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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Contributor
Status
  • Public
Date Range
2011 2019


Since its first report in 1976, many outbreaks linked to Legionella have been reported in the world. These outbreaks are a public health concern because of legionellosis, which is found in two forms, Pontiac fever and Legionnaires disease. Legionnaires disease is a type of pneumonia responsible for the majority of the illness in the reported outbreaks of legionellosis. This study consists of an extensive literature review and experimental work on the aerosolization and UV inactivation of E.coli and Legionella under laboratory conditions. The literature review summarizes Legionella general information, occurrence, environmental conditions for its survival, transmission to human, collection and …

Contributors
Yao, Wei, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2015

Since its first report in 1976, many outbreaks of Legionella have been reported in the world. These outbreaks are a public health concern because of legionellosis, which cause Pontiac fever and Legionnaires disease. Legionnaires disease is a type of pneumonia responsible for the majority of the illness in the reported outbreaks. This study consists of an extensive literature review and experimental work on the aerosolization of Legionella and a bacterial surrogate under laboratory conditions. The literature review summarizes Legionella characteristics, legionellosis, potential sources of Legionella, disease outbreaks, collection and detection methodologies, environmental conditions for growth and survival of Legionella, Gaussian …

Contributors
Taghdiri, Sepideh, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2014

Quagga Mussels (Dreissena bugensis) are an invasive species of mollusk that have established themselves within the Colorado River system of Arizona since 2007. However, despite close proximity and frequent travel by recreational boaters between reservoirs, they have not yet infested the Salt River or Verde River systems. Laboratory experimentation was done to test the survival rate of adult D. bugensis specimens in waters collected from Bartlett Lake (Verde River), Saguaro Lake (Salt River), and Salt River Project (SRP) canals (Salt River/Verde River/Colorado River blend) as well as Central Arizona Project (CAP) canals with the addition of turbidity to simulate high …

Contributors
Sokolowski, Matthew, Fox, Peter, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, et al.
Created Date
2015

The presence of compounds such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is a cause for concern as they exhibit secondary effects on non-target organisms and are also indicative of incomplete removal by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) during water reclamation. Analytical methods and predictive models can help inform on the rates at which these contaminants enter the environment via biosolids use or wastewater effluent release to estimate the risk of adverse effects. The goals of this research project were to integrate the results obtained from the two different methods of risk assessment, (a) in silico modeling and …

Contributors
Prakash Chari, Bipin, Halden, Rolf U, Westerhoff, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2012

Disinfection byproducts are the result of reactions between natural organic matter (NOM) and a disinfectant. The formation and speciation of DBP formation is largely dependent on the disinfectant used and the natural organic matter (NOM) concentration and composition. This study examined the use of photocatalysis with titanium dioxide for the oxidation and removal of DBP precursors (NOM) and the inhibition of DBP formation. Water sources were collected from various points in the treatment process, treated with photocatalysis, and chlorinated to analyze the implications on total trihalomethane (TTHM) and the five haloacetic acids (HAA5) formations. The three sub-objectives for this study …

Contributors
Daugherty, Erin, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2011

Over the past decade, there has been a revival in applied algal research and attempts at commercialization. However, the main limitation in algal commercialization is the process of cultivation, which is one of the main cost and energy burdens in producing biomass that is economically feasible for different products. There are several parameters that must be considered when growing algae, including the type of growth system and operating mode, preferred organism(s), and many other criteria that affect the process of algal cultivation. The purpose of this dissertation was to assess key variables that affect algal productivity and to improve outdoor …

Contributors
Eustance, Everett, Sommerfeld, Milton R, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2015

This study reports on benzene and toluene biodegradation under different dissolved oxygen conditions, and the goal of this study is to evaluate and model their removal. Benzene and toluene were tested for obligate anaerobic degradation in batch reactors with sulfate as the electron acceptor. A group of sulfate-reducing bacteria capable of toluene degradation was enriched after 252 days of incubation. Those cultures, originated from anaerobic digester, were able to degrade toluene coupled to sulfate reduction with benzene coexistence, while they were not able to utilize benzene. Methanogens also were present, although their contribution to toluene biodegradation was not defined. Aerobic …

Contributors
Liu, Zhuolin, Rittmann, Bruce E, Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa, et al.
Created Date
2015

