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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Subject
Date Range
2010 2019


Recombinant protein expression is essential to biotechnology and molecular medicine, but facile methods for obtaining significant quantities of folded and functional protein in mammalian cell culture have been lacking. Here I describe a novel 37-nucleotide in vitro selected sequence that promotes unusually high transgene expression in a vaccinia driven cytoplasmic expression system. Vectors carrying this sequence in a monocistronic reporter plasmid produce >1,000-fold more protein than equivalent vectors with conventional vaccinia promoters. Initial mechanistic studies indicate that high protein expression results from dual activity that impacts both transcription and translation. I suggest that this motif represents a powerful new tool …

Contributors
Flores, Julia Anne, Chaput, John C, Jacobs, Bertram, et al.
Created Date
2012

The communication of genetic material with biomolecules has been a major interest in cancer biology research for decades. Among its different levels of involvement, DNA is known to be a target of several antitumor agents. Additionally, tissue specific interaction between macromolecules such as proteins and structurally important regions of DNA has been reported to define the onset of certain types of cancers. Illustrated in Chapter 1 is the general history of research on the interaction of DNA and anticancer drugs, most importantly different congener of bleomycin (BLM). Additionally, several synthetic analogues of bleomycin, including the structural components and functionalities, are …

Contributors
Roy, Basab, Hecht, Sidney M, Jones, Anne, et al.
Created Date
2014

The ability to manipulate the interaction between small molecules and biological macromolecules towards the study of disease pathogenesis has become a very important part of research towards treatment options for various diseases. The work described here shows both the use of DNA oligonucleotides as carriers for a nicotine hapten small molecule, and the use of microsomes to study the stability of compounds derived to treat mitochondrial diseases. Nicotine addiction is a worldwide epidemic because nicotine is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It is linked to early death, typically in the form of heart or lung disease. A …

Contributors
Schmierer, Margaret Louise, Hecht, Sidney M, Allen, James, et al.
Created Date
2016

Conformational changes in biomolecules often take place on longer timescales than are easily accessible with unbiased molecular dynamics simulations, necessitating the use of enhanced sampling techniques, such as adaptive umbrella sampling. In this technique, the conformational free energy is calculated in terms of a designated set of reaction coordinates. At the same time, estimates of this free energy are subtracted from the potential energy in order to remove free energy barriers and cause conformational changes to take place more rapidly. This dissertation presents applications of adaptive umbrella sampling to a variety of biomolecular systems. The first study investigated the effects …

Contributors
Spiriti, Justin Matthew, Van Der Vaart, Arjan, Chizmeshya, Andrew, et al.
Created Date
2011

The basic scheme for photosynthesis suggests the two photosystems existing in parity with one another. However, cyanobacteria typically maintain significantly more photosystem I (PSI) than photosystem II (PSII) complexes. I set out to evaluate this disparity through development and analysis of multiple mutants of the genetically tractable cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that exhibit a range of expression levels of the main proteins present in PSI (Chapter 2). One hypothesis was that the higher abundance of PSI in this organism is used to enable more cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI to contribute to greater ATP synthesis. Results of this …

Contributors
Moore, Vicki, Vermaas, Willem, Wang, Xuan, et al.
Created Date
2017

Mexican Americans have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association of hyperglycemia with traditional CVD risk factors in this population has been established, but there is limited data regarding other non-traditional CVD risk factors. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate CVD risk among Mexican Americans by measuring concentrations of lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cholesterol in low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions. Eighty overweight/obese Mexican-American adults participating in the Maricopa Insulin Resistance Initiative were randomly selected from each of the following four groups (n = 20 per group): nomolipidemic/normoglycemic controls …

Contributors
Neupane, Srijana, Vega-Lopez, Sonia, Shaibi, Gabriel Q, et al.
Created Date
2011

In eukaryotes, DNA is packed in a highly condensed and hierarchically organized structure called chromatin, in which DNA tightly wraps around the histone octamer consisting of one histone 3-histone 4 (H3-H4) tetramer and two histone 2A- histone 2B (H2A-H2B) dimers with 147 base pairs in an almost two left handed turns. Almost all DNA dependent cellular processes, such as DNA duplication, transcription, DNA repair and recombination, take place in the chromatin form. Based on the critical importance of appropriate chromatin condensation, this thesis focused on the folding behavior of the nucleosome array reconstituted using different templates with various controllable factors …

Contributors
Fu, Qiang, Lindsay, Stuart M, Yan, Hao, et al.
Created Date
2010

The elaborate signals of animals are often costly to produce and maintain, thus communicating reliable information about the quality of an individual to potential mates or competitors. The properties of the sensory systems that receive signals can drive the evolution of these signals and shape their form and function. However, relatively little is known about the ecological and physiological constraints that may influence the development and maintenance of sensory systems. In the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) and many other bird species, carotenoid pigments are used to create colorful sexually selected displays, and their expression is limited by health and dietary …

Contributors
Toomey, Matthew B, Mcgraw, Kevin J, Deviche, Pierre, et al.
Created Date
2011

Biochemical reactions underlie all living processes. Their complex web of interactions is difficult to fully capture and quantify with simple mathematical objects. Applying network science to biology has advanced our understanding of the metabolisms of individual organisms and the organization of ecosystems, but has scarcely been applied to life at a planetary scale. To characterize planetary-scale biochemistry, I constructed biochemical networks using global databases of annotated genomes and metagenomes, and biochemical reactions. I uncover scaling laws governing biochemical diversity and network structure shared across levels of organization from individuals to ecosystems, to the biosphere as a whole. Comparing real biochemical …

Contributors
Smith, Harrison Brodsky, Walker, Sara I, Anbar, Ariel D, et al.
Created Date
2018

