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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Language
  • English
Resource Type
  • Masters Thesis
Status
  • Public
Subject
Date Range
2011 2020


The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s National Water Model (NWM) will provide the next generation of operational streamflow forecasts at different lead times across United States using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Hydro hydrologic system. These forecasts are crucial for flood protection agencies and water utilities, including the Salt River Project (SRP). The main goal of this study is to calibrate WRF-Hydro in the Oak Creek Basin (OCB; ~820 km2), an unregulated mountain sub-watershed of the Salt and Verde River basins in Central Arizona, whose water resources are managed by SRP and crucial for the Phoenix Metropolitan area. As …

Contributors
Hussein, Abdinur Jirow, Mascaro, Giuseppe, Vivoni, Enrique, et al.
Created Date
2020

At least 30 datacenters either broke ground or hit the planning stages around the United States over the past two years. On such technically complex projects, Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) systems make up a huge portion of the construction work which makes data center market very promising for MEP subcontractors in the next years. However, specialized subcontractors such as electrical subcontractors are struggling to keep crews motivated. Due to the hard work involved in the construction industry, it is not appealing for young workers. According to The Center for Construction Research and Training, the percentages of workers aged between …

Contributors
Hammam, MennatAllah, Parrish, Kristen, Ayer, Steven, et al.
Created Date
2020

Seeking to address sustainability issues associated with food waste (FW), and fat, oil, and grease (FOG) waste disposal, the City of Mesa commissioned the Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology (BSCEB) at Arizona State University (ASU) to study to the impact of implementing FW/FOG co-digestion at the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). A key issue for the study was the “souring” of the anaerobic digesters (ADs), which means that the microorganism responsible for organic degradation were deactivated, causing failure of the AD. Several bench-scale reactors soured after the introduction of the FW/FOG feed streams. By comparing measurements from stable with measurements …

Contributors
Kupferer III, Rick Anthony, Rittmann, Bruce E, Young, Michelle N, et al.
Created Date
2020

The Phoenix Metropolitan region is subject to intense summer monsoon thunderstorms that cause highly localized flooding. Due to the challenges in predicting these meteorological phenomena and modeling rainfall-runoff transformations in urban areas, the ability of the current operational forecasting system to predict the exact occurrence in space and time of floods in the urban region is still very limited. This thesis contributes to addressing this limitation in two ways. First, the existing 4-km, 1-h Stage IV and the new 1-km, 2-min Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) radar products are compared using a network of 365 gages as reference. It is found that …

Contributors
Hjelmstad, Annika, Mascaro, Giuseppe, Garcia, Margaret, et al.
Created Date
2020

This study evaluates the use of plant-extracted silica solution as a bio-based grout material for improvement of granular soils. Although silicate grout is a very well-established and popular technique in the ground improvement market, efforts have been initiated to replace chemically-synthesized silicate grout with plant-extracted silica grout. This initiative will increase the level of sustainability and consequently improve the existing market acceptability. The silica-rich plant source used for extraction was rice husk, which is an abundantly produced agricultural waste. The extraction method includes acid-leaching, temperature-controlled rice husk ash production and the preparation of an aqueous sodium silicate solution from the …

Contributors
Sayed Mostafa, Ahmad, Zapata, Claudia, Khodadaditirkolaei, Hamed, et al.
Created Date
2019

The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) is required to comply with the National Pollution Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permit, which includes the infiltration of stormwater runoff from highways and implementing soil based best managements practices (BMPs). Stormwater BMPs are in place to prevent pollution in stormwater runoff as well as to facilitate the stormwater discharge from the road. Per this new permit, Caltrans is to install soil based BMPs that can absorb the 85th percentile of a 24-hour stormwater event. In order to absorb the stormwater runoff, the area used is the Clear Recovery Zone (CRZ), which are the road embankments/slopes …

Contributors
Ponce, Esai Jonathon, Neithalath, Narayanan, Underwood, Shane, et al.
Created Date
2019

The study was to analyze the extent of bacterial transport in a two-dimensional tank under saturated conditions. The experiments were done in a 2-D tank packed with 3,700 in3 of fine grained, homogenous, chemically inert sand under saturated conditions. The tank used for transport was decontaminated by backwashing with 0.6% chlorine solution with subsequent backwashing with chlorine-neutral water (tap water and Na2S2O3) thus ensuring no residual chlorine in the tank. The transport of bacteria was measured using samples collected from ports at vertical distances of 5, 15 and 25 inches (12.7, 38.1 and 63.5 cm) from the surface of the …

Contributors
Mondal, Indrayudh, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Dahlen, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2019

This report analyzed the dynamic response of a long, linear elastic concrete bridge subject to spatially varying ground displacements as well as consistent ground displacements. Specifically, the study investigated the bridge’s response to consistent ground displacements at all supports (U-NW), ground displacements with wave passage effects and no soil profile variability (U-WP), and ground displacements with both wave passage effects and soil profile variability (V-WP). Time-history ground displacements were taken from recordings of the Loma Prieta, Duzce, and Chuetsu earthquakes. The two horizontal components of each earthquake time-history displacement record were applied to the bridge supports in the transverse and …

Contributors
Seawright, Jordan Michael, Hjelmstad, Keith, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2019

The built environment is responsible for a significant portion of global waste generation. Construction and demolition (C&D) waste requires significant landfill areas and costs billions of dollars. New business models that reduce this waste may prove to be financially beneficial and generally more sustainable. One such model is referred to as the “Circular Economy” (CE), which promotes the efficient use of materials to minimize waste generation and raw material consumption. CE is achieved by maximizing the life of materials and components and by reclaiming the typically wasted value at the end of their life. This thesis identifies the potential opportunities …

Contributors
Aldaaja, Mohammad, El Asmar, Mounir, Buch, Rajesh, et al.
Created Date
2019

A comprehensive study was performed on non-proprietary ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) material and several design methods were suggested based on numerous experimental results. Several sets of compression tests, direct tensile tests, and flexural tests were performed on UHPC to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the mechanical behavior of the fiber reinforced material. In addition to compressive tests, flexural tests, based on ASTM C1609 and EN 14651, were performed. The effect of the strain rate on the UHPC material was also investigated through the high-speed tensile tests at different strain rates. Alongside the usual measurement tools such as …

Contributors
Kianmofrad, Farrokh, Mobasher, Barzin, Rajan, Subramaniam Dharma, et al.
Created Date
2018

One of the two objectives of this dissertation is an investigation into the possible correlation between rainfall events and increased levels of E. coli and Mycobacterium using an existing data set. The literature states that levels of microbial concentrations do increase after rainfall events, but there are no studies to indicate this correlation applies in any Arizona water systems. The data analyzed for the bacterial concentrations project suggested the possibility of a correlation along one river but it is not conclusive to state that any correlation exists between rainfall events and the microbial concentration for many other sites included in …

Contributors
Buell, Andrew, Fox, Peter, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, et al.
Created Date
2018

The public has expressed a growing desire for more sustainable and green technologies to be implemented in society. Bio-cementation is a method of soil improvement that satisfies this demand for sustainable and green technology. Bio-cementation can be performed by using microbes or free enzymes which precipitate carbonate within the treated soil. These methods are referred to as microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) and enzyme induced carbonate precipitation (EICP). The precipitation of carbonate is the formation of crystalline minerals that fill the void spaces within a body of soil. This thesis investigates the application of EICP in a soil collected from …

Contributors
Ross, Johnathan, Kavazanjian, Edward, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2018