The need for rapid, specific and sensitive assays that provide a detection of bacterial indicators are important for monitoring water quality. Rapid detection using biosensor is a novel approach for microbiological testing applications. Besides, validation of rapid methods is an obstacle in adoption of such new bio-sensing technologies. In this study, the strategy developed is based on using the compound 4-methylumbelliferyl glucuronide (MUG), which is hydrolyzed rapidly by the action of E. coli β-D-glucuronidase (GUD) enzyme to yield a fluorogenic product that can be quantified and directly related to the number of E. coli cells present in water samples. The …

Contributors
Hesari, Nikou, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Alum, Absar, et al.
Created Date
2015

Granular activated carbon (GAC) filters are final polishing step in the drinking water treatment systems for removal of dissolved organic carbon fractions. Generally filters are colonized by bacterial communities and their activity reduces biodegradable solutes allowing partial regeneration of GAC's adsorptive capacity. When the bacteria pass into the filtrate due to increased growth, microbiological quality of drinking water is compromised and regrowth in the distribution system occurs. Bacteria attached to carbon particles as biofilms or in conjugation with other bacteria were observed to be highly resistant to post filtration microbial mitigation techniques. Some of these bacteria were identified as pathogenic. …

Contributors
Sharma, Harsha, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Alum, Absar, et al.
Created Date
2014

Many manmade chemicals used in consumer products are ultimately washed down the drain and are collected in municipal sewers. Efficient chemical monitoring at wastewater treatment (WWT) plants thus may provide up-to-date information on chemical usage rates for epidemiological assessments. The objective of the present study was to extrapolate this concept, termed 'sewage epidemiology', to include municipal sewage sludge (MSS) in identifying and prioritizing contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). To test this the following specific aims were defined: i) to screen and identify CECs in nationally representative samples of MSS and to provide nationwide inventories of CECs in U.S. MSS; ii) …

Contributors
Venkatesan, Arjunkrishna, Halden, Rolf U, Westerhoff, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2013

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most dangerous greenhouse gas. Its concentration in the atmosphere has increased to very high levels since the industrial revolution. This continues to be a threat due to increasing energy demands. 60% of the worlds global emissions come from automobiles and other such moving sources. Hence, to stay within safe limits, it is extremely important to curb current emissions and remove those which have already been emitted. Out of many available technologies, one such technology is the moisture swing based air capture technology that makes use of resin material that absorbs CO2 when it …

Contributors
Chopra, Vinuta, Lackner, Klaus S, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2016

This dissertation presents a new methodology for the sustainable and optimal allocation of water for a river basin management area that maximizes sustainable net economic benefit over the long-term planning horizon. The model distinguishes between short and long-term planning horizons and goals using a short-term modeling component (STM) and a long term modeling component (LTM) respectively. An STM optimizes a monthly allocation schedule on an annual basis in terms of maximum net economic benefit. A cost of depletion based upon Hotelling’s exhaustible resource theory is included in the STM net benefit calculation to address the non-use value of groundwater. An …

Contributors
Oxley, Robert Louis, Mays, Larry, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2015

Radioactive cesium (137Cs), released from nuclear power plants and nuclear accidental releases, is a problem due to difficulties regarding its removal. Efforts have been focused on removing cesium and the remediation of the contaminated environment. Traditional treatment techniques include Prussian blue and nano zero-valent ion (nZVI) and nano-Fe/Cu particles to remove Cs from water; however, they are not efficient at removing Cs when present at low concentrations of about 10 parts-per-billion (ppb), typical of concentrations found in the radioactive contaminated sites. The objective of this study was to develop an innovative and simple method to remove Cs+ present at low …

Contributors
Hakim Elahi, Sepideh, Conroy-Ben, Otakuye, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, et al.
Created Date
2018

Ecolabels are the main driving force of consumer knowledge in the realm of sustainable product purchasing. While ecolabels strive to improve consumer's purchasing decisions, they have overwhelmed the market, leaving consumers confused and distrustful of what each label means. This study attempts to validate and understand environmental concerns commonly found in ecolabel criteria and the implications they have within the life cycle of a product. A life cycle assessment (LCA) case study of cosmetic products is used in comparison with current ecolabel program criteria to assess whether or not ecolabels are effectively driving environmental improvements in high impact areas throughout …

