangular grid permits a variety of approaches to cover k-space. This flexibility can be exploited to achieve clinically relevant characteristics -- fast yet full coverage for short scan times, center out schemes for short Te, over-sampled k-space for robustness to motion, long acquisition time for improved signal-to-noise (SNR) performance and benign under-sampling (aliasing) artifact. This dissertation presents advances in Periodically Rotated Overlapping ParallEL Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction (PROPELLER) trajectory design and improved reconstruction for spiral imaging. Scan time in PROPELLER imaging can be reduced by tailoring the trajectory to the required …

Contributors
Devaraj, Ajit, Pipe, James G, Karam, Lina J, et al.
Created Date
2010

In this thesis two methodologies have been proposed for evaluating the fault response of analog/RF circuits. These proposed approaches are used to evaluate the response of the faulty circuit in terms of specifications/measurements. Faulty response can be used to evaluate important test metrics like fail probability, fault coverage and yield coverage of given measurements under process variations. Once the models for faulty and fault free circuit are generated, one needs to perform Monte Carlo sampling (as opposed to Monte Carlo simulations) to compute these statistical parameters with high accuracy. The first method is based on adaptively determining the order of …

Contributors
Subrahmaniyan Radhakrishnan, Gurusubrahmaniyan, Ozev, Sule, Blain Christen, Jennifer, et al.
Created Date
2010

Implantable medical device technology is commonly used by doctors for disease management, aiding to improve patient quality of life. However, it is possible for these devices to be exposed to ionizing radiation during various medical therapeutic and diagnostic activities while implanted. This commands that these devices remain fully operational during, and long after, radiation exposure. Many implantable medical devices employ standard commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes for integrated circuit (IC) development, which have been shown to degrade with radiation exposure. This necessitates that device manufacturers study the effects of ionizing radiation on their products, and work to mitigate those effects …

Contributors
Schlenvogt, Garrett James, Barnaby, Hugh J, Goodnick, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2010

Market acceptability of distributed energy resource (DER) technologies and the gradual and consistent increase in their depth of penetration have generated significant interest over the past few years. In particular, in Arizona and several other states there has been a substantial in-crease in distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation interfaced to the power distribution systems, and is expected to continue to grow at a significant rate. This has made integration, control and optimal operation of DER units a main area of focus in the design and operation of distribution systems. Grid-connected, distributed PV covers a wide range of power levels ranging from …

Contributors
Narayanan, Anand, Ayyanar, Raja, Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2010

The RADiation sensitive Field Effect Transistor (RADFET) has been conventionally used to measure radiation dose levels. These dose sensors are calibrated in such a way that a shift in threshold voltage, due to a build-up of oxide-trapped charge, can be used to estimate the radiation dose. In order to estimate the radiation dose level using RADFET, a wired readout circuit is necessary. Using the same principle of oxide-trapped charge build-up, but by monitoring the change in capacitance instead of threshold voltage, a wireless dose sensor can be developed. This RADiation sensitive CAPacitor (RADCAP) mounted on a resonant patch antenna can …

Contributors
Srinivasan Gopalan, Madusudanan, Barnaby, Hugh, Holbert, Keith, et al.
Created Date
2010

Photovoltaic (PV) modules appear to have three classifications of failure: Infant mortality, normal-life failure, and end-of-life failure. Little is known of the end-of-life failures experienced by PV modules due to their inherent longevity. Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) has been at the crux of this lifespan prediction; however, without naturally failing modules an accurate acceleration factor cannot be determined for use in ALT. By observing modules that have been aged in the field, a comparison can be made with modules undergoing accelerated testing. In this study an investigation on about 1900 aged (10-17 years) grid-tied PV modules installed in the desert …

Contributors
Suleske, Adam Alfred, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Rogers, Bradley, et al.
Created Date
2010

Silicon Carbide (SiC) junction field effect transistors (JFETs) are ideal for switching high current, high voltage loads in high temperature environments. These devices require external drive circuits to generate pulse width modulated (PWM) signals switching from 0V to approximately 10V. Advanced CMOS microcontrollers are ideal for generating the PWM signals but are limited in output voltage due to their low breakdown voltage within the CMOS drive circuits. As a result, an intermediate buffer stage is required between the CMOS circuitry and the JFET. In this thesis, a discrete silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) was used to drive …

Contributors
Summers, Nicholas Burton, Thornton, Trevor J, Goryll, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2010