The water and wastewater industry in the United States is in dire need of renovation due to dwindling infrastructure and requires substantial reinvestment. Design-bid-build (DBB) is the traditional method of project delivery most widely applied in this industry. However, alternative project delivery methods (APDM) are on the rise and touting the benefits of reduced project schedule and cost. The main purpose of this study is to conduct a qualitative and quantitative performance evaluation to assess the current impact of APDM in the water and wastewater industry. A national survey was conducted targeting completed water and wastewater treatment plant projects. Responses …

Contributors
Feghaly, Jeffrey, El Asmar, Mounir, Ariaratnam, Samuel, et al.
Created Date
2018

A large portion of the United States is known to have problematic expansive clay soil. These expansive clay soils can cause damage to major infrastructures such as roads and lightly loaded residential buildings. The shrinking or swelling potential of unsaturated expansive clay soils requires an understanding of unsaturated soil mechanics, such as matric suction profile and the site’s environmental condition, such as climate. In unsaturated soil engineering, the most used climatic parameter is Thornthwaite Moisture Index (TMI). Since its inception, there have been several versions of TMI models in the literature. Historically, TMI is used to predict suction parameters such …

Contributors
Singhar, Sai, Houston, Sandra, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2018

Infrastructure are increasingly being recognized as too rigid to quickly adapt to a changing climate and a non-stationary future. This rigidness poses risks to and impacts on infrastructure service delivery and public welfare. Adaptivity in infrastructure is critical for managing uncertainties to continue providing services, yet little is known about how infrastructure can be made more agile and flexible towards improved adaptive capacity. A literature review identified approximately fifty examples of novel infrastructure and technologies which support adaptivity through one or more of ten theoretical competencies of adaptive infrastructure. From these examples emerged several infrastructure forms and possible strategies for …

Contributors
Gilrein, Erica, Chester, Mikhail, Garcia, Margaret, et al.
Created Date
2018

Crumb rubber use in asphalt mixtures using wet process technology has been in practice for years in the United States with good performance history; however, it has some drawbacks that include the need for special blending equipment, high rubber-binder temperatures, and longer waiting time at mixing plants. Pre-treated crumb rubber technologies are emerging as a new method to produce asphalt rubber mixtures in the field. A new crumb rubber modifier known as Reacted and Activated Rubber (RAR) is one such technology. RAR (industrially known as “RARX”) acts like an Enhanced Elastomeric Asphalt Extender to improve the engineering properties of the …

Contributors
Shah, Janak, Kaloush, Kamil E, Mamlouk, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2018

Use of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in newly designed asphalt mixtures is becoming a common practice. Depending on the percentage of RAP, the stiffness of the hot mix asphalt (HMA) increases by incorporating RAP in mixes. In a climatic area such as the City of Phoenix, RAP properties are expected to be more oxidized and aged compared to other regions across the US. Therefore, there are concerns about the cracking behavior and long-term performance of asphalt mixes with high percentage of RAP. The use of Organosilane (OS) in this study was hypothesized to reduce the additional cracking potential and improve …

Contributors
Kaligotla, Phani Sasank, Kaloush, Kamil, Mamlouk, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2018

Concrete is relatively brittle, and its tensile strength is typically only about one-tenth of its compressive strength. Regular concrete is therefore normally uses reinforcement steel bars to increase the tensile strength. It is becoming increasingly popular to use random distributed fibers as reinforcement and polymeric fibers is once such kind. In the case of polymeric fibers, due to hydrophobicity and lack of any chemical bond between the fiber and matrix, the weak interface zone limits the ability of the fibers to effectively carry the load that is on the matrix phase. Depending on the fiber’s surface asperity, shape, chemical nature, …

Contributors
Tiwari, Sanchay Sushil, Mobasher, Barzin, Neithalath, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2018

Asphalt concrete is the most recycled material in the United States and its reclamation allows the positive reuse of the constituent aggregates and asphalt binder, contributing to the long-term sustainability of the transportation infrastructure; decreasing costs, and the total energy and greenhouse emissions embodied into new materials and infrastructure. Although the national trends in Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements (RAP) usage are encouraging, the environmental conditions in Phoenix, Arizona are extreme and needs further consideration. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the viability of using RAP in future pavement maintenance and rehabilitation projects for the City. Agencies in the …

Contributors
ARREDONDO, GONZALO ZELADA, Kaloush, Kamil E., Mamlouk, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2018

The Colorado River Basin (CRB) is the primary source of water in the southwestern United States. A key step to reduce the uncertainty of future streamflow projections in the CRB is to evaluate the performance of historical simulations of General Circulation Models (GCMs). In this study, this challenge is addressed by evaluating the ability of nineteen GCMs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Five (CMIP5) and four nested Regional Climate Models (RCMs) in reproducing the statistical properties of the hydrologic cycle and temperature in the CRB. To capture the transition from snow-dominated to semiarid regions, analyses are conducted by …

Contributors
Gautam, Jenita, Mascaro, Giuseppe, Vivoni, Enrique, et al.
Created Date
2018

Design and mitigation of infrastructure on expansive soils requires an understanding of unsaturated soil mechanics and consideration of two stress variables (net normal stress and matric suction). Although numerous breakthroughs have allowed geotechnical engineers to study expansive soil response to varying suction-based stress scenarios (i.e. partial wetting), such studies are not practical on typical projects due to the difficulties and duration needed for equilibration associated with the necessary laboratory testing. The current practice encompasses saturated “conventional” soil mechanics testing, with the implementation of numerous empirical correlations and approximations to obtain an estimate of true field response. However, it has been …

Contributors
Olaiz, Austin Hunter, Houston, Sandra, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2017

The higher education sector is always changing and seeks for robust methodologies to make education more effective and produce higher quality products which are the future professionals. While each student has different preference in learning, numerous forms of instructional strategies are adopted to engage students in varied ways. Existing literature has studied the impacts of various teaching strategies on students’ performance. Previous studies did not figure out if personal characteristics such as honestly, emotionality, etc. have any impacts on the students’ academic performance. This master thesis uses the detailed information gathered through surveying construction students and analyses such data to …

Contributors
Dadvar, Atefeh, Sullivan, Kenneth, Smithwick, Jake, et al.
Created Date
2017

Highway safety is a major priority for the public and for transportation agencies. Pavement distresses directly affect ride quality, and indirectly contribute to driver distraction, vehicle operation, and accidents. In this study, analysis was performed on highways in the states of Arizona, North Carolina and Maryland for years between 2013 and 2015 in order to investigate the relationship between accident rate and pavement roughness and rutting. Two main types of data were collected: crash data from the accident records and roughness and rut depth data from the pavement management system database in each state. Crash rates were calculated using the …

Contributors
Vinayakamurthy, Mounica, Mamlouk, Michael S, Underwood, Benjamin, et al.
Created Date
2017

The concept of Creep is a term used to define the tendency of stressed materials to develop an increasing strain through time under a sustained load, thus having an increase in deflection or having an elongation with time in relation to the short term strain. While the subject of compression creep of concrete is well developed, use of concrete under tension loads has been limited at best due to brittleness of concrete. However with the advent of using fiber reinforced concrete, more and more applications where concrete is expected to carry tensile loads due to incorporation of fibers is gaining …

Contributors
Gohel, Megha Rajendrakumar, Mobasher, Barzin, Dharmarajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2017

Pultrusion manufacturing technique stands at the forefront for efficient production of continuous, uniform concrete composites for use in large scale structural applications. High volume and low labor, among other benefits such as improved impregnation and better sample consistency, stand as some of the crucial advances found in automated pultrusion. These advantages introduce textile reinforced concrete (TRC) composites as a potential surrogate for wood, light gauge steel, and other common structural materials into an ever changing and broadening market of industrial grade structural sections. With the potential modifications of textile geometry, textile type, section geometry, and connection type, the options presented …