Contributors
Bernardo, Melissa Anna, Dooley, Kevin, Chester, Mikhail, et al.
Created Date
2012

Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are considered the most effective treatment to remove salt from water. Specifically, thin film composite (TFC) membranes are considered the gold standard for RO. Despite TFC membranes good performance, there are drawbacks to consider including: permeability-selectivity tradeoff, chlorine damage, and biofouling potential. In order to counter these drawbacks, polyamide matrixes were embedded with various nanomaterials called mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) or thin film nanocomposites (TFNs). This research investigates the use of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) into the polyamide matrix of a TFC membrane. GO and RGO have the potential to alter the …

Contributors
Inurria, Adam, Perreault, Francois, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2017

Nanotechnology is a scientific field that has recently expanded due to its applications in pharmaceutical and personal care products, industry and agriculture. As result of this unprecedented growth, nanoparticles (NPs) have become a significant environmental contaminant, with potential to impact various forms of life in environment. Metal nanoparticles (mNPs) exhibit unique properties such as increased chemical reactivity due to high specific surface area to volume ratios. Bacteria play a major role in many natural and engineered biogeochemical reactions in wastewater treatment plants and other environmental compartments. I have evaluated the laboratory isolates of E. coli, Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas; wastewater isolates …

Contributors
Alboloushi, Ali, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Alum, Absar, et al.
Created Date
2012

Research in microbial biofuels has dramatically increased over the last decade. The bulk of this research has focused on increasing the production yields of cyanobacteria and algal cells and improving extraction processes. However, there has been little to no research on the potential impact of viruses on the yields of these phototrophic microbes for biofuel production. Viruses have the potential to significantly reduce microbial populations and limit their growth rates. It is therefore important to understand how viruses affect phototrophic microbes and the prevalence of these viruses in the environment. For this study, phototrophic microbes were grown in glass bioreactors, …

Contributors
Kraft, Kyle, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Alum, Absar, et al.
Created Date
2014

Advanced oxidation processes (AOP’s) are water/wastewater treatment processes simultaneously providing disinfection and potential oxidation of contaminants that may cause long-term adverse health effects in humans. One AOP involves injecting peracetic acid (PAA) upstream of an ultraviolet (UV) irradiation reactor. Two studies were conducted, one in pilot-scale field conditions and another under laboratory conditions. A pilot-scale NeoTech UV reactor (rated for 375 GPM) was used in the pilot study, where a smaller version of this unit was used in the laboratory study (20 to 35 GPM). The pilot study analyzed coliform disinfection and also monitored water quality parameters including UV transmittance …

Contributors
Cooper, Samantha L., Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Alum, Absar, et al.
Created Date
2017

Specific inorganic and organic pollutants in water (As(V), Cr(VI), THMs, and hardness) cause health concerns or aesthetic problems. The goal of this dissertation is to demonstrate novel approaches to improve the performance of point of use and municipal activated carbon processes to provide safe and reliable water to the public at distributed centralized locations. Template Assisted Crystallization system would adjust saturation index (SI) value of TAC treated water to zero when SI value of influent water was in the range at 0.08~0.3. However, the reduction in SI when SI values were higher (e.g. 0.7~1.3) was similar to the reduction at …

Contributors
Lee, Heuidae, Westerhoff, Paul, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2018

Characterization of petroleum spill site source zones directly influences the selection of corrective action plans and frequently affects the success of remediation efforts. For example, simply knowing whether or not nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) is present, or if there is chemical storage in less hydraulically accessible regions, will influence corrective action planning. The overarching objective of this study was to assess if macroscopic source zone features can be inferred from dissolved concentration vs. time data. Laboratory-scale physical model studies were conducted for idealized sources; defined as Type-1) NAPL-impacted high permeability zones, Type-2) NAPL-impacted lower permeability zones, and Type-3) dissolved chemical …

Contributors
Wilson, Sean, Johnson, Paul, Kavazanjian, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2014

Adenoviruses cause gastrointestinal illnesses and have been listed on the U.S. EPA’s Contaminant Candidate Lists (CCL). They are highly resistant to ultraviolet (UV) inactivation. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are known to improve inactivation of microorganisms and simultaneously oxidize organics. The bacteriophage P22 was selected as a surrogate for adenoviruses due to their physical and genetic similarities. The main objective of this study was to compare the synergic disinfection potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2) or peracetic acid (PAA) with UV for viruses and bacteria in water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale evaluation was done. A bench-scale collimated beam was included to evaluate …