A dual-channel directional digital hearing aid (DHA) front end using Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) microphones and an adaptive-power analog processing signal chain is presented. The analog front end consists of a double differential amplifier (DDA) based capacitance to voltage conversion circuit, 40dB variable gain amplifier (VGA) and a continuous time sigma delta analog to digital converter (CT - ΣΔ ADC). Adaptive power scaling of the 4th order CT - ΣΔ achieves 68dB SNR at 120μW, which can be scaled down to 61dB SNR at 67μW. This power saving will increse the battery life of the DHA. Dissertation/Thesis

Contributors
Deligoz, Ilker, Kiaei, Sayfe, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, et al.
Created Date
2010

The U.S. Navy is interested in evaluating the dielectric performance of SF6 at 30 kHz in order to develop optimal bushing designs and to ensure reliable operation for the Very Low Frequency/ Low Frequency (VLF/LF) transmitting stations. The breakdown experiments of compressed SF6 at 30 kHz in the pressure range of 1-5 atm were conducted in both the uniform field (plane-plane gap) and the non-uniform field (rod-plane gap). To understand the impact of pressure on the breakdown voltage of SF6 at VLF/LF, empirical models of the dielectric strength of SF6 were derived based on the experimental data and regression analysis. …

Contributors
Han, Jian, Gorur, Ravi S, Farmer, Richard G, et al.
Created Date
2010

After a power system blackout, system restoration is the most important task for the operators. Most power systems rely on an off&ndashline; restoration plan and the experience of operators to select scenarios for the black start path. Using an off&ndashline; designed restoration plan based on past experience may not be the most reliable approach under changing network configurations and loading levels. Hence, an objective restoration path selection procedure, including the option to check constraints, may be more responsive in providing directed guidance to the operators to identify the optimal transmission path to deliver power to other power plants or to …

Contributors
Wang, Chong, Vittal, Vijay, Tylavsky, Daniel, et al.
Created Date
2010

There is a growing interest in the creation of three-dimensional (3D) images and videos due to the growing demand for 3D visual media in commercial markets. A possible solution to produce 3D media files is to convert existing 2D images and videos to 3D. The 2D to 3D conversion methods that estimate the depth map from 2D scenes for 3D reconstruction present an efficient approach to save on the cost of the coding, transmission and storage of 3D visual media in practical applications. Various 2D to 3D conversion methods based on depth maps have been developed using existing image and …

Contributors
Li, Jinjin, Karam, Lina J, Chakrabarti, Chaitali, et al.
Created Date
2010

Silicon carbide (SiC), long touted as a material that can satisfy the specific property requirements for high temperature and high power applications, was studied quantitatively using various techniques. The electronic band structure of 4H SiC is examined in the first half of this dissertation. A brief introduction to band structure calculations, with particular emphasis on the empirical pseudopotential method, is given as a foundation for the subsequent work. Next, the crystal pseudopotential for 4H SiC is derived in detail, and a novel approach using a genetic algorithm search routine is employed to find the fitting parameters needed to generate the …

Contributors
Ng, Garrick, Schroder, Dieter K, Vasileska, Dragica, et al.
Created Date
2010

Ethernet switching is provided to interconnect multiple Ethernets for the exchange of Ethernet data frames. Most Ethernet switches require data buffering and Ethernet signal regeneration at the switch which incur the problems of substantial signal processing, power consumption, and transmission delay. To solve these problems, a cross bar architecture switching system for 10GBASE-T Ethernet is proposed in this thesis. The switching system is considered as the first step of implementing a multi-stage interconnection network to achieve Terabit or Petabit switching. By routing customized headers in capsulated Ethernet frames in an out-of-band control method, the proposed switching system would transmit the …

Contributors
Luo, Haojun, Hui, Joseph, Zhang, Junshan, et al.
Created Date
2010

An advantage of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) as compared to conventional fixed speed wind turbine generators is higher efficiency. This higher efficiency is achieved due to the ability of the DFIG to operate near its optimal turbine efficiency over a wider range of wind speeds through variable speed operation. This is achieved through the application of a back-to-back converter that tightly controls the rotor current and allows for asynchronous operation. In doing so, however, the power electronic converter effectively decouples the inertia of the turbine from the system. Hence, with the increase in penetration of DFIG based wind farms, …

Contributors
Gautam, Durga, Vittal, Vijay, Heydt, Gerald, et al.
Created Date
2010