Development of efficient and renewable electrocatalytic systems is foundational to creation of effective means to produce solar fuels. Many redox enzymes are functional electrocatalysts when immobilized on an electrode, but long-term stability of isolated proteins limits use in applications. Thus there is interest in developing bio-inspired functional catalysts or electrocatalytic systems based on living organisms. This dissertation describes efforts to create both synthetic and biological electrochemical systems for electrocatalytic hydrogen production. The first part of this dissertation describes the preparation of three different types of proton reduction catalysts. First, four bioinspired diiron complexes of the form (μ-SRS)Fe(CO)3[Fe(CO)(N-N)] for SRS = …

Contributors
Laureanti, Joseph Anthony, Jones, Anne K., Moore, Thomas, et al.
Created Date
2017

The bleomycins are a family of glycopeptide-derived antibiotics isolated from various Streptomyces species and have been the subject of much attention from the scientific community as a consequence of their antitumor activity. Bleomycin clinically and is an integral part of a number of combination chemotherapy regimens. It has previously been shown that bleomycin has the ability to selectively target tumor cells over their non-malignant counterparts. Pyrimidoblamic acid, the N-terminal metal ion binding domain of bleomycin is known to be the moiety that is responsible for O2 activation and the subsequent chemistry leading to DNA strand scission and overall antitumor activity. …

Contributors
Bozeman, Trevor, Hecht, Sidney M, Chaput, John, et al.
Created Date
2013

Cancer is a major public health challenge and the second leading cause of death in the United States. Large amount of effort has been made to achieve sensitive and specific detection of cancer, and to predict the course of cancer. Glycans are promising avenues toward the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer, because aberrant glycosylation is a prevalent hallmark of diverse types of cancer. A bottom-up “glycan node analysis” approach was employed as a useful tool, which captures most essential glycan features from blood plasma or serum (P/S) specimens and quantifies them as single analytical signals, to a lung cancer set …

Contributors
Hu, Yueming, Borges, Chad R, Ros, Alexandra, et al.
Created Date
2019

Dietary protein is known to increase postprandial thermogenesis more so than carbohydrates or fats, probably related to the fact that amino acids have no immediate form of storage in the body and can become toxic if not readily incorporated into body tissues or excreted. It is also well documented that subjects report greater satiety on high- versus low-protein diets and that subject compliance tends to be greater on high-protein diets, thus contributing to their popularity. What is not as well known is how a high-protein diet affects resting metabolic rate over time, and what is even less well known is …

Contributors
Moore, Amy, Johnston, Carol, Appel, Christy, et al.
Created Date
2012

The linear chromosomes ends in eukaryotes are protected by telomeres, a nucleoprotein structure that contains telomeric DNA with repetitive sequence and associated proteins. Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that adds telomeric DNA repeats to the 3'-ends of chromosomes to offset the loss of terminal DNA repeats during DNA replication. It consists of two core components: a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and a telomerase RNA (TR). Telomerase uses a short sequence in its integral RNA component as template to add multiple DNA repeats in a processive manner. However, it remains unclear how the telomerase utilizes the short RNA template accurately …

Contributors
Chen, Yinnan, Chen, Julian J-L, Jones, Anne K, et al.
Created Date
2018

Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) is an enzyme that catalyzes disulfide bond formation by oxidizing two free sulfhydryl groups. QSOX1 consists of a thioredoxin (Trx) and an ERV (essential for respiration and viability)/ALR (augmenter of liver regeneration) domain which each contain CxxC motifs that work to bind to substrates and shuttle electrons to a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor that accepts the electrons and reduces molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Investigation of the role of QSOX1 in cancer progression started when it was found at higher abundance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) patient plasma compared to healthy normal donor plasma. …

Contributors
Koelbel, Calvin, Lake, Douglas, Chen, Qiang "Shawn", et al.
Created Date
2019

In my thesis, I characterize multi-nuclear manganese cofactors in modified reaction centers from the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. I characterized interactions between a variety of secondary electron donors and modified reaction centers. In Chapter 1, I provide the research aims, background, and a summary of the chapters in my thesis. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, I present my work with artificial four-helix bundles as secondary electron donors to modified bacterial reaction centers. In Chapter 2, I characterize the binding and energetics of the P1 Mn-protein, as a secondary electron donor to modified reaction centers. In Chapter 3, I present the …

Contributors
Espiritu, Eduardo, Allen, James P, Jones, Anne K, et al.
Created Date
2019

A novel small metal-binding protein (SmbP), with only 93 residues and no similarity to other known proteins, has been isolated from the periplasm of Nitrosomonas europaea. It is characterized by its high percentage (17%) of histidines, a motif of ten repeats of seven residues, a four α-helix bundle structure, and a high binding affinity to about six equivalents of Cu2+. The goal of this study is to investigate the Cu2+ binding sites in SmbP and to understand how Cu2+ stabilizes the protein. Preliminary folding experiments indicated that Cu2+ greatly stabilizes SmbP. In this study, protein folding data from circular dichroism …

Contributors
Yan, Qin, Francisco, Wilson A, Allen, James, et al.
Created Date
2010

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease that results in the loss of lower body muscle function. SMA is the second leading genetic cause of death in infants and arises from the loss of the Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein. SMN is produced by two genes, smn1 and smn2, that are identical with the exception of a C to T conversion in exon 7 of the smn2 gene. SMA patients lacking the smn1 gene, rely on smn2 for production of SMN. Due to an alternative splicing event, smn2 primarily encodes a non-functional SMN lacking exon 7 (SMN D7) …

Contributors
Niday, Tracy Christina, Allen, James P, Wachter, Rebekka, et al.
Created Date
2012

The heliobacterial reaction center (HbRC) is widely considered the simplest and most primitive photosynthetic reaction center (RC) still in existence. Despite the simplicity of the HbRC, many aspects of the electron transfer mechanism remain unknown or under debate. Improving our understanding of the structure and function of the HbRC is important in determining its role in the evolution of photosynthetic RCs. In this work, the function and properties of the iron-sulfur cluster FX and quinones of the HbRC were investigated, as these are the characteristic terminal electron acceptors used by Type-I and Type-II RCs, respectively. In Chapter 3, I develop …