Contributors
Nikougoftar Zarif, Majid, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2017

The North American Monsoon System (NAMS) contributes ~55% of the annual rainfall in the Chihuahuan Desert during the summer months. Relatively frequent, intense storms during the NAMS increase soil moisture, reduce surface temperature and lead to runoff in ephemeral channels. Quantifying these processes, however, is difficult due to the sparse nature of coordinated observations. In this study, I present results from a field network of rain gauges (n = 5), soil probes (n = 48), channel flumes (n = 4), and meteorological equipment in a small desert shrubland watershed (~0.05 km2) in the Jornada Experimental. Using this high-resolution network, I …

Contributors
Templeton, Ryan, Vivoni, Enrique R, Mays, Larry, et al.
Created Date
2011

Bacteroides have been suggested as alternative indicators of fecal pollution since they are highly abundant in feces and are thought to have limited potential to grow in environment. However, recent literature suggests that Bacteroides can potentially survive within water distribution systems. The first objective of this study was therefore to investigate the validity of Bacteroides as a fecal indicator for drinking water through laboratory experiments and field studies. Experiments were performed using a laboratory scale PVC model water distribution system that was spiked with 109 Bacteroides. Samples were collected over the following four and analyzed by culture and molecular-based techniques. …

Contributors
Dunkin, Nathan, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Alum, Absar, et al.
Created Date
2012

This study was devised to elucidate key information concerning the potential risk posed by Legionella in reclaimed water. A series of biological experiments and a recharge basin soil column study were conducted to examine the survival, growth, and transport of L. pneumophila through engineered reclaimed water systems. A pilot-scale, column study was set up to measure Legionella transport in the columns under Arizona recharge basin conditions. Two columns, A and B, were packed to a depth of 122 cm with a loamy sand media collected from a recharge basin in Mesa, Arizona. The grain size distribution of Column A differed …

Contributors
McBurnett, Lauren Rae, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Alum, Absar, et al.
Created Date
2014

One solution to mitigating global climate change is using cyanobacteria or single-celled algae (collectively microalgae) to replace petroleum-based fuels and products, thereby reducing the net release of carbon dioxide. This work develops and evaluates a mechanistic kinetic model for light-dependent microalgal growth. Light interacts with microalgae in a variety of positive and negative ways that are captured by the model: light intensity (LI) attenuates through a microalgal culture, light absorption provides the energy and electron flows that drive photosynthesis, microalgae pool absorbed light energy, microalgae acclimate to different LI conditions, too-high LI causes damage to the cells’ photosystems, and sharp …

Contributors
Straka, Levi, Rittmann, Bruce E, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2017

Safe, readily available, and reliable sources of water are an essential component of any municipality’s infrastructure. Phoenix, Arizona, a southwestern city, has among the highest per capita water use in the United States, making it essential to carefully manage its reservoirs. Generally, municipal water bodies are monitored through field sampling. However, this approach is limited spatially and temporally in addition to being costly. In this study, the application of remotely sensed reflectance data from Landsat 7’s Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat 8’s Operational Land Imager (OLI) along with data generated through field-sampling is used to gain a better …

Contributors
Russell, Jazmine B, Neuer, Susanne, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2018

Granular activated carbon (GAC) is effectively used to remove natural organic matter (NOM) and to assist in the removal of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and their precursors. However, operation of GAC is cost- and labor-intensive due to frequent media replacement. Optimizing the use of GAC is necessary to ensure treatment efficiency while reducing costs. This dissertation presents four strategies to reduce improve GAC usage while reducing formation of DBPs. The first part of this work adopts Rapid Small Scale Tests (RSSCTs) to evaluate removal of molecular weight fractions of NOM, characterized using size exclusion chromatography (SECDOC). Total trihalomethanes (TTHM), haloacetic acids …

Contributors
Fischer, Natalia, Westerhoff, Paul, Hristovski, Kiril, et al.
Created Date
2017

Bacteria of the Legionella genus are a water-borne pathogen of increasing concern due to being responsible for more annual drinking water related disease outbreaks in the United States than all other microbes combined. Unfortunately, the development of public health policies concerning Legionella has impeded by several key factors, including a paucity of data on their interactions and growth requirements in water distribution networks, a poor understanding of potential transmission sources for legionellosis, and limitations in current methodology for the characterization of these pathogens. To address these issues, a variety of research approaches were taken. By measuring Legionella survival in tap …