Radiation hardening by design (RHBD) has become a necessary practice when creating circuits to operate within radiated environments. While employing RHBD techniques has tradeoffs between size, speed and power, novel designs help to minimize these penalties. Space radiation is the primary source of radiation errors in circuits and two types of single event effects, single event upsets (SEU), and single event transients (SET) are increasingly becoming a concern. While numerous methods currently exist to nullify SEUs and SETs, special consideration to the techniques of temporal hardening and interlocking are explored in this thesis. Temporal hardening mitigates both SETs and SEUs …

Contributors
Matush, Bradley, Clark, Lawrence T, Allee, David, et al.
Created Date
2010

The constant scaling of supply voltages in state-of-the-art CMOS processes has led to severe limitations for many analog circuit applications. Some CMOS processes have addressed this issue by adding high voltage MOSFETs to their process. Although it can be a completely viable solution, it usually requires a changing of the process flow or adding additional steps, which in turn, leads to an increase in fabrication costs. Si-MESFETs (silicon-metal-semiconductor-field-effect-transistors) from Arizona State University (ASU) on the other hand, have an inherent high voltage capability and can be added to any silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) CMOS process free of cost. This …

Contributors
Lepkowski, William, Thornton, Trevor, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, et al.
Created Date
2010

The exponential rise in unmanned aerial vehicles has necessitated the need for accurate pose estimation under any extreme conditions. Visual Odometry (VO) is the estimation of position and orientation of a vehicle based on analysis of a sequence of images captured from a camera mounted on it. VO offers a cheap and relatively accurate alternative to conventional odometry techniques like wheel odometry, inertial measurement systems and global positioning system (GPS). This thesis implements and analyzes the performance of a two camera based VO called Stereo based visual odometry (SVO) in presence of various deterrent factors like shadows, extremely bright outdoors, …

Contributors
Dhar, Anchit, Saripalli, Srikanth, Li, Baoxin, et al.
Created Date
2010

The thesis focuses on cost-efficient integration of the electro-chemical residue sensor (ECRS), a novel sensor developed for the in situ and real-time measurement of the residual impurities left on the wafer surface and in the fine structures of patterned wafers during typical rinse processes, and wireless transponder circuitry that is based on RFID technology. The proposed technology uses only the NMOS FD-SOI transistors with amorphous silicon as active material with silicon nitride as a gate dielectric. The proposed transistor was simulated under the SILVACO ATLAS Simulation Framework. A parametric study was performed to study the impact of different gate lengths …

Contributors
Pandit, Vedhas, Vermeire, Bert, Barnaby, Hugh, et al.
Created Date
2010

A systematic top down approach to minimize risk and maximize the profits of an investment over a given period of time is proposed. Macroeconomic factors such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Consumer Price Index (CPI), Outstanding Consumer Credit, Industrial Production Index, Money Supply (MS), Unemployment Rate, and Ten-Year Treasury are used to predict/estimate asset (sector ETF`s) returns. Fundamental ratios of individual stocks are used to predict the stock returns. An a priori known cash-flow sequence is assumed available for investment. Given the importance of sector performance on stock performance, sector based Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) for the S&P; and Dow …

Contributors
Chitturi, Divakar, Rodriguez, Armando, Tsakalis, Konstantinos S, et al.
Created Date
2010

Optical Instrument Transformers (OIT) have been developed as an alternative to traditional instrument transformers (IT). The question "Can optical instrument transformers substitute for the traditional transformers?" is the main motivation of this study. Finding the answer for this question and developing complete models are the contributions of this work. Dedicated test facilities are developed so that the steady state and transient performances of analog outputs of a magnetic current transformer (CT) and a magnetic voltage transformer (VT) are compared with that of an optical current transformer (OCT) and an optical voltage transformer (OVT) respectively. Frequency response characteristics of OIT outputs …

Contributors
Kucuksari, Sadik, Karady, George G, Heydt, Gerald T, et al.
Created Date
2010

Composite insulators on overhead lines are frequently subjected to corona discharges due to increased electric field intensities under various conditions. These discharges can cause localized heating on the surface and affect the hydrophobicity of the insulator. A study has been undertaken to quantify and evaluate the thermal degradation that composite insulation is subjected to from corona discharges. This has been conducted primarily at the power frequency (60 Hz) and at the low frequency range (37 kHz). Point to plane corona discharge experiments have been performed in the laboratory at both the frequencies and varying levels of thermal degradation has been …

Contributors
Sangaraju Venkateshwara, Pradeep Varma, Gorur, Ravi S, Farmer, Richard, et al.
Created Date
2010