Contributors
Cowgill, John, Redding, Kevin, Jones, Anne, et al.
Created Date
2012

The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like fluorescent proteins play an important role for the color of reef-building corals. Different colors of extant coral fluorescent proteins (FPs) have evolved from a green ancestral protein. Interestingly, green-to-red photoconversion FPs (Kaede-type Red FPs) are only found in clade D from Scleractinia (Faviina suborder). Therefore, I focus on the evolution of Kaede-type FPs from Faviina suborder ancestral FP. A total of 13 mutations have been identified previously that recapitulate the evolution of Kaede-type red FPs from the ancestral green FP. To examine the effect of each mutation, total ten reconstructed FPs were analyzed and six …

Contributors
Kim, Hanseong, Wachter, Rebekka M, Fromme, Petra, et al.
Created Date
2012

Most drugs work by binding to receptors on the cell surface. These receptors can then carry the message into the cell and have a wide array of results. However, studying how fast the binding is can be difficult. Current methods involve extracting the receptor and labeling them, but both these steps have issues. Previous works found that binding on the cell surface is accompanied with a small change in cell size, generally an increase. They have also developed an algorithm that can track these small changes without a label using a simple bright field microscope. Here, this relationship is further …

Contributors
Hunt, Ashley, Tao, Nongjian, Ros, Alexandra, et al.
Created Date
2018

One of the greatest problems facing society today is the development of a sustainable, carbon neutral energy source to curb the reliance on fossil fuel combustion as the primary source of energy. To overcome this challenge, research efforts have turned to biology for inspiration, as nature is adept at inter-converting low molecular weight precursors into complex molecules. A number of inorganic catalysts have been reported that mimic the active sites of energy-relevant enzymes such as hydrogenases and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. However, these inorganic models fail to achieve the high activity of the enzymes, which function in aqueous systems, as they …

Contributors
Sommer, Dayn Joseph, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, Redding, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2016

An animal's ability to produce protein-based silk materials has evolved independently in many different arthropod lineages, satisfying various ecological necessities. However, regardless of their wide range of uses and their potential industrial and biomedical applications, advanced knowledge on the molecular structure of silk biopolymers is largely limited to those produced by spiders (order Araneae) and silkworms (order Lepidoptera). This thesis provides an in-depth molecular-level characterization of silk fibers produced by two vastly different insects: the caddisfly larvae (order Trichoptera) and the webspinner (order Embioptera). The molecular structure of caddisfly larval silk from the species <italic>Hesperophylax consimilis</italic> was characterized using solid-state …

Contributors
Addison, John Bennett, Yarger, Jeffery L, Holland, Gregory P, et al.
Created Date
2014

A major goal of synthetic biology is to recapitulate emergent properties of life. Despite a significant body of work, a longstanding question that remains to be answered is how such a complex system arose? In this dissertation, synthetic nucleic acid molecules with alternative sugar-phosphate backbones were investigated as potential ancestors of DNA and RNA. Threose nucleic acid (TNA) is capable of forming stable helical structures with complementary strands of itself and RNA. This provides a plausible mechanism for genetic information transfer between TNA and RNA. Therefore TNA has been proposed as a potential RNA progenitor. Using molecular evolution, functional sequences …

Contributors
Zhang, Su, Chaut, John C, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, et al.
Created Date
2011

Advances in chemical synthesis have enabled new lines of research with unnatural genetic polymers whose modified bases or sugar-phosphate backbones have potential therapeutic and biotechnological applications. Maximizing the potential of these synthetic genetic systems requires inventing new molecular biology tools that can both generate and faithfully replicate unnatural polymers of significant length. Threose nucleic acid (TNA) has received significant attention as a complete replication system has been developed by engineering natural polymerases to broaden their substrate specificity. The system, however, suffers from a high mutational load reducing its utility. This thesis will cover the development of two new polymerases capable …

Contributors
Dunn, Matthew Ryan, Chaput, John C, LaBaer, Joshua, et al.
Created Date
2015

Protein affinity reagents have aptly gained profound importance as capture reagents and drugs in basic research, biotechnology, diagnostics and therapeutics. However, due to the cost, labor and time associated with production of antibodies focus has recently changed towards potential of peptides to act as protein affinity reagents. Affinity peptides are easy to work with, non-immunogenic, cost effective and amenable to scale up. Even though researchers have developed several affinity peptides, we are far from compiling library of peptides that encompasses entire human proteome. My thesis describes high throughput pipeline that can be used to develop and characterize affinity peptides that …

Contributors
Shah, Pankti, Chaput, John, Hecht, Sidney, et al.
Created Date
2014

Biological fluids contain information-rich mixtures of biochemicals and particles such as cells, proteins, and viruses. Selective and sensitive analysis of these fluids can enable clinicians to accurately diagnose a wide range of pathologies. Fluid samples such as these present an intriguing challenge to researchers; they are packed with potentially vital information, but notoriously difficult to analyze. Rapid and inexpensive analysis of blood and other bodily fluids is a topic gaining substantial attention in both science and medicine. Current limitations to many analyses include long culture times, expensive reagents, and the need for specialized laboratory facilities and personnel. Improving these tests …

Contributors
Jones, Paul Vernon, Hayes, Mark, Ros, Alexandra, et al.
Created Date
2015

The principle of Darwinian evolution has been applied in the laboratory to nucleic acid molecules since 1990, and led to the emergence of in vitro evolution technique. The methodology of in vitro evolution surveys a large number of different molecules simultaneously for a pre-defined chemical property, and enrich for molecules with the particular property. DNA and RNA sequences with versatile functions have been identified by in vitro selection experiments, but many basic questions remain to be answered about how these molecules achieve their functions. This dissertation first focuses on addressing a fundamental question regarding the molecular recognition properties of in …