Contributors
Schwake, David Otto, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Alum, Absar, et al.
Created Date
2014

Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are an effective methodology used for storm water management particularly for large urban parking lots. An optimization model for the design of vegetative filter strips that minimizes the amount of land required for stormwater management using the VFS is developed in this study. The resulting optimization model is based upon the kinematic wave equation for overland sheet flow along with equations defining the cumulative infiltration and infiltration rate. In addition to the stormwater management function, Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are effective mechanisms for control of sediment flow and soil erosion from agricultural and urban lands. Erosion …

Contributors
Khatavkar, Puneet Nandkumar, Mays, Larry W, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2015

Bioretention basins are a common stormwater best management practice (BMP) used to mitigate the hydrologic consequences of urbanization. Dry wells, also known as vadose-zone wells, have been used extensively in bioretention basins in Maricopa County, Arizona to decrease total drain time and recharge groundwater. A mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model has been developed for the minimum cost design of bioretention basins with dry wells. The model developed simultaneously determines the peak stormwater inflow from watershed parameters and optimizes the size of the basin and the number and depth of dry wells based on infiltration, evapotranspiration (ET), and dry well …

Contributors
Lacy, Mason Lacy, Mays, Larry W, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2016

In the recent past, Iraq was considered relatively rich considering its water resources compared to its surroundings. Currently, the magnitude of water resource shortages in Iraq represents an important factor in the stability of the country and in protecting sustained economic development. The need for a practical, applicable, and sustainable river basin management for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq is essential. Applicable water resources allocation scenarios are important to minimize the potential future water crises in connection with water quality and quantity. The allocation of the available fresh water resources in addition to reclaimed water to different users …

Contributors
Ahmed, Ahmed Abdulrazzaq, Mays, Larry W, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2019

A model is presented for real-time, river-reservoir operation systems. It epitomizes forward-thinking and efficient approaches to reservoir operations during flooding events. The optimization/simulation includes five major components. The components are a mix of hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, short-term rainfall forecasting, and optimization and reservoir operation models. The optimization/simulation model is designed for ultimate accessibility and efficiency. The optimization model uses the meta-heuristic approach, which has the capability to simultaneously search for multiple optimal solutions. The dynamics of the river are simulated by applying an unsteady flow-routing method. The rainfall-runoff simulation uses the National Weather Service NexRad gridded rainfall data, since …

Contributors
Che, Daniel, Mays, Larry W, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2015

The influence of climate variability and reclaimed wastewater on the water supply necessitates improved understanding of the treatability of trace and bulk organic matter. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) mobilized during extreme weather events and in treated wastewater includes natural organic matter (NOM), contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), and microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The goal of my dissertation was to quantify the impacts of extreme weather events on DOM in surface water and downstream treatment processes, and to improve membrane filtration efficiency and CECs oxidation efficiency during water reclamation with ozone. Surface water quality, air quality and hydrologic flow rate …

Contributors
Barry, Michelle Cummings, Barry, Michelle C, Westerhoff, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2014

One of the two objectives of this dissertation is an investigation into the possible correlation between rainfall events and increased levels of E. coli and Mycobacterium using an existing data set. The literature states that levels of microbial concentrations do increase after rainfall events, but there are no studies to indicate this correlation applies in any Arizona water systems. The data analyzed for the bacterial concentrations project suggested the possibility of a correlation along one river but it is not conclusive to state that any correlation exists between rainfall events and the microbial concentration for many other sites included in …

Contributors
Buell, Andrew, Fox, Peter, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, et al.
Created Date
2018

The objective of this research was to predict the persistence of potential future contaminants in indirect potable reuse systems. In order to accurately estimate the fates of future contaminants in indirect potable reuse systems, results describing persistence from EPI Suite were modified to include sorption and oxidation. The target future contaminants studied were the approximately 2000 pharmaceuticals currently undergoing testing by United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). Specific organic substances such as analgesics, antibiotics, and pesticides were used to verify the predicted half-lives by comparing with reported values in the literature. During sub-surface transport, an important component of …