Contributors
Bauchmoyer, Jacob MacGregor, Mobasher, Barzin, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2017

The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of polypropylene fiber morphology on the tensile response of cementitious composites. Two proprietary polypropylene fibers manufactured by BASF – MAC 2200CB, a crimped monofilament macro fiber and MF40, a bundled multi filament polypropylene made up of 500 filaments,40-micron diameter each were compared. The stiff structure and crimped geometry of MAC 2200 CB was studied in comparison with the multifilament MF40, which provide a higher surface area and a bundled fiber effect. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on individual fibers to study fiber strength and failure pattern at three different …

Contributors
Mehere, Himai Ashok, Mobasher, Barzin, Dharmarajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2017

The performance of the Alpha Sprayed Polyurethane Foam (SPF) roofing system is perceived as not an economical option when compared to a 20-year modified bitumen roofing system. Today, the majority of roofs are being replaced, rather than newly installed. The coating manufacturer, Neogard, implemented the Alpha roofing program to identify the best contractors in the industry and to measure their roof performance. The Alpha roof system has shown consistent high performance on over 230 million square feet of surveyed roof. The author proposes to identify if the Alpha roof system is renewable, has proven performance that competes with the traditional …

Contributors
Zulanas IV, Charles Joseph, Kashiwagi, Dean T, Kashiwagi, Jacob S, et al.
Created Date
2017

Concern and interest about the environment and ecologic systems have promoted the usage of earth as a construction material. Technology advancement has resulted in the evolution of adobe into compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEB). CSEB’s are prepared by compressing the soil-stabilizer mixture at a particular stress. In order to accomplish the required strength, cement has been used in a regular basis as stabilizing agent. It is of interest to find means to reduce the cement used in their construction without affecting its dry strength and durability. In this study, natural fibers were used along with lower proportions of cement to …

Contributors
Padmini Chikke Gowda, Rakshith, Zapata, Claudia, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2016

In this era of high-tech computer advancements and tremendous programmable computer capabilities, construction cost estimation still remains a knowledge-intensive and experience driven task. High reliance on human expertise, and less accuracy in the decision support tools render cost estimation error prone. Arriving at accurate cost estimates is of paramount importance because it forms the basis of most of the financial, design, and executive decisions concerning the project at subsequent stages. As its unique contribution to the body of knowledge, this paper analyzes the deviations and behavior of costs associated with different construction activities involved in commercial office tenant improvement (TI) …

Contributors
Ghosh, Arunabho, Grau, David, Ayer, Steven, et al.
Created Date
2016

ABSTRACT This study examines the methodology for converting protected, permissive, and protected/permissive left-turn operation to flashing yellow arrow left-turn operation. This study addresses construction-related considerations, including negative offsets, lateral traffic signal head position, left-turn accident rates, crash modification factors and crash reductions factors. A total of 85 intersections in Glendale, Arizona were chosen for this study. These intersections included 45 “arterial to arterial” intersections (a major road intersecting with a major road) and 40 “arterial to collector” intersections (a major road intersecting with a minor road). This thesis is a clinical study of the field conversion to flashing yellow arrow …

Contributors
Chambers, Susan Elizabeth, Kaloush, Kamil, Mamlouk, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2016

Tall building developments are spreading across the globe at an ever-increasing rate (www.ctbuh.org). In 1982, the number of ‘tall buildings’ in North America was merely 1,701. This number rose to 26,053, in 2006. The global number of buildings, 200m or more in height, has risen from 286 to 602 in the last decade alone. This dissertation concentrates on design optimization of such, about-to-be modular, structures by implementing AISC 2010 design requirements. Along with a discussion on and classification of lateral load resisting systems, a few design optimization cases are also being studied. The design optimization results of full scale three …

Contributors
Unde, Yogesh Vinod, Rajan, Subramaniam, Neithalath, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2016

Research has shown roofing systems with high solar reflectance and thermal emissivity lead to less heat absorption, a consequential reduction in cooling load demand, and a resultant reduction on energy expenditure. Studies on energy savings from cool roof coatings have been conducted for decades and when compared to more traditional roofing systems have demonstrated energy savings ranging from 2-40%, with average savings estimated at 20%. The 20% average is widely used by cool roof industry professionals, designers, and contractors to market and sell the technology in the commercial sector to owners and owner representatives researching new roofs. While the 20% …

Contributors
Haverstic, Preston Todd, Sullivan, Kenneth, Okamura, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2016

Composite materials are widely used in various structural applications, including within the automotive and aerospace industries. Unidirectional composite layups have replaced other materials such as metals due to composites’ high strength-to-weight ratio and durability. Finite-element (FE) models are actively being developed to model response of composite systems subjected to a variety of loads including impact loads. These FE models rely on an array of measured material properties as input for accuracy. This work focuses on an orthotropic plasticity constitutive model that has three components – deformation, damage and failure. The model relies on the material properties of the composite such …

Contributors
Schmidt, Nathan William, Rajan, Subramaniam, Neithalath, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2016

With high potential for automobiles to cause air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, there is concern that automobiles accessing or egressing public transportation may cause emissions similar to regular automobile use. Due to limited literature and research that evaluates and discusses environmental impacts from first and last mile portions of transit trips, there is a lack of understanding on this topic. This research aims to comprehensively evaluate the life cycle impacts of first and last mile trips on multimodal transit. A case study of transit and automobile travel in the greater Los Angeles region is evaluated by using a comprehensive …

Contributors
Hoehne, Christopher Glenn, Chester, Mikhail V, Salon, Deborah, et al.
Created Date
2016

Most engineers may agree that an optimum design of a particular structure is a proposal that minimizes costs without compromising resistance, serviceability and aesthetics. Additionally to these conditions, the theory and application of the method that produces such an efficient design must be easy and fast to apply at the structural engineering offices. A considerable amount of studies have been conducted for the past four decades. Most researchers have used constraints and tried to minimize the cost of the structure by reducing the weight of it [8]. Although this approach may be true for steel structures, it is not accurate …

Contributors
Raudales, Eduardo Rene, Fafitis, Apostolos, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2016

Pavement management systems and performance prediction modeling tools are essential for maintaining an efficient and cost effective roadway network. One indicator of pavement performance is the International Roughness Index (IRI), which is a measure of ride quality and also impacts road safety. Many transportation agencies use IRI to allocate annual maintenance and rehabilitation strategies to their road network. The objective of the work in this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate and predict pavement roughness over the pavement service life. Unlike previous studies, a unique aspect of this work was the use of non-linear mathematical function, sigmoidal growth …

Contributors
Beckley, Michelle Elizabeth, Kaloush, Kamil E, Underwood, Benjamin S, et al.
Created Date
2016

The major challenge for any pavement is the freight transport carried by the structure. This challenge is expected to increase in the coming years as freight movements are projected to grow and because these movements account for most of the load related distresses for the pavement. Substantial effort has been devoted to identifying the impacts of these future national freight trends with respect to the environment, economic growth, congestion, and reliability. These are all important aspects relating to the freight question, but an equally important and often overlooked aspect of this issue involves the impact of freight trends on the …

Contributors
Nagarajan, Sathish Kannan, Underwood, Shane, Kaloush, Kamil, et al.
Created Date
2016