Contributors
Yu, Hanyang, Chaput, John C, Chen, Julian, et al.
Created Date
2013

Glycans are monosaccharide-based heteropolymers that are found covalently attached to many different proteins and lipids and are ubiquitously displayed on the exterior surfaces of cells. Serum glycan composition and structure are well known to be altered in many different types of cancer. In fact, glycans represent a promising but only marginally accessed source of cancer markers. The approach used in this dissertation, which is referred to as “glycan node analysis”, is a molecularly bottom-up approach to plasma/serum (P/S) glycomics based on glycan linkage analysis that captures features such as α2-6 sialylation, β1-6 branching, and core fucosylation as single analytical signals. …

Contributors
Roshdiferdosi, Shadi, Borges, Chad R, Woodbury, Neal, et al.
Created Date
2018

Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) is a naturally occurring lectin originally isolated from the cyanobacteria Nostoc ellipsosporum. This 11 kDa lectin is 101 amino acids long with two binding sites, one at each end of the protein. CV-N specifically binds to terminal Man&alpha;1-2Man&alpha; motifs on the branched, high mannose Man9 and Man8 glycosylations found on enveloped viruses including Ebola, Influenza, and HIV. wt-CVN has micromolar binding to soluble Man&alpha;1-2Man&alpha; and also inhibits HIV entry at low nanomolar concentrations. CV-N's high affinity and specificity for Man&alpha;1-2Man&alpha; makes it an excellent lectin to study for its glycan-specific properties. The long-term aim of this project is …

Contributors
Ruben, Melissa, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, Allen, James, et al.
Created Date
2013

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a biopolymer well known for its role in preserving genetic information in biology, is now drawing great deal of interest from material scientists. Ease of synthesis, predictable molecular recognition via Watson-Crick base pairing, vast numbers of available chemical modifications, and intrinsic nanoscale size makes DNA a suitable material for the construction of a plethora of nanostructures that can be used as scaffold to organize functional molecules with nanometer precision. This dissertation focuses on DNA-directed organization of metallic nanoparticles into well-defined, discrete structures and using them to study photonic interaction between fluorophore and metal particle. Presented here are …

Contributors
Pal, Suchetan, Liu, Yan, Yan, Hao, et al.
Created Date
2012

DNA nanotechnology has been a rapidly growing research field in the recent decades, and there have been extensive efforts to construct various types of highly programmable and robust DNA nanostructures. Due to the advantage that DNA nanostructure can be used to organize biochemical molecules with precisely controlled spatial resolution, herein we used DNA nanostructure as a scaffold for biological applications. Targeted cell-cell interaction was reconstituted through a DNA scaffolded multivalent bispecific aptamer, which may lead to promising potentials in tumor therapeutics. In addition a synthetic vaccine was constructed using DNA nanostructure as a platform to assemble both model antigen and …

Contributors
Liu, Xiaowei, Liu, Yan, Chang, Yung, et al.
Created Date
2012

Nature is a master at organizing biomolecules in all intracellular processes, and researchers have conducted extensive research to understand the way enzymes interact with each other through spatial and orientation positioning, substrate channeling, compartmentalization, and more. DNA nanostructures of high programmability and complexity provide excellent scaffolds to arrange multiple molecular/macromolecular components at nanometer scale to construct interactive biomolecular complexes and networks. Due to the sequence specificity at different positions of the DNA origami nanostructures, spatially addressable molecular pegboard with a resolution of several nm (less than 10 nm) can be achieved. So far, DNA nanostructures can be used to build …

Contributors
Yang, Yuhe Renee, Yan, Hao, Liu, Yan, et al.
Created Date
2016

The need for a renewable and sustainable light-driven energy source is the motivation for this work, which utilizes a challenging, yet practical and attainable bio-inspired approach to develop an artificial oxygen evolving complex, which builds upon the principles of the natural water splitting mechanism in oxygenic photosynthesis. In this work, a stable framework consisting of a three-dimensional DNA tetrahedron has been used for the design of a bio-mimic of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex (OEC) found in natural Photosystem II (PSII). PSII is a large protein complex that evolves all the oxygen in the atmosphere, but it cannot be used directly in …

Contributors
Rendek, Kim, Fromme, Petra, Chen, Julian, et al.
Created Date
2012

Biological systems have long been known to utilize two processes for energy conservation: substrate-level phosphorylation and electron transport phosphorylation. Recently, a new bioenergetic process was discovered that increases ATP yields: flavin-based electron bifurcation (FBEB). This process couples an energetically favorable reaction with an energetically unfavorable one to conserve energy in the organism. Currently, the mechanisms of enzymes that perform FBEB are unknown. In this work, NADH-dependent reduced ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase (Nfn), a FBEB enzyme, is used as a model system to study this phenomenon. Nfn is a heterodimeric enzyme that reversibly couples the exergonic reduction of NADP+ by reduced ferredoxin with …

Contributors
Jennings, David, Jones, Anne K, Redding, Kevin E, et al.
Created Date
2018

Exposure of blood plasma/serum (P/S) to thawed conditions, greater than -30°C, can produce biomolecular changes that misleadingly impact measurements of clinical markers within archived samples. Reported here is a low sample-volume, dilute-and-shoot, intact protein mass spectrometric assay of albumin proteoforms called “ΔS-Cys-Albumin” that quantifies cumulative exposure of archived P/S samples to thawed conditions. The assay uses the fact that S-cysteinylation (oxidation) of albumin in P/S increases to a maximum value when exposed to temperatures greater than -30°C. The multi-reaction rate law that governs this albumin S-cysteinylation formation in P/S was determined and was shown to predict the rate of formation …

Contributors
Jeffs, Joshua W, Borges, Chad R, Van Horn, Wade, et al.
Created Date
2018