Contributors
Lim, Seung Joo, Fox, Peter, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, et al.
Created Date
2011

Flooding is a critical issue around the world, and the absence of comprehension of watershed hydrologic reaction results in lack of lead-time for flood forecasting and expensive harm to property and life. It happens when water flows due to extreme rainfall storm, dam breach or snowmelt exceeds the capacity of river system reservoirs and channels. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology for determining a time series operation for releases through control gates of river-reservoir systems during flooding events in a real-time using one- and/or two-dimensional modeling of flows through river-reservoir systems. The optimization-simulation methodology interfaces several …

Contributors
Albo-Salih, Hasan Hadi Kraidi, Mays, Larry W, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2019

Large-scale cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms for the production of biodiesel and other valuable commodities must be made more efficient. Recycling the water and nutrients acquired from biomass harvesting promotes a more sustainable and economically viable enterprise. This study reports on growing the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using permeate obtained from concentrating the biomass by cross-flow membrane filtration. I used a kinetic model based on the available light intensity (LI) to predict biomass productivity and evaluate overall performance. During the initial phase of the study, I integrated a membrane filter with a bench-top photobioreactor (PBR) and created a continuously operating …

Contributors
Thompson, Matthew John, Rittmann, Bruce E, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2015

Chloride solutions have historically been used to stabilize roads and to prevent dust; however, very little work has been done on investigating the soil stabilizing benefits from interactions between salt solutions and different soil types. The primary goal of this research was to analyze the feasibility of utilizing a salt waste product as an economically and environmentally responsible means of dust control and/or soil stabilization. Specifically, this study documents an investigation leading to the understanding of how the addition of saline based waste products, when using a soil stabilizer, modifies the strength behavior of soils. The scope of work included …

Contributors
Fakih, Ali, Kaloush, Kamil Elias, Zapata, Claudia E, et al.
Created Date
2017

The consumption of feedstocks from agriculture and forestry by current biofuel production has raised concerns about food security and land availability. In the meantime, intensive human activities have created a large amount of marginal lands that require management. This study investigated the viability of aligning land management with biofuel production on marginal lands. Biofuel crop production on two types of marginal lands, namely urban vacant lots and abandoned mine lands (AMLs), were assessed. The investigation of biofuel production on urban marginal land was carried out in Pittsburgh between 2008 and 2011, using the sunflower gardens developed by a Pittsburgh non-profit …

Contributors
Zhao, Xi, Landis, Amy, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2013

Quagga mussels are an aquatic invasive species capable of causing economic and ecological damage. Despite the quagga mussels’ ability to rapidly spread, two watersheds, the Salt River system and the Verde River system of Arizona, both had no quagga mussel detections for 8 years. The main factor thought to deter quagga mussels was the stratification of the two watersheds during the summer, resulting in high temperatures in the epilimnion and low dissolved oxygen in the hypolimnion. In 2015, Canyon Lake, a reservoir of the Salt River watershed, tested positive for quagga mussel veligers. In this study, I used Landsat 7 …

Contributors
Lau, Theresa, Fox, Peter, Neuer, Susanne, et al.
Created Date
2018

To address sustainability issues in wastewater treatment (WWT), Siemens Water Technologies (SWT) has designed a "hybrid" process that couples common activated sludge (AS) and anaerobic digestion (AD) technologies with the novel concepts of AD sludge recycle and biosorption. At least 85% of the hybrid's AD sludge is recycled to the AS process, providing additional sorbent for influent particulate chemical oxygen demand (PCOD) biosorption in contact tanks. Biosorbed PCOD is transported to the AD, where it is converted to methane. The aim of this study is to provide mass balance and microbial community analysis (MCA) of SWT's two hybrid and one …

Contributors
Young, Michelle Nichole, Rittmann, Bruce E., Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2011

Water quality in surface water is frequently degraded by fecal contamination from human and animal sources, imposing negative implications for recreational water use and public safety. For this reason it is critical to identify the source of fecal contamination in bodies of water in order to take proper corrective actions for controlling fecal pollution. Bacteroides genetic markers have been widely used to differentiate human from other sources of fecal bacteria in water. The results of this study indicate that many assays currently used to detect human-specific Bacteroides produce false positive results in the presence of freshwater fish. To further characterize …

Contributors
Kabiri, Leila, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Bingham, Scott, et al.
Created Date
2012