This research work illustrates the use of software packages based on the concept of nu-merical analysis technique to evaluate the electric field and voltage distribution along composite insulators for system voltages ranging from 138 kV up to 1200 kV ac. A part of the calculations was made using the 3D software package, COULOMB 8.0, based on the concept of Boundary Element Method (BEM). The electric field was calculated under dry and wet conditions. Compo-site insulators experience more electrical stress when compared to porcelain and are also more prone to damage caused by corona activity. The work presented here investigates the …

Contributors
Doshi, Tanushri, Gorur, Ravi S, Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2010

This dissertation builds a clear understanding of the role of information in wireless networks, and devises adaptive strategies to optimize the overall performance. The meaning of information ranges from channel/network states to the structure of the signal itself. Under the common thread of characterizing the role of information, this dissertation investigates opportunistic scheduling, relaying and multicast in wireless networks. To assess the role of channel state information, the problem of opportunistic distributed opportunistic scheduling (DOS) with incomplete information is considered for ad-hoc networks in which many links contend for the same channel using random access. The objective is to maximize …

Contributors
Paataguppe Suryanarayan Bhat, Chandrashekhar Thejaswi, Zhang, Junshan, Cochran, Douglas, et al.
Created Date
2011

In this work, a high resolution analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for use in harsh environments is presented. The ADC is implemented in bulk CMOS technology and is intended for space exploration, mining and automotive applications with a range of temperature variation in excess of 250°C. A continuous time (CT) sigma delta modulator employing a cascade of integrators with feed forward (CIFF) architecture in a single feedback loop topology is used for implementing the ADC. In order to enable operation in the intended application environments, an RC time constant tuning engine is proposed. The tuning engine is used to maintain linearity of …

Contributors
Anabtawi, Nijad, Barnaby, Hugh, Vermeire, Bert, et al.
Created Date
2011

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) technology has been shown to possess the necessary qualities for it to be considered as a leading contender for the next generation memory. These qualities include high speed and endurance, extreme scalability, ease of fabrication, ultra low power operation, and perhaps most importantly ease of integration with the CMOS back end of line (BEOL) process flow. One area where detailed study is lacking is the reliability of PMC devices. In previous reliability work, the low and high resistance states were monitored for periods of hours to days without any applied voltage and the results were extrapolated …

Contributors
Kamalanathan, Deepak, Kozicki, Dr. Michael, Schroder, Dr. Dieter, et al.
Created Date
2011

To extend the lifetime of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS), emerging process techniques are being proposed to conquer the manufacturing difficulties. New structures and materials are proposed with superior electrical properties to traditional CMOS, such as strain technology and feedback field-effect transistor (FB-FET). To continue the design success and make an impact on leading products, advanced circuit design exploration must begin concurrently with early silicon development. Therefore, an accurate and scalable model is desired to correctly capture those effects and flexible to extend to alternative process choices. For example, strain technology has been successfully integrated into CMOS fabrication to improve transistor performance …

Contributors
Wang, Chi-Chao, Cao, Yu, Chakrabarti, Chaitali, et al.
Created Date
2011

This thesis examines themodeling, analysis, and control system design issues for scramjet powered hypersonic vehicles. A nonlinear three degrees of freedom longitudinal model which includes aero-propulsion-elasticity effects was used for all analyses. This model is based upon classical compressible flow and Euler-Bernouli structural concepts. Higher fidelity computational fluid dynamics and finite element methods are needed for more precise intermediate and final evaluations. The methods presented within this thesis were shown to be useful for guiding initial control relevant design. The model was used to examine the vehicle's static and dynamic characteristics over the vehicle's trimmable region. The vehicle has significant …

Contributors
Khatri, Jaidev, Rodriguez, Armando Antonio, Tsakalis, Konstantinos, et al.
Created Date
2011

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a resistance-switching device based on migration of nanoscale quantities of cations in a solid electrolyte and formation of a conducting electrodeposit by the reductions of these cations. This dissertation presents electrical characterization results on Cu-SiO2 based PMC devices, which due to the na- ture of materials can be easily integrated into the current Complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process line. Device structures representing individual mem- ory cells based on W bottom electrode and n-type Si bottom electrode were fabricated for characterization. For the W bottom electrode based devices, switching was ob- served for voltages in …

Contributors
Puthenthermadam, Sarath, Kozicki, Michael N, Diaz, Rodolfo, et al.
Created Date
2011