Biomass synthesis is a competing factor in biological systems geared towards generation of commodity and specialty chemicals, ultimately limiting maximum titer and yield; in this thesis, a widely generalizable, modular approach focused on decoupling biomass synthesis from the production of the phenylalanine in a genetically modified strain of E. coli BW25113 was explored with the use of synthetic trans-encoded small RNA (sRNA) to achieve greater efficiency. The naturally occurring sRNA MicC was used as a scaffold, and combined on a plasmid with a promoter for anhydrous tetracycline (aTc) and a T1/TE terminator. The coding sequence corresponding to the target binding …

Contributors
Herschel, Daniel Jordan, Nielsen, David R, Torres, Cesar I, et al.
Created Date
2016

Enzymes which regulate the metabolic reactions for sustaining all living things, are the engines of life. The discovery of molecules that are able to control enzyme activity is of great interest for therapeutics and the biocatalysis industry. Peptides are promising enzyme modulators due to their large chemical diversity and the existence of well-established methods for library synthesis. Microarrays represent a powerful tool for screening thousands of molecules, on a small chip, for candidates that interact with enzymes and modulate their functions. In this work, a method is presented for screening high-density arrays to discover peptides that bind and modulate enzyme …

Contributors
Fu, Jinglin, Woodbury, Neal W, Johnston, Stephen A, et al.
Created Date
2010

Protein-surface interactions, no matter structured or unstructured, are important in both biological and man-made systems. Unstructured interactions are more difficult to study with conventional techniques due to the lack of a specific binding structure. In this dissertation, a novel approach is employed to study the unstructured interactions between proteins and heterogonous surfaces, by looking at a large number of different binding partners at surfaces and using the binding information to understand the chemistry of binding. In this regard, surface-bound peptide arrays are used as a model for the study. Specifically, in Chapter 2, the effects of charge, hydrophobicity and length …

Contributors
Wang, Wei, Woodbury, Neal W, Liu, Yan, et al.
Created Date
2014

Telomerase is a unique reverse transcriptase that has evolved specifically to extend the single stranded DNA at the 3' ends of chromosomes. To achieve this, telomerase uses a small section of its integral RNA subunit (TR) to reiteratively copy a short, canonically 6-nt, sequence repeatedly in a processive manner using a complex and currently poorly understood mechanism of template translocation to stop nucleotide addition, regenerate its template, and then synthesize a new repeat. In this study, several novel interactions between the telomerase protein and RNA components along with the DNA substrate are identified and characterized which come together to allow …

Contributors
Brown, Andrew, Chen, Julian J. L., Jones, Anne, et al.
Created Date
2014

Alzheimer’s disease is a major problem affecting over 5.7 million Americans. Although much is known about the effects of this neurogenerative disease, the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. One very important characteristic of Alzheimer’s is the accumulation of beta amyloid protein which often results in plaques. To understand these beta amyloid proteins better, antibody fragments may be used to bind to these oligomers and potentially reduce the effects of Alzheimer’s disease. This thesis focused on the expression and crystallization the fragment antigen binding antibody fragment A4. A fragment antigen binding fragment was chosen to be worked with as it is …

Contributors
Colasurd, Paige, Nannenga, Brent, Mills, Jeremy, et al.
Created Date
2018

CTB-MPR649-684 is a translational fusion protein consisting of the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and the conserved residues 649-684 of gp41 membrane proximal region (MPR). It is a candidate vaccine component aimed at early steps of the HIV-1 infection by blocking viral mucosal transmission. Bacterially produced CTB-MPR was previously shown to induce HIV-1 transcytosis-blocking antibodies in mice and rabbits. However, the induction of high-titer MPR specific antibodies with HIV-1 transcytosis blocking ability remains a challenge as the immuno-dominance of CTB overshadows the response to MPR. X-ray crystallography was used to investigate the structure of CTB-MPR with the goal of identifying …

Contributors
Lee, Ho-Hsien, Fromme, Petra, Mor, Tsafrir, et al.
Created Date
2015

DNA has recently emerged as an extremely promising material to organize molecules on nanoscale. The reliability of base recognition, self-assembling behavior, and attractive structural properties of DNA are of unparalleled value in systems of this size. DNA scaffolds have already been used to organize a variety of molecules including nanoparticles and proteins. New protein-DNA bio-conjugation chemistries make it possible to precisely position proteins and other biomolecules on underlying DNA scaffolds, generating multi-biomolecule pathways with the ability to modulate inter-molecular interactions and the local environment. This dissertation focuses on studying the application of using DNA nanostructure to direct the self-assembly of …

Contributors
Liu, Minghui, Yan, Hao, Liu, Yan, et al.
Created Date
2013

The discovery of DNA helical structure opened the door of modern molecular biology. Ned Seeman utilized DNA as building block to construct different nanoscale materials, and introduced a new field, know as DNA nanotechnology. After several decades of development, different DNA structures had been created, with different dimension, different morphology and even with complex curvatures. In addition, after construction of enough amounts DNA structure candidates, DNA structure template, with excellent spatial addressability, had been used to direct the assembly of different nanomaterials, including nanoparticles and proteins, to produce different functional nanomaterials. However there are still many challenges to fabricate functional …

Contributors
Zhao, Zhao, Yan, Hao, Liu, Yan, et al.
Created Date
2013

Photosynthesis is the primary source of energy for most living organisms. Light harvesting complexes (LHC) play a vital role in harvesting sunlight and passing it on to the protein complexes of the electron transfer chain which create the electrochemical potential across the membrane which drives ATP synthesis. phycobilisomes (PBS) are the most important LHCs in cyanobacteria. PBS is a complex of three light harvesting proteins: phycoerythrin (PE), phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC). This work has been done on a newly discovered cyanobacterium called Leptolyngbya Heron Island (L.HI). This study has three important goals: 1) Sequencing, assembly and annotation of the …