Legionella pneumophila is a waterborne pathogen that causes Legionnaires' disease, an infection which can lead to potentially fatal pneumonia. In a culture-based technique, Legionella is detected using buffered charcoal-yeast extract (BCYE) agar supplemented with L-cysteine, Iron salt and antibiotics. These supplements provide essential and complex nutrient requirements and help in the suppression of non-target bacteria in Legionella analysis. Legionella occurs naturally in freshwater environments and for their detection; a sample is plated on solid agar media and then incubated for several days. There are many challenges in the detection of Legionella in environmental waters and the built environments. A common …

Contributors
Aloraini, Saleh, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2018

This study was designed to provide insight into microbial transport kinetics which might be applied to bioremediation technology development and prevention of groundwater susceptibility to pathogen contamination. Several pilot-scale experiments were conducted in a saturated, 2 dimensional, packed porous media tank to investigate the transport of Escherichia coli bacteria, P22 bacteriophage, and a visual tracer and draw comparisons and/or conclusions. A constructed tank was packed with an approximate 3,700 cubic inches (in3) of a fine grained, homogeneous, chemically inert sand which allowed for a controlled system. Sampling ports were located at 5, 15, 25, and 25 vertical inches from the …

Contributors
Acosta, Jazlyn Cauren, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Dahlen, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2017

Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) present in wastewater effluent can threat its safe discharge or reuse. Additional barriers of protection can be provided using advanced or natural treatment processes. This dissertation evaluated ozonation and constructed wetlands to remove CECs from wastewater effluent. Organic CECs can be removed by hydroxyl radical formed during ozonation, however estimating the ozone demand of wastewater effluent is complicated due to the presence of reduced inorganic species. A method was developed to estimate ozone consumption only by dissolved organic compounds and predict trace organic oxidation across multiple wastewater sources. Organic and engineered nanomaterial (ENM) CEC removal …

Contributors
Sharif, Fariya, Westerhoff, Paul, Halden, Rolf, et al.
Created Date
2013

The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of fluorescent microspheres as a surrogate to measure the removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts through the coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration steps of conventional water treatment. In order to maintain accuracy and applicability, a local water treatment facility was chosen as the system to model. The city of Chandler Arizona utilizes conventional treatment methodologies to remove pathogens from municipal drinking water and thus the water, coagulant, polymer, and doses concentrations were sourced directly from the plant. Jar testing was performed on four combinations of coagulant, polymer, and fluorescent microsphere to determine …

Contributors
Links, Alexander Glenn, Abbaszadegan, Morteza, Alum, Absar, et al.
Created Date
2015

C.C. Cragin Reservoir’s location in the Coconino National Forest, Arizona makes it prone to wild fire. This study focused on the potential impacts of such a wild fire on the reservoir’s annual thermal stratification cycle impacts and water quality. The annual thermal stratification cycle impacted the reservoir’s water quality by increasing hypolimnion concentrations of magnesium, iron, turbidity, and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) values, as well as resulting in the hypolimnion having decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations during stratified months. The scarification process did not affect the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the reservoir or the total/dissolved nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations. …

Contributors
Flatebo, Theodore, Westerhoff, Paul K, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2018

The phrase water-energy nexus is commonly used to describe the inherent and critical interdependencies between the electric power system and the water supply systems (WSS). The key interdependencies between the two systems are the power plant’s requirement of water for the cooling cycle and the water system’s need of electricity for pumping for water supply. While previous work has considered the dependency of WSS on the electrical power, this work incorporates into an optimization-simulation framework, consideration of the impact of short and long-term limited availability of water and/or electrical energy. This research focuses on the water supply system (WSS) facet …

Contributors
Khatavkar, Puneet Nandkumar, Mays, Larry W, Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2019

Local municipalities in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area have voiced an interest in purchasing alternate source water with lower DBP precursors. Along the primary source is a hydroelectric dam in which water will be diverted from. This project is an assessment of optimizing the potential blends of source water to a water treatment plant in an effort to enable them to more readily meet DBP regulations. To perform this analysis existing water treatment models were used in conjunction with historic water quality sampling data to predict chemical usage necessary to meet DBP regulations. A retrospective analysis was performed for the summer …

Contributors
Rice, Jacelyn, Westerhoff, Paul, Fox, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2011