This study employs a finite element method based modeling of cementitious composite microstructure to study the effect of presence of inclusions on the stress distribution and the constitutive response of the composite. A randomized periodic microstructure combined with periodic boundary conditions forms the base of the finite element models. Inclusion properties of quartz and light weight aggregates of size 600μm obtained from literature were made use of to study the effect of their material (including inclusion stiffness, stiffness of interfacial transition zone and matrix stiffening) and geometric properties (volume fraction of inclusion, particle size distribution of inclusion and thickness of …

Contributors
Maroli, Amit, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramanium, et al.
Created Date
2016

The need for sustainability in construction has encouraged scientists to develop novel environmentally friendly materials. The use of supplementary cementitious materials was one such initiative which aided in enhancing the fresh and hardened concrete properties. This thesis aims to explore the understanding of the early age rheological properties of such cementitious systems. The first phase of the work investigates the influence of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) in combination with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the rheological properties of fresh paste with and without the effect of superplasticizers. Yield stress, plastic viscosity and storage modulus are the rheological parameters which were …

Contributors
Inbasekaran, Aditya, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2016

Bioretention basins are a common stormwater best management practice (BMP) used to mitigate the hydrologic consequences of urbanization. Dry wells, also known as vadose-zone wells, have been used extensively in bioretention basins in Maricopa County, Arizona to decrease total drain time and recharge groundwater. A mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model has been developed for the minimum cost design of bioretention basins with dry wells. The model developed simultaneously determines the peak stormwater inflow from watershed parameters and optimizes the size of the basin and the number and depth of dry wells based on infiltration, evapotranspiration (ET), and dry well …

Contributors
Lacy, Mason Lacy, Mays, Larry W, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2016

Crack sealing is considered one of the least expensive and cost effective maintenance activity used on pavements. In some cases, crack sealing suffers from premature failure due to various material, environmental, and construction issues. A survey that was conducted as part of this study showed that the highest sealant failure year occurring on the second year. Therefore, any attempt to increase the sealants’ service life by addressing and improving the sealant properties and their resistance to failure will benefit the effectiveness of this treatment. The goal behind this study was to evaluate the potential improvement in performance of hot applied …

Contributors
Thwaini, Talal, Kaloush, Kamil E., Mamlouk, Michael S., et al.
Created Date
2016

This study examines the outcomes of roundabouts in the State of Arizona. Two types of roundabouts are introduced in this study, single-lane roundabouts and double-lane roundabouts. A total of 17 roundabouts across Arizona were chosen upon several selection criteria and according to the availability of data for roundabouts in Arizona. Government officials and local cities’ personnel were involved in this work in order to achieve the most accurate results possible. This thesis focused mainly on the impact of roundabouts on the accident rates, accident severities, and any specific trends that could have been found. Scottsdale, Sedona, Phoenix, Prescott, and Cottonwood …

Contributors
Souliman, Beshoy, Mamlouk, Michael, Kaloush, Kamil, et al.
Created Date
2016

The increasingly recurrent extraordinary flood events in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico have led to significant stakeholder interest in understanding the hydrologic response of the Santa Catarina watershed to extreme events. This study analyzes a flood mitigation strategy proposed by stakeholders through a participatory workshop and are assessed using two hydrological models: The Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) and the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS). The stakeholder-derived flood mitigation strategy consists of placing new hydraulic infrastructure in addition to the current flood controls in the basin. This is done by simulating three scenarios: (1) evaluate the …

Contributors
Cazares-Rodriguez, Jorge, Vivoni, Enrique, Wang, Zhihua, et al.
Created Date
2016

The influence of temperature on soil engineering properties is a major concern in the design of engineering systems such as radioactive waste disposal barriers, ground source heat pump systems and pavement structures. In particular, moisture redistribution under pavement systems might lead to changes in unbound material stiffness that will affect pavement performance. Accurate measurement of thermal effects on unsaturated soil hydraulic properties may lead to reduction in design and construction costs. This thesis presents preliminary results of an experimental study aimed at determining the effect of temperature on the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function …

Contributors
LU, YUTONG, Zapata, Claudia E, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2015

The accurate prediction of pavement network condition and performance is important for efficient management of the transportation infrastructure system. By reducing the error of the pavement deterioration prediction, agencies can save budgets significantly through timely intervention and accurate planning. The objective of this research study was to develop a methodology for calculating a pavement condition index (PCI) based on historical distress data collected in the databases from Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program and Minnesota Road Research (Mn/ROAD) project. Excel™ templates were developed and successfully used to import distress data from both databases and directly calculate PCIs for test sections. Pavement …

Contributors
Wu, Kan, Kaloush, Kamil E, Zhou, Xuesong, et al.
Created Date
2015

Given the importance of buildings as major consumers of resources worldwide, several organizations are working avidly to ensure the negative impacts of buildings are minimized. The U.S. Green Building Council's (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system is one such effort to recognize buildings that are designed to achieve a superior performance in several areas including energy consumption and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). The primary objectives of this study are to investigate the performance of LEED certified facilities in terms of energy consumption and occupant satisfaction with IEQ, and introduce a framework to assess the performance of …

Contributors
Chokor, Abbas, El Asmar, Mounir, Chong, Oswald, et al.
Created Date
2015

Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are an effective methodology used for storm water management particularly for large urban parking lots. An optimization model for the design of vegetative filter strips that minimizes the amount of land required for stormwater management using the VFS is developed in this study. The resulting optimization model is based upon the kinematic wave equation for overland sheet flow along with equations defining the cumulative infiltration and infiltration rate. In addition to the stormwater management function, Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are effective mechanisms for control of sediment flow and soil erosion from agricultural and urban lands. Erosion …

Contributors
Khatavkar, Puneet Nandkumar, Mays, Larry W, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2015

A simplified bilinear moment-curvature model are derived based on the moment-curvature response generated from a parameterized stress-strain response of strain softening and or strain-hardening material by Dr. Barzin Mobasher and Dr. Chote Soranakom. Closed form solutions are developed for deflection calculations of determinate beams subjected to usual loading patterns at any load stage. The solutions are based on a bilinear moment curvature response characterized by the flexural crack initiation and ultimate capacity based on a deflection hardening behavior. Closed form equations for deflection calculation are presented for simply supported beams under three point bending, four point bending, uniform load, concentrated …

Contributors
Wang, Xinmeng, Mobasher, Barzin, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2015

Saudi Arabia has been having many issues with large construction projects such as delays, low performance and high cost. Some studies show that around 70% of the public projects in Saudi Arabia are delayed. These issues have resulted from many factors. One of the factors believed to be delaying projects is the Saudi procurement system. The Saudi procurement system only selects contracts based on the lowest bid price offered. However, the Saudi procurement system has been found to not only produce delayed low quality projects, but also has resulted in higher costs. This paper shows how to modify the Saudi …

Contributors
Alofi, Ahmed Abdulrahman M, Kashiwagi, Dean, Sullivan, Kenneth, et al.
Created Date
2015

Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly present in our environment. Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), defined as objects that measure less than 100 nanometers in at least one dimension, are being integrated into commercial products because of their small size, increased surface area, and quantum effects. These special properties have made ENPs antimicrobial agents in clothing and plastics, among other applications in industries such as pharmaceuticals, renewable energy, and prosthetics. This thesis incorporates investigations into both application of nanoparticles into polymers as well as implications of nanoparticle release into the environment. First, the integration of ENPs into polymer fibers via electrospinning was explored. Electrospinning …

Contributors
Hoogesteijn von Reitzenstein, Natalia, Westerhoff, Paul, Herckes, Pierre, et al.
Created Date
2015