Contributors
Paul, Robin, Fromme, Petra, Ros, Alexandra, et al.
Created Date
2014

Cyanovirin-N (CVN) is a cyanobacterial lectin with potent anti-HIV activity, mediated by binding to the N-linked oligosaccharide moiety of the envelope protein gp120. CVN offers a scaffold to develop multivalent carbohydrate-binding proteins with tunable specificities and affinities. I present here biophysical calculations completed on a monomeric-stabilized mutant of cyanovirin-N, P51G-m4-CVN, in which domain A binding activity is abolished by four mutations; with comparisons made to CVN<super>mutDB</super>, in which domain B binding activity is abolished. Using Monte Carlo calculations and docking simulations, mutations in CVN<super>mutDB</super> were considered singularly, and the mutations E41A/G and T57A were found to impact the affinity towards …

Contributors
Woodrum, Brian William, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, Redding, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2014

In vitro selection technologies allow for the identification of novel biomolecules endowed with desired functions. Successful selection methodologies share the same fundamental requirements. First, they must establish a strong link between the enzymatic function being selected (phenotype) and the genetic information responsible for the function (genotype). Second, they must enable partitioning of active from inactive variants, often capturing only a small number of positive hits from a large population of variants. These principles have been applied to the selection of natural, modified, and even unnatural nucleic acids, peptides, and proteins. The ability to select for and characterize new functional molecules …

Contributors
Larsen, Andrew, Chaput, John C, Jacobs, Bertram L, et al.
Created Date
2015

Telomerase is a specialized enzyme that adds telomeric DNA repeats to the chromosome ends to counterbalance the progressive telomere shortening over cell divisions. It has two essential core components, a catalytic telomerase reverse transcriptase protein (TERT), and a telomerase RNA (TR). TERT synthesizes telomeric DNA by reverse transcribing a short template sequence in TR. Unlike TERT, TR is extremely divergent in size, sequence and structure and has only been identified in three evolutionarily distant groups. The lack of knowledge on TR from important model organisms has been a roadblock for vigorous studies on telomerase regulation. To address this issue, a …

Contributors
Li, Yang, Chen, Julian Jl, Yan, Hao, et al.
Created Date
2011

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a class of complex biomolecules comprised of linear, sulfated polysaccharides whose presence on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix involve them in many physiological phenomena as well as in interactions with pathogenic microbes. Decorin binding protein A (DBPA), a Borrelia surface lipoprotein involved in the infectivity of Lyme disease, is responsible for binding GAGs found on decorin, a small proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix. Different DBPA strains have notable sequence heterogeneity that results in varying levels of GAG-binding affinity. In this dissertation, the structures and GAG-binding mechanisms for three strains of DBPA (B31 and N40 …

Contributors
Morgan, Ashli, Wang, Xu, Allen, James, et al.
Created Date
2015

Since Darwin popularized the evolution theory in 1895, it has been completed and studied through the years. Starting in 1990s, evolution at molecular level has been used to discover functional molecules while studying the origin of functional molecules in nature by mimicing the natural selection process in laboratory. Along this line, my Ph.D. dissertation focuses on the in vitro selection of two important biomolecules, deoxynucleotide acid (DNA) and protein with binding properties. Chapter two focuses on in vitro selection of DNA. Aptamers are single-stranded nucleic acids that generated from a random pool and fold into stable three-dimensional structures with ligand …

Contributors
Jiang, Bing, Chaput, John C, Chen, Julian, et al.
Created Date
2013

The metalloenzyme quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (QueD) catalyzes the oxidative decomposition of the aromatic compound, quercetin. The most recently characterized example is a product of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis (BsQueD); all previous examples were fungal enzymes from the genus Aspergillus (AQueD). AQueD contains a single atom of Cu(II) per monomer. However, BsQueD, over expressed in Escherichia coli, contains Mn(II) and has two metal-binding sites, and therefore two possible active sites per monomer. To understand the contribution of each site to BsQueD's activity, the N-terminal and C-terminal metal-binding sites have been mutated individually in an effort to disrupt metal binding. In wild type …

Contributors
Bowen, Sara, Francisco, Wilson A, Allen, James, et al.
Created Date
2010

Biophysical techniques have been increasingly applied toward answering biological questions with more precision. Here, three different biological systems were studied with the goal of understanding their dynamic differences, either conformational dynamics within the system or oligomerization dynamics between monomers. With Cy3 on the 5' end of DNA, the effects of changing the terminal base pair were explored using temperature-dependent quantum yields. It was discovered, in combination with simulations, that a terminal thymine base has the weakest stacking interactions with the Cy3 dye compared to the other three bases. With ME1 heterodimers, the goal was to see if engineering a salt …

Contributors
Binder, Jennifer K., Levitus, Marcia, Wachter, Rebekka, et al.
Created Date
2015

The physiological phenomenon of sensing temperature is detected by transient receptor (TRP) ion channels, which are pore forming proteins that reside in the membrane bilayer. The cold and hot sensing TRP channels named TRPV1 and TRPM8 respectively, can be modulated by diverse stimuli and are finely tuned by proteins and lipids. PIRT (phosphoinositide interacting regulator of TRP channels) is a small membrane protein that modifies TRPV1 responses to heat and TRPM8 responses to cold. In this dissertation, the first direct measurements between PIRT and TRPM8 are quantified with nuclear magnetic resonance and microscale thermophoresis. Using Rosetta computational biology, TRPM8 is …

Contributors
Sisco, Nicholas John, Van Horn, Wade D, Mills, Jeremy H, et al.
Created Date
2018

In somatic cells, the mitotic spindle apparatus is centrosomal and several isoforms of Protein Kinase C (PKC) have been associated with the mitotic spindle, but their role in stabilizing the mitotic spindle is unclear. Other protein kinases such as, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3â (GSK3â) also have been shown to be associated with the mitotic spindle. In the study in chapter 2, we show the enrichment of active (phosphorylated) PKCæ at the centrosomal region of the spindle apparatus in metaphase stage of 3T3 cells. In order to understand whether the two kinases, PKC and GSK3â are associated with the mitotic spindle, …