This thesis presents a gas sensor readout IC for amperometric and conductometric electrochemical sensors. The Analog Front-End (AFE) readout circuit enables tracking long term exposure to hazardous gas fumes in diesel and gasoline equipments, which may be correlated to diseases. Thus, the detection and discrimination of gases using microelectronic gas sensor system is required. This thesis describes the research, development, implementation and test of a small and portable based prototype platform for chemical gas sensors to enable a low-power and low noise gas detection system. The AFE reads out the outputs of eight conductometric sensor array and eight amperometric sensor …

Contributors
Kim, Hyuntae, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, Vermeire, Bert, et al.
Created Date
2011

Social situational awareness, or the attentiveness to one's social surroundings, including the people, their interactions and their behaviors is a complex sensory-cognitive-motor task that requires one to be engaged thoroughly in understanding their social interactions. These interactions are formed out of the elements of human interpersonal communication including both verbal and non-verbal cues. While the verbal cues are instructive and delivered through speech, the non-verbal cues are mostly interpretive and requires the full attention of the participants to understand, comprehend and respond to them appropriately. Unfortunately certain situations are not conducive for a person to have complete access to their …

Contributors
Krishna, Sreekar, Panchanathan, Sethuraman, Black, John A, et al.
Created Date
2011

Different environmental factors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), relative humidity (RH) and the presence of reducing gases (acetone and ethanol), play an important role in the daily life of human beings. UV is very important in a number of areas, such as astronomy, resin curing of polymeric materials, combustion engineering, water purification, flame detection and biological effects with more recent proposals like early missile plume detection, secure space-to-space communications and pollution monitoring. RH is a very common parameter in the environment. It is essential not only for human comfort, but also for a broad spectrum of industries and technologies. There …

Contributors
Qiu, Xiaotun, Yu, Hongyu, Christen, Jennifer Blain, et al.
Created Date
2011

Due to the growing concerns on the depletion of petroleum based energy resources and climate change; fuel cell technologies have received much attention in recent years. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFCs) features high energy conversion efficiency and nearly zero greenhouse gas emissions, because of its combination of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) at anode side and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at cathode side. Synthesis of Pt nanoparticles supported on multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) possess a highly durable electrochemical surface area (ESA) and show good power output on proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance. Platinum on multi-walled carbon …

Contributors
Liu, Xuan, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Munukutla, Lakshmi, et al.
Created Date
2011

Hydropower generation is one of the clean renewable energies which has received great attention in the power industry. Hydropower has been the leading source of renewable energy. It provides more than 86% of all electricity generated by renewable sources worldwide. Generally, the life span of a hydropower plant is considered as 30 to 50 years. Power plants over 30 years old usually conduct a feasibility study of rehabilitation on their entire facilities including infrastructure. By age 35, the forced outage rate increases by 10 percentage points compared to the previous year. Much longer outages occur in power plants older than …

Contributors
Kwon, Ogeuk, Holbert, Keith E, Heydt, Gerald T, et al.
Created Date
2011

The demand for handheld portable computing in education, business and research has resulted in advanced mobile devices with powerful processors and large multi-touch screens. Such devices are capable of handling tasks of moderate computational complexity such as word processing, complex Internet transactions, and even human motion analysis. Apple's iOS devices, including the iPhone, iPod touch and the latest in the family - the iPad, are among the well-known and widely used mobile devices today. Their advanced multi-touch interface and improved processing power can be exploited for engineering and STEM demonstrations. Moreover, these devices have become a part of everyday student …

Contributors
Liu, Jinru, Spanias, Andreas, Tsakalis, Kostas, et al.
Created Date
2011

Residue number systems have gained significant importance in the field of high-speed digital signal processing due to their carry-free nature and speed-up provided by parallelism. The critical aspect in the application of RNS is the selection of the moduli set and the design of the conversion units. There have been several RNS moduli sets proposed for the implementation of digital filters. However, some are unbalanced and some do not provide the required dynamic range. This thesis addresses the drawbacks of existing RNS moduli sets and proposes a new moduli set for efficient implementation of FIR filters. An efficient VLSI implementation …

Contributors
Chalivendra, Gayathri, Vrudhula, Sarma, Shrivastava, Aviral, et al.
Created Date
2011

Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with concentrations in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.04, are studied via a variety of methods. The first microelectronic devices from GeSn films were fabricated using newly developed CMOS-compatible protocols, and the devices were characterized with respect to their electrical properties and optical response. The detectors were found to have a detection range that extends into the near-IR, and the detection edge is found to shift to longer wavelengths with …