Managed Lanes (MLs) have been increasingly advocated as a way to reduce congestion. This study provides an innovative new tolling strategy for MLs called the travel time refund (TTR). The TTR is an “insurance” that ensures the ML user will arrive to their destination within a specified travel time savings, at an additional fee to the toll. If the user fails to arrive to their destination, the user is refunded the toll amount. To gauge interest in the TTR, a stated preference survey was developed and distributed throughout the Phoenix-metropolitan area. Over 2,200 responses were gathered with about 805 being …

Contributors
Archer, Melissa Elizabeth, Lou, Yingyan, Chester, Mikhail, et al.
Created Date
2015

Large-scale cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms for the production of biodiesel and other valuable commodities must be made more efficient. Recycling the water and nutrients acquired from biomass harvesting promotes a more sustainable and economically viable enterprise. This study reports on growing the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using permeate obtained from concentrating the biomass by cross-flow membrane filtration. I used a kinetic model based on the available light intensity (LI) to predict biomass productivity and evaluate overall performance. During the initial phase of the study, I integrated a membrane filter with a bench-top photobioreactor (PBR) and created a continuously operating …

Contributors
Thompson, Matthew John, Rittmann, Bruce E, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2015

In this thesis, the author described a new genetic algorithm based on the idea: the better design could be found at the neighbor of the current best design. The details of the new genetic algorithm are described, including the rebuilding process from Micro-genetic algorithm and the different crossover and mutation formation. Some popular examples, including two variable function optimization and simple truss models are used to test this algorithm. In these study, the new genetic algorithm is proved able to find the optimized results like other algorithms. Besides, the author also tried to build one more complex truss model. After …

Contributors
Ding, Xiaosu, Hjelmstad, keith, Neithalath, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2015

Ground coupled heat pumps (GCHPs) have been used successfully in many environments to improve the heating and cooling efficiency of both small and large scale buildings. In arid climate regions, such as the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area, where the air condi-tioning load is dominated by cooling in the summer, GCHPs are difficult to install and operate. This is because the nature of soils in arid climate regions, in that they are both dry and hot, renders them particularly ineffective at dissipating heat. The first part of this thesis addresses applying the SVHeat finite element modeling soft-ware to create a model …

Contributors
North, Timothy, Kavazanjian, Ed, Redy, T. Agami, et al.
Created Date
2014

This study investigates the mastic level structure of asphalt concrete containing RAP materials. Locally sourced RAP material was screened and sieved to separate the coated fines (passing #200) from the remaining sizes. These binder coated fines were mixed with virgin filler at proportions commensurate with 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 100% RAP dosage levels. Mastics were prepared with these blended fillers and a PG 64-22 binder at a filler content of 27% by volume. Rheological experiments were conducted on the resulting composites as well as the constituents, virgin binder, solvent extracted RAP binder. The results from the dynamic modulus experiments …

Contributors
Gundla, Akshay, Underwood, Shane, Kaloush, Kamil E, et al.
Created Date
2014

This study was devised to elucidate key information concerning the potential risk posed by Legionella in reclaimed water. A series of biological experiments and a recharge basin soil column study were conducted to examine the survival, growth, and transport of L. pneumophila through engineered reclaimed water systems. A pilot-scale, column study was set up to measure Legionella transport in the columns under Arizona recharge basin conditions. Two columns, A and B, were packed to a depth of 122 cm with a loamy sand media collected from a recharge basin in Mesa, Arizona. The grain size distribution of Column A differed …

Contributors
McBurnett, Lauren Rae, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Alum, Absar, et al.
Created Date
2014

Over the last two decades, Alternative Project Delivery Methods (APDM), such as Design-Build (DB), have become more popular in the construction industry, specifically in the U.S., and the competition for APDM projects has risen among construction companies. The Engineering News Record (ENR) magazine analyzes DB firms and publishes the list of the top 100 every year. According to ENR articles and many scientific papers, the implementation of DB method has grown drastically over the last decade, however, information about growth trends depending on firm size and segment is lacking. Also missing is knowledge the future market trends over the next …

Contributors
Vashani, Hossein, El Asmar, Mounir, Ernzen, James, et al.
Created Date
2014

Laminated composite materials are used in aerospace, civil and mechanical structural systems due to their superior material properties compared to the constituent materials as well as in comparison to traditional materials such as metals. Laminate structures are composed of multiple orthotropic material layers bonded together to form a single performing part. As such, the layup design of the material largely influences the structural performance. Optimization techniques such as the Genetic Algorithm (GA), Differential Evolution (DE), the Method of Feasible Directions (MFD), and others can be used to determine the optimal laminate composite material layup. In this thesis, sizing, shape and …

Contributors
Mika, Krista Nicole, Rajan, Subramaniam, Neithalath, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2014

The main objective of this study is to investigate drying properties and plastic shrinkage cracking resistance of fresh cement-based pastes reinforced with fibers and textiles. Naturally occurring mineral wollastonite has been studied independently as well as in combination with AR-glass textile. A series of blended mixes with Portland cement and wollastonite nano-fibers were developed and tested under low vacuum conditions to simulate severe evaporation conditions and expedite the drying process causing plastic shrinkage cracks. Cumulative moisture loss, evaporation rates, and diffusivity were analyzed by means of a 2-stage diffusion simulation approach, developed previously in Arizona State University. Effect of fiber-matrix …

Contributors
Kachala, Robert, Mobasher, Barzin, Dharmarajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2014

Buildings and other structures, all components and cladding thereof, shall be designed and constructed to resist the wind loads are required in all wind codes. Simple quasi-static treatment of wind loads, which is universally applied to design of low to medium-rise structures, can be either overly conservative or erroneous under-estimated for design of high-rise structures. Dynamic response, vortex, wind directionality, and shedding from other structures are all complicated key factors suppose to be considered in design. Meanwhile, wind tunnel testing is expansive, difficult and sometimes inaccurate even if it is a widely used method in simulation of aerodynamic response. Computational …

Contributors
Zhu, Xitong, Hjelmstad, Keith D, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2014

The environmental and economic assessment of neighborhood-scale transit-oriented urban form changes should include initial construction impacts through long-term use to fully understand the benefits and costs of smart growth policies. The long-term impacts of moving people closer to transit require the coupling of behavioral forecasting with environmental assessment. Using new light rail and bus rapid transit in Los Angeles, California as a case study, a life-cycle environmental and economic assessment is developed to assess the potential range of impacts resulting from mixed-use infill development. An integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment framework is developed to estimate energy consumption, air …

Contributors
Nahlik, Matthew John, Chester, Mikhail V, Pendyala, Ram, et al.
Created Date
2014

Expansive soils impose challenges on the design, maintenance and long-term stability of many engineered infrastructure. These soils are composed of different clay minerals that are susceptible to changes in moisture content. Expansive clay soils wreak havoc due to their volume change property and, in many cases, exhibit extreme swelling and shrinking potentials. Understanding what type of minerals and clays react in the presence of water would allow for a more robust design and a better way to mitigate undesirable soil volume change. The relatively quick and widely used method of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) allows identifying the type of minerals present …

Contributors
Shafer, Zachery, Zapata, Claudia, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2014

The main objective of this study is to numerically investigate: (i) the ionic transport, especially chloride ion penetration into cementitious materials under imposed electric fields, and (ii) moisture transport through cracked concretes as a function of the crack geometry. Numerical methods were implemented to simulate the ionic transport process, based on coupling the Nernst-Planck equation and Poisson's equation to account for transport dominated by electromigration. This mathematical model was also modified to account for the chloride binding mechanism (physical and chemical trapping of chlorides by the cement hydrates) and the concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient of each ion in …