Contributors
Chakravadhanula, Madhavi, Capco, David G., Chandler, Douglas, et al.
Created Date
2012

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the universal chemical energy currency in most living cells, used to power many cellular reactions and generated by an enzyme supercomplex known as the ATP synthase, consisting of a hydrophilic F1 subcomplex and a membrane-bound FO subcomplex. Driven by the electrochemical gradient generated by the respiratory or photosynthetic electron transport chain, the rotation of the FO domain drives movements of the central stalk in response to conformational changes in the F1 domain, in which the physical energy is converted into chemical energy through the condensation of ADP and Pi to ATP. The exact mechanism how ATP …

Contributors
Yang, Jay-How, Fromme, Petra, Redding, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2015

In oxygenic photosynthesis, Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) are two transmembrane protein complexes that catalyze the main step of energy conversion; the light induced charge separation that drives an electron transfer reaction across the thylakoid membrane. Current knowledge of the structure of PSI and PSII is based on three structures: PSI and PSII from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elonagatus and the PSI/light harvesting complex I (PSI-LHCI) of the plant, Pisum sativum. To improve the knowledge of these important membrane protein complexes from a wider spectrum of photosynthetic organisms, photosynthetic apparatus of the thermo-acidophilic red alga, Galdieria sulphuraria and …

Contributors
Thangaraj, Balakumar, Fromme, Petra, Shock, Everett, et al.
Created Date
2010

Measuring molecular interaction with membrane proteins is critical for understanding cellular functions, validating biomarkers and screening drugs. Despite the importance, developing such a capability has been a difficult challenge, especially for small molecules binding to membrane proteins in their native cellular environment. The current mainstream practice is to isolate membrane proteins from the cell membranes, which is difficult and often lead to the loss of their native structures and functions. In this thesis, novel detection methods for in situ quantification of molecular interactions with membrane proteins are described. First, a label-free surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) platform is developed for …

Contributors
Zhang, Fenni, Tao, Nongjian, Chae, Junseok, et al.
Created Date
2018

Signal transduction networks comprising protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediate homeostatic, diseased, and therapeutic cellular responses. Mapping these networks has primarily focused on identifying interactors, but less is known about the interaction affinity, rates of interaction or their regulation. To better understand the extent of the annotated human interactome, I first examined > 2500 protein interactions within the B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway using a current, cutting-edge bioluminescence-based platform called “NanoBRET” that is capable of analyzing transient and stable interactions in high throughput. Eighty-three percent (83%) of the detected interactions have not been previously reported, indicating that much of the BCR …

Contributors
Petritis, Brianne Ogata, LaBaer, Joshua, Lake, Douglas, et al.
Created Date
2018

Time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method that allows for structural discovery to be performed on biomacromolecules during their dynamic trajectory through a reaction pathway after activation. This is performed by triggering a reaction on an ensemble of molecules in nano- or microcrystals and then using femtosecond X-ray laser pulses produced by an X-ray free electron laser to collect near-instantaneous data on the crystal. A full data set can be collected by merging a sufficient number of these patterns together and multiple data sets can be collected at different points along the reaction pathway by manipulating the delay time …

Contributors
Coe, Jesse, Fromme, Petra, Sayres, Scott, et al.
Created Date
2018

The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 performs oxygenic photosynthesis. Light energy conversion in photosynthesis takes place in photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) that contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy that is utilized as a driving force for photosynthesis. However, excess light energy may lead to formation of reactive oxygen species that cause damage to photosynthetic complexes, which subsequently need repair or replacement. To gain insight in the degradation/biogenesis dynamics of the photosystems, the lifetimes of photosynthetic proteins and chlorophyll were determined by a combined stable-isotope (15N) and mass spectrometry method. The lifetimes of PSII and PSI proteins ranged …

Contributors
Yao, Cheng I Daniel, Vermaas, Wim, Fromme, Petra, et al.
Created Date
2011

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is widely accepted as the world's most abundant enzyme and represents the primary entry point for inorganic carbon into the biosphere. Rubisco's slow carboxylation rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and its susceptibility to inhibition has led some to term it the "bottle neck" of photosynthesis. In order to ensure that Rubisco remains uninhibited, plants require the catalytic chaperone Rubisco activase. Activase is a member of the AAA+ superfamily, ATPases associated with various cellular activities, and uses ATP hydrolysis as the driving force behind a conformational movement that returns activity to inhibited Rubisco active sites. A high resolution activase …

Contributors
Conrad, Alan, Wachter, Rebekka, Moore, Thomas, et al.
Created Date
2012

In the 1970s James Watson recognized the inability of conventional DNA replication machinery to replicate the extreme termini of chromosomes known as telomeres. This inability is due to the requirement of a building block primer and was termed the end replication problem. Telomerase is nature's answer to the end replication problem. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein which extends telomeres through reverse transcriptase activity by reiteratively copying a short intrinsic RNA sequence to generate 3' telomeric extensions. Telomeres protect chromosomes from erosion of coding genes during replication, as well as differentiate native chromosome ends from double stranded breaks. However, controlled erosion of …

Contributors
Bley, Christopher James, Chen, Julian, Allen, James, et al.
Created Date
2011

A synbody is a newly developed protein binding peptide which can be rapidly produced by chemical methods. The advantages of the synbody producing process make it a potential human proteome binding reagent. Most of the synbodies are designed to bind to specific proteins. The peptides incorporated in a synbody are discovered with peptide microarray technology. Nevertheless, the targets for unknown synbodies can also be discovered by searching through a protein mixture. The first part of this thesis mainly focuses on the process of target searching, which was performed with immunoprecipitation assays and mass spectrometry analysis. Proteins are pulled down from …