Contributors
Mathews, Jay, Menéndez, José, Kouvetakis, John, et al.
Created Date
2011

In this thesis, I present a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) that can separate and detect Escherichia Coli (E. coli) in simulated urine samples for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) diagnosis. The LOC consists of two (concentration and sensing) chambers connected in series and an integrated impedance detector. The two-chamber approach is designed to reduce the non-specific absorption of proteins, e.g. albumin, that potentially co-exist with E. coli in urine. I directly separate E. coli K-12 from a urine cocktail in a concentration chamber containing micro-sized magnetic beads (5 µm in diameter) conjugated with anti-E. coli antibodies. The immobilized E. coli are transferred to …

Contributors
Kim, Sangpyeong, Chae, Junseok, Phillips, Stephen M., et al.
Created Date
2011

With tremendous increase in the popularity of networked multimedia applications, video data is expected to account for a large portion of the traffic on the Internet and more importantly next-generation wireless systems. To be able to satisfy a broad range of customers requirements, two major problems need to be solved. The first problem is the need for a scalable representation of the input video. The recently developed scalable extension of the state-of-the art H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video coding standard, also known as H.264/SVC (Scalable Video Coding) provides a solution to this problem. The second problem is that wireless transmission medium typically …

Contributors
Sundararaman, Hari, Reisslein, Martin, Seeling, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2011

Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and channel hot carrier (CHC) are important reliability issues impacting analog circuit performance and lifetime. Compact reliability models and efficient simulation methods are essential for circuit level reliability prediction. This work proposes a set of compact models of NBTI and CHC effects for analog and mixed-signal circuit, and a direct prediction method which is different from conventional simulation methods. This method is applied in circuit benchmarks and evaluated. This work helps with improving efficiency and accuracy of circuit aging prediction. Dissertation/Thesis

Contributors
Zheng, Rui, Cao, Yu, Yu, Hongyu, et al.
Created Date
2011

There is increasing interest in the medical and behavioral health communities towards developing effective strategies for the treatment of chronic diseases. Among these lie adaptive interventions, which consider adjusting treatment dosages over time based on participant response. Control engineering offers a broad-based solution framework for optimizing the effectiveness of such interventions. In this thesis, an approach is proposed to develop dynamical models and subsequently, hybrid model predictive control schemes for assigning optimal dosages of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, as treatment for a chronic pain condition known as fibromyalgia. System identification techniques are employed to model the dynamics from the daily …

Contributors
Deshpande, Sunil, Rivera, Daniel E., Si, Jennie, et al.
Created Date
2011

Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory model in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory model implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) …

Contributors
Krishnamoorthi, Harish, Spanias, Andreas, Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia, et al.
Created Date
2011

Sensing and controlling current flow is a fundamental requirement for many electronic systems, including power management (DC-DC converters and LDOs), battery chargers, electric vehicles, solenoid positioning, motor control, and power monitoring. Current Shunt Monitor (CSM) systems have various applications for precise current monitoring of those aforementioned applications. CSMs enable current measurement across an external sense resistor (RS) in series to current flow. Two different types of CSMs designed and characterized in this paper. First design used direct current reading method and the other design used indirect current reading method. Proposed CSM systems can sense power supply current ranging from 1mA …

Contributors
Yeom, Hyunsoo, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, Kiaei, Sayfe, et al.
Created Date
2011

For synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation processing, the chirp scaling algorithm (CSA) has gained considerable attention mainly because of its excellent target focusing ability, optimized processing steps, and ease of implementation. In particular, unlike the range Doppler and range migration algorithms, the CSA is easy to implement since it does not require interpolation, and it can be used on both stripmap and spotlight SAR systems. Another transform that can be used to enhance the processing of SAR image formation is the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT). This transform has been recently introduced to the signal processing community, and it has …

Contributors
Northrop, Judith, Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2011

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a technology platform which utilizes mass transport in solid or liquid electrolyte coupled with electrochemical (redox) reactions to form or remove nanoscale metallic electrodeposits on or in the electrolyte. The ability to redistribute metal mass and form metallic nanostructure in or on a structure in situ, via the application of a bias on laterally placed electrodes, creates a large number of promising applications. A novel PMC-based lateral microwave switch was fabricated and characterized for use in microwave systems. It has demonstrated low insertion loss, high isolation, low voltage operation, low power and low energy consumption, …

Contributors
Ren, Minghan, Kozicki, Michael, Schroder, Dieter, et al.
Created Date
2011