Contributors
Yang, Pu, Neithalath, Narayanan, Dharmarajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2014

ABSTRACT Pre-treated crumb rubber technologies are emerging as a new method to produce asphalt rubber mixtures in the field. A new crumb rubber modifier industrially known as "RuBind" is one such technology. RuBindTM is a "Reacted and Activated Rubber" (RAR) that acts like an elastomeric asphalt extender to improve the engineering properties of the binder and mixtures. It is intended to be used in a dry mixing process with the purpose of simplifying mixing at the asphalt plant. The objectives of this research study were to evaluate the rheological and aging properties of binders modified with RuBindTM and its compatibility …

Contributors
Medina, Jose Roberto, Kaloush, Kamil E, Underwood, Shane, et al.
Created Date
2014

ABSTRACT Enzyme-Induced Carbonate Precipitation (EICP) using a plant-derived form of the urease enzyme to induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) shows promise as a method of stabilizing soil for the mitigation of fugitive dust. Fugitive dust is a significant problem in Arizona, particularly in Maricopa County. Maricopa County is an EPA air quality non-attainment zone, due primarily to fugitive dust, which presents a significant health risk to local residents. Conventional methods for fugitive dust control, including the application of water, are either ineffective in arid climates, very expensive, or limited to short term stabilization. Due to these limitations, engineers …

Contributors
Knorr, Brian Mark, Kavazanjian, Edward, Houston, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2014

Contrary to many previous travel demand forecasts there is increasing evidence that vehicle travel in developed countries may be peaking. The underlying causes of this peaking are still under much debate and there has been a mobilization of research, largely focused at the national scale, to study the explanatory drivers but research focused at the metropolitan scale, where transportation policy and planning are frequently decided, is relatively thin. Additionally, a majority of this research has focused on changes within the activity system without considering the impact transportation infrastructure has on overall travel demand. Using Los Angeles County California, we investigate …

Contributors
Fraser, Andrew Michael, Chester, Mikhail V, Pendyala, Ram M, et al.
Created Date
2014

The demand for portland cement concrete is expected to increase over time. There is a need to develop a more sustainable cementitious systems in order to reduce the negative environmental impacts associated with ordinary portland cement (OPC) production. An attempt is made to investigate sustainable binder solutions through the use of alternative cementitious materials at high levels of volume replacement. Limestone, an abundant material is used as a filler in low water-to-powder concretes where a substantial fraction of the portland cement remains unhydrated. At high volume OPC replacement, 20% and 35%, the combination of limestone and an alumina source has …

Contributors
Aguayo, Matthew Joseph, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2014

As more and more stadia structures nowadays are being built by making use of new high strength building materials which tend to be lighter than the "old" ones, composite systems and also the fact that engineers, contractors and clients want their structures as optimized as possible, in terms of minimal materials used, there is an inevitable side effect that comes with this. The result is that structures are more flexible, and thus they become susceptible to undergone vibration problems due to the action of dynamic loading. Pop/rock concerts, exhibitions, boxing matches, and so forth are staged to supplement the football/sport …

Contributors
Aldaco Lopez, Manuel, Hjelmstad, Keith D, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2014

The main objective of this study is to investigate the behaviour and applications of strain hardening cement composites (SHCC). Application of SHCC for use in slabs of common configurations was studied and design procedures are prepared by employing yield line theory and integrating it with simplified tri-linear model developed in Arizona State University by Dr. Barzin Mobasher and Dr. Chote Soranakom. Intrinsic material property of moment-curvature response for SHCC was used to derive the relationship between applied load and deflection in a two-step process involving the limit state analysis and kinematically admissible displacements. For application of SHCC in structures such …

Contributors
Aswani, Karan, Mobasher, Barzin, Dharmarajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2014

This thesis presents a probabilistic evaluation of multiple laterally loaded drilled pier foundation design approaches using extensive data from a geotechnical investigation for a high voltage electric transmission line. A series of Monte Carlo simulations provide insight about the computed level of reliability considering site standard penetration test blow count value variability alone (i.e., assuming all other aspects of the design problem do not contribute error or bias). Evaluated methods include Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Design procedures, the Federal Highway Administration drilled shaft LRFD design method, the Electric Power Research Institute transmission foundation design procedure and a site specific variability based …

Contributors
Heim, Zackary, Houston, Sandra, Witczak, Matthew, et al.
Created Date
2014

The computation of the fundamental mode in structural moment frames provides valuable insight into the physical response of the frame to dynamic or time-varying loads. In standard practice, it is not necessary to solve for all n mode shapes in a structural system; it is therefore practical to limit the system to some determined number of r significant mode shapes. Current building codes, such as the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), require certain class of structures to obtain 90% effective mass participation as a way to estimate the accuracy of a solution for base shear motion. A parametric study …

Contributors
Grantham, Jonathan Karl, Fafitis, Apostolos, Attard, Thomas, et al.
Created Date
2014

Tall buildings are spreading across the globe at an ever-increasing rate (www.ctbuh.org). The global number of buildings 200m or more in height has risen from 286 to 602 in the last decade alone. The increasing complexity of building architecture poses unique challenges in the structural design of modern tall buildings. Hence, innovative structural systems need to be evaluated to create an economical design that satisfies multiple design criteria. Design using traditional trial-and-error approach can be extremely time-consuming and the resultant design uneconomical. Thus, there is a need for an efficient numerical optimization tool that can explore and generate several design …

Contributors
Sirigiri, Mamatha, Rajan, Subramaniam D, Neithalath, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2014

The purpose of this research was to introduce unsaturated soil mechanics to the undergraduate geotechnical engineering course in a concise and easy to understand manner. Also, it was essential to develop unsaturated soil mechanics teaching material that merges smoothly into current undergraduate curriculum and with sufficient flexibility for broad adaptation by faculty. The learning material consists of three lecture modules and a laboratory module. The lecture modules introduced soil mechanics for the general 3-phase medium condition with the saturated soil as a special case. The three lecture modules that were developed are (1) the stress state variables for unsaturated soils, …

Contributors
Ramirez, Eddy, Houston, Sandra, Zapata, Claudia, et al.
Created Date
2013

The increased emphasis on the detrimental effects of the production of construction materials such as ordinary portland cement (OPC) have driven studies of the alkali activation of aluminosilicate materials as binder systems derived from industrial byproducts. They have been extensively studied due to the advantages they offer in terms of enhanced material properties, while increasing sustainability by the reuse of industrial waste and reducing the adverse impacts of OPC production. Ground granulated blast furnace slag is one of the commonly used materials for their content of calcium and silica species. Alkaline activators such as silicates, aluminates etc. are generally used. …

Contributors
Dakhane, Akash, Neithalath, Narayanan, Subramaniam, Dharmarajan, et al.
Created Date
2013

Ten regional climate models (RCMs) and atmosphere-ocean generalized model parings from the North America Regional Climate Change Assessment Program were used to estimate the shift of extreme precipitation due to climate change using present-day and future-day climate scenarios. RCMs emulate winter storms and one-day duration events at the sub-regional level. Annual maximum series were derived for each model pairing, each modeling period; and for annual and winter seasons. The reliability ensemble average (REA) method was used to qualify each RCM annual maximum series to reproduce historical records and approximate average predictions, because there are no future records. These series determined …

Contributors
Riano, Alejandro, Mays, Larry W, Vivoni, Enrique, et al.
Created Date
2013

Vehicle type choice is a significant determinant of fuel consumption and energy sustainability; larger, heavier vehicles consume more fuel, and expel twice as many pollutants, than their smaller, lighter counterparts. Over the course of the past few decades, vehicle type choice has seen a vast shift, due to many households making more trips in larger vehicles with lower fuel economy. During the 1990s, SUVs were the fastest growing segment of the automotive industry, comprising 7% of the total light vehicle market in 1990, and 25% in 2005. More recently, due to rising oil prices, greater awareness to environmental sensitivity, the …

Contributors
Christian, Keith, Pendyala, Ram M, Chester, Mikhail, et al.
Created Date
2013

Manufacture of building materials requires significant energy, and as demand for these materials continues to increase, the energy requirement will as well. Offsetting this energy use will require increased focus on sustainable building materials. Further, the energy used in building, particularly in heating and air conditioning, accounts for 40 percent of a buildings energy use. Increasing the efficiency of building materials will reduce energy usage over the life time of the building. Current methods for maintaining the interior environment can be highly inefficient depending on the building materials selected. Materials such as concrete have low thermal efficiency and have a …

Contributors
Sharma, Breeann, Neithalath, Narayanan, Mobasher, Barzin, et al.
Created Date
2013

The history of outdoor water use in the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area has given rise to a general landscape aesthetic and pattern of residential irrigation that seem in discord with the natural desert environment. While xeric landscaping that incorporates native desert ecology has potential for reducing urban irrigation demand, there are societal and environmental factors that make mesic landscaping, including shade trees and grass lawns, a common choice for residential yards. In either case, there is potential for water savings through irrigation schedules based on fluxes affecting soil moisture in the active plant rooting zone. In this thesis, a point-scale …

Contributors
Volo, Thomas John, Vivoni, Enrique R, Ruddell, Benjamin L, et al.
Created Date
2013

The alkali activation of aluminosilicate materials as binder systems derived from industrial byproducts have been extensively studied due to the advantages they offer in terms enhanced material properties, while increasing sustainability by the reuse of industrial waste and byproducts and reducing the adverse impacts of OPC production. Fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag are commonly used for their content of soluble silica and aluminate species that can undergo dissolution, polymerization with the alkali, condensation on particle surfaces and solidification. The following topics are the focus of this thesis: (i) the use of microwave assisted thermal processing, in addition …

Contributors
Chowdhury, Ussala, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramanium D., et al.
Created Date
2013

The effect of earthquake-induced liquefaction on the local void ratio distribution of cohesionless soil is evaluated using x-ray computed tomography (CT) and an advanced image processing software package. Intact, relatively undisturbed specimens of cohesionless soil were recovered before and after liquefaction by freezing and coring soil deposits created by pluviation and by sedimentation through water. Pluviated soil deposits were liquefied in the small geotechnical centrifuge at the University of California at Davis shared-use National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) facility. A soil deposit created by sedimentation through water was liquefied on a small shake table in …

Contributors
Gutierrez, Angel, Kavazanjian, Edward, Houston, Sandra, et al.
Created Date
2013

The main objective of this study is to investigate the mechanical behaviour of cementitious based composites subjected dynamic tensile loading, with effects of strain rate, temperature, addition of short fibres etc. Fabric pullout model and tension stiffening model based on finite difference model, previously developed at Arizona State University were used to help study the bonding mechanism between fibre and matrix, and the phenomenon of tension stiffening due to the addition of fibres and textiles. Uniaxial tension tests were conducted on strain-hardening cement-based composites (SHCC), textile reinforced concrete (TRC) with and without addition of short fibres, at the strain rates …

Contributors
Yao, Yiming, Barzin, Mobasher, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2013

Properties of random porous material such as pervious concrete are strongly dependant on its pore structure features. This research deals with the development of an understanding of the relationship between the material structure and the mechanical and functional properties of pervious concretes. The fracture response of pervious concrete specimens proportioned for different porosities, as a function of the pore structure features and fiber volume fraction, is studied. Stereological and morphological methods are used to extract the relevant pore structure features of pervious concretes from planar images. A two-parameter fracture model is used to obtain the fracture toughness (KIC) and critical …

Contributors
Rehder, Benjamin Douglas, Neithalath, Narayanana, Mobasher, Barzin, et al.
Created Date
2013

Buildings consume a large portion of the world's energy, but with the integration of phase change materials (PCMs) in building elements this energy cost can be greatly reduced. The addition of PCMs into building elements, however, becomes a challenge to model and analyze how the material actually affects the energy flow and temperatures in the system. This research work presents a comprehensive computer program used to model and analyze PCM embedded wall systems. The use of the finite element method (FEM) provides the tool to analyze the energy flow of these systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) can model the transient …

Contributors
Stockwell, Amie, Rajan, Subramaniam, Neithalath, Narayanan, et al.
Created Date
2013

Heating of asphalt during production and construction causes the volatilization and oxidation of binders used in mixes. Volatilization and oxidation causes degradation of asphalt pavements by increasing the stiffness of the binders, increasing susceptibility to cracking and negatively affecting the functional and structural performance of the pavements. Degradation of asphalt binders by volatilization and oxidation due to high production temperature occur during early stages of pavement life and are known as Short Term Aging (STA). Elevated temperatures and increased exposure time to elevated temperatures causes increased STA of asphalt. The objective of this research was to investigate how elevated mixing …

Contributors
Lolly, Rubben Kofi, Kaloush, Kamil, Bearup, Wylie, et al.
Created Date
2013

In recent years, an increase of environmental temperature in urban areas has raised many concerns. These areas are subjected to higher temperature compared to the rural surrounding areas. Modification of land surface and the use of materials such as concrete and/or asphalt are the main factors influencing the surface energy balance and therefore the environmental temperature in the urban areas. Engineered materials have relatively higher solar energy absorption and tend to trap a relatively higher incoming solar radiation. They also possess a higher heat storage capacity that allows them to retain heat during the day and then slowly release it …

Contributors
Pourshams-Manzouri, Tina, Kaloush, Kamil E., Wang, Zhihua, et al.
Created Date
2013

Trenchless technology is a group of techniques whose utilization allows for the installation, rehabilitation, and repair of underground infrastructure with minimal excavation from the ground surface. As the built environment becomes more congested, projects are trending towards using trenchless technologies for their ability to quickly produce a quality product with minimal environmental and social costs. Pilot tube microtunneling (PTMT) is a trenchless technology where new pipelines may be installed at accurate and precise line and grade over manhole to manhole distances. The PTMT process can vary to a certain degree, but typically involves the following three phases: jacking of the …

Contributors
Olson, Matthew Peter, Ariaratnam, Samuel T, Lueke, Jason S, et al.
Created Date
2013

Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) is attracting increasing attention as a sustainable means of soil improvement. While there are several possible MICP mechanisms, microbial denitrification has the potential to become one of the preferred methods for MICP because complete denitrification does not produce toxic byproducts, readily occurs under anoxic conditions, and potentially has a greater carbonate yield per mole of organic electron donor than other MICP processes. Denitrification may be preferable to ureolytic hydrolysis, the MICP process explored most extensively to date, as the byproduct of denitrification is benign nitrogen gas, while the chemical pathways involved in hydrolytic ureolysis …

Contributors
Hamdan, Nasser, Kavazanjian, Edward, Rittmann, Bruce E, et al.
Created Date
2013

Dwindling energy resources and associated environmental costs have resulted in a serious need to design and construct energy efficient buildings. One of the strategies to develop energy efficient structural materials is through the incorporation of phase change materials (PCM) in the host matrix. This research work presents details of a finite element-based framework that is used to study the thermal performance of structural precast concrete wall elements with and without a layer of phase change material. The simulation platform developed can be implemented for a wide variety of input parameters. In this study, two different locations in the continental United …

Contributors
Hembade, Lavannya, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramaniam, et al.
Created Date
2012

The main objective of this study is to develop an innovative system in the form of a sandwich panel type composite with textile reinforced skins and aerated concrete core. Existing theoretical concepts along with extensive experimental investigations were utilized to characterize the behavior of cement based systems in the presence of individual fibers and textile yarns. Part of this thesis is based on a material model developed here in Arizona State University to simulate experimental flexural response and back calculate tensile response. This concept is based on a constitutive law consisting of a tri-linear tension model with residual strength and …

Contributors
Dey, Vikram, Mobasher, Barzin, Rajan, Subramaniam D., et al.
Created Date
2012

Alkali-activated aluminosilicates, commonly known as "geopolymers", are being increasingly studied as a potential replacement for Portland cement. These binders use an alkaline activator, typically alkali silicates, alkali hydroxides or a combination of both along with a silica-and-alumina rich material, such as fly ash or slag, to form a final product with properties comparable to or better than those of ordinary Portland cement. The kinetics of alkali activation is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the binder material and the activator concentration. The influence of binder composition (slag, fly ash or both), different levels of alkalinity, expressed using the ratios …

Contributors
Chithiraputhiran, Sundara Raman, Neithalath, Narayanan, Rajan, Subramaniyam D, et al.
Created Date
2012

This study focuses on implementing probabilistic nature of material properties (Kevlar® 49) to the existing deterministic finite element analysis (FEA) of fabric based engine containment system through Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) and implementation of probabilistic analysis in engineering designs through Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO). First, the emphasis is on experimental data analysis focusing on probabilistic distribution models which characterize the randomness associated with the experimental data. The material properties of Kevlar® 49 are modeled using experimental data analysis and implemented along with an existing spiral modeling scheme (SMS) and user defined constitutive model (UMAT) for fabric based engine containment …

Contributors
Deivanayagam, Arumugam, Rajan, Subramaniam D, Mobasher, Barzin, et al.
Created Date
2012

Urban water systems face sustainability challenges ranging from water quality, leaks, over-use, energy consumption, and long-term supply concerns. Resiliency challenges include the capacity to respond to drought, managing pipe deterioration, responding to natural disasters, and preventing terrorism. One strategy to enhance sustainability and resiliency is the development and adoption of smart water grids. A smart water grid incorporates networked monitoring and control devices into its structure, which provides diverse, real-time information about the system, as well as enhanced control. Data provide input for modeling and analysis, which informs control decisions, allowing for improvement in sustainability and resiliency. While smart water …

Contributors
Mutchek, Michele Ann, Allenby, Braden, Williams, Eric, et al.
Created Date
2012

Woven fabric composite materials are widely used in the construction of aircraft engine fan containment systems, mostly due to their high strength to weight ratios and ease of implementation. The development of a predictive model for fan blade containment would provide great benefit to engine manufactures in shortened development cycle time, less risk in certification and fewer dollars lost to redesign/recertification cycles. A mechanistic user-defined material model subroutine has been developed at Arizona State University (ASU) that captures the behavioral response of these fabrics, namely Kevlar® 49, under ballistic loading. Previously developed finite element models used to validate the consistency …

Contributors
Fein, Jonathan, Rajan, Subramaniam, Mobasher, Barzin, et al.
Created Date
2012

Due to the lack of understanding of soil thermal behavior, rules-of-thumb and generalized procedures are typically used to guide building professionals in the design of ground coupled heat pump systems. This is especially true when sizing the ground heat exchanger (GHE) loop. Unfortunately, these generalized procedures often encourage building engineers to adopt a conservative design approach resulting in the gross over-sizing of the GHE, thus drastically increasing their installation cost. This conservative design approach is particularly prevalent for buildings located in hot and arid climates, where the soils are often granular and where the water table tends to exist deep …

Contributors
D'Angelo, Kurtis, Reddy, T Agami, Bryan, Harvey, et al.
Created Date
2012

Front end planning (FEP) is an essential and valuable process that helps identify risks early in the capital project planning phases. With effective FEP, risks can potentially be mitigated through development of detailed scope definition and subsequent efficient project resource use. The thesis describes the FEP process that has been developed over the past twenty years by the Construction Industry Institute (CII). Specifically, it details the FEP tools developed for early project planning and the data gathered to analyze the tools used within the CII community. Data from a March 2011 survey are given showing the tools commonly used, how …

Contributors
Bosfield, Roberta, Gibson, G.Edward, Wiezel, Avi, et al.
Created Date
2012

The growing use of synthetic population, which is a disaggregate representation of the population of an area similar to the real population currently or in the future, has motivated the analysis of its sensitivity in the population generation procedure. New methods in PopGen have enhanced the generation of synthetic populations whereby both household-level and person-level characteristics of interest can be matched in a computationally efficient manner. In the process of set up, population synthesis procedures need sample records for households and persons to match the marginal totals with a specific set of control variables for both the household and person …

Contributors
Dey, Rumpa Rani, Pendyala, Ram M, Pendyala, Ram M, et al.
Created Date
2012

Public-Private Partnerships (P3) in North America have become a trend in the past two decades and are gaining attention in the transportation industry with some large scale projects being delivered by this approach. This is due to the need for alternative funding sources for public projects and for improved efficiency of these projects in order to save time and money. Several research studies have been done, including mature markets in Europe and Australia, on the cost and schedule performance of transportation projects but no similar study has been conducted in North America. This study focuses on cost and schedule performance …

Contributors
Bansal, Ankit, Chasey, Allan, Gibson, Edd, et al.
Created Date
2012

Pavement preservation is the practice of selecting and applying maintenance activities in order to extend pavement life, enhance performance, and ensure cost effectiveness. Pavement preservation methods should be applied before pavements display significant amounts of environmental distress. The long-term effectiveness of different pavement preservation techniques can be measured in terms of life extension, relative benefit, and benefit-cost ratio. Optimal timing of pavement preservation means that the given maintenance treatment is applied so that it will extend the life of the roadway for the longest possible period with the minimum cost. This document examines the effectiveness of chip seal treatment in …

Contributors
Dosa, Matild, Mamlouk, Michael S, Kaloush, Kamil E, et al.
Created Date
2012

The application of fibers and other materials in asphalt mixes has been studied and applied over the past five decades in order to improve pavement performance around the world. This thesis highlights the characteristics and performance properties of modified asphalt mixes using a blend of polypropylene and aramid fibers, The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding different fiber dosages on the laboratory performance of both asphalt binder and mixture. The laboratory study was conducted on sixteen different dosages and blends of the fibers, with various combinations of polypropylene and aramid, using binder tests as …

Contributors
Alrajhi, Ashraf B. M., Kaloush, Kamil, Mamlouk, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2012

Current information on successful leadership and management practices is contradictory and inconsistent, which makes difficult to understand what successful business practices are and what are not. The purpose of this study is to identify a simple process that quickly and logically identifies consistent and inconsistent leadership and management criteria. The hypothesis proposed is that Information Measurement Theory (IMT) along with the Kashiwagi Solution Model (KSM) is a methodology than can differentiate between accurate and inaccurate principles the initial part of the study about authors in these areas show how information is conflictive, and also served to establish an initial baseline …

Contributors
Reynolds, Harry, Kashiwagi, Dean, Sullivan, Kenneth, et al.
Created Date
2011