Contributors
Sun, Minyao, Johnston, Stephen Albert, Diehnelt, Chris Wayne, et al.
Created Date
2011

The F1Fo ATP synthase is required for energy conversion in almost all living organisms. The F1 complex is a molecular motor that uses ATP hydrolysis to drive rotation of the &gamma;&ndash;subunit. It has not been previously possible to resolve the speed and position of the &gamma;&ndash;subunit of the F1&ndash;ATPase as it rotates during a power stroke. The single molecule experiments presented here measured light scattered from 45X91 nm gold nanorods attached to the &gamma;&ndash;subunit that provide an unprecedented 5 &mu;s resolution of rotational position as a function of time. The product of velocity and drag, which were both measured directly, …

Contributors
Martin Ii, James Leo, Frasch, Wayne D, Chandler, Douglas, et al.
Created Date
2012

Membrane proteins are a vital part of cellular structure. They are directly involved in many important cellular functions, such as uptake, signaling, respiration, and photosynthesis, among others. Despite their importance, however, less than 500 unique membrane protein structures have been determined to date. This is due to several difficulties with macromolecular crystallography, primarily the difficulty of growing large, well-ordered protein crystals. Since the first proof of concept for femtosecond nanocrystallography showing that diffraction patterns can be collected on extremely small crystals, thus negating the need to grow larger crystals, there have been many exciting advancements in the field. The technique …

Contributors
Kupitz, Christopher, Fromme, Petra, Spence, John C., et al.
Created Date
2014

Efficient separation techniques for organelles and bacteria in the micron- and sub-micron range are required for various analytical challenges. Mitochondria have a wide size range resulting from the sub-populations, some of which may be associated with diseases or aging. However, traditional methods can often not resolve within-species size variations. Strategies to separate mitochondrial sub-populations by size are thus needed to study the importance of this organelle in cellular functions. Additionally, challenges also exist in distinguishing the sub-populations of bio-species which differ in the surface charge while possessing similar size, such as Salmonella typhimurium (Salmonella). The surface charge of Salmonella wild-type …

Contributors
Luo, Jinghui, Ros, Alexandra, Hayes, Mark, et al.
Created Date
2015

While exercising mammalian muscle increasingly relies on carbohydrates for fuel as aerobic exercise intensity rises above the moderate range, flying birds are extraordinary endurance athletes and fuel flight, a moderate-high intensity exercise, almost exclusively with lipid. In addition, Aves have long lifespans compared to weight-matched mammals. As skeletal muscle mitochondria account for the majority of oxygen consumption during aerobic exercise, the primary goal was to investigate differences in isolated muscle mitochondria between these species and to examine to what extent factors intrinsic to mitochondria may account for the behavior observed in the intact tissue and whole organism. First, maximal enzyme …

Contributors
Kuzmiak, Sarah, Willis, Wayne T, Mandarino, Lawrence, et al.
Created Date
2012

Molecular docking serves as an important tool in modeling protein-ligand interactions. Most of the docking approaches treat the protein receptor as rigid and move the ligand in the binding pocket through an energy minimization, which is an incorrect approach as proteins are flexible and undergo conformational changes upon ligand binding. However, modeling receptor backbone flexibility in docking is challenging and computationally expensive due to the large conformational space that needs to be sampled. A novel flexible docking approach called BP-Dock (Backbone Perturbation docking) was developed to overcome this challenge. BP-Dock integrates both backbone and side chain conformational changes of a …

Contributors
Bolia, Ashini, Ozkan, Sefika Banu, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, et al.
Created Date
2015

There is a critical need for the development of clean and efficient energy sources. Hydrogen is being explored as a viable alternative to fuels in current use, many of which have limited availability and detrimental byproducts. Biological photo-production of H2 could provide a potential energy source directly manufactured from water and sunlight. As a part of the photosynthetic electron transport chain (PETC) of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, water is split via Photosystem II (PSII) and the electrons flow through a series of electron transfer cofactors in cytochrome b6f, plastocyanin and Photosystem I (PSI). The terminal electron acceptor of PSI …

Contributors
Reifschneider, Kiera T., Redding, Kevin, Fromme, Petra, et al.
Created Date
2013

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a heterogeneous population of small vesicles, consisting of a phospholipidic bilayer surrounding a soluble interior cargo. These vesicles play an important role in cellular communication by virtue of their protein, RNA, and lipid content, which can be transferred among cells. Peripheral blood is a rich source of circulating EVs. An analysis of EVs in peripheral blood could provide access to unparalleled amounts of biomarkers of great diagnostic, prognostic as well as therapeutic value. In the current study, a plasma EV enrichment method based on pluronic co-polymer was first established and characterized. Plasma EVs from breast cancer …

Contributors
Zhong, Zhenyu, Spetzler, David, Yan, Hao, et al.
Created Date
2018

Spider dragline silk is well known for its outstanding mechanical properties - a combination of strength and extensibility that makes it one of the toughest materials known. Two proteins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and 2 (MaSp2), comprise dragline silk fibers. There has been considerable focus placed on understanding the source of spider silk's unique mechanical properties by investigating the protein composition, molecular structure and dynamics. Chemical compositional heterogeneity of spider silk fiber is critical to understand as it provides important information for the interactions between MaSp1 and MaSp2. Here, the amino acid composition of dragline silk protein was precisely …

Contributors
Shi, Xiangyan, Yarger, Jeffery L, Holland, Gregory P, et al.
Created Date
2014

V(D)J recombination is responsible for generating an enormous repertoire of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, therefore it is a centerpiece to the formation of the adaptive immune system. The V(D)J recombination process proceeds through two steps, site-specific cleavage at RSS (Recombination Signal Sequence) site mediated by the RAG recombinase (RAG1/2) and the subsequent imprecise resolution of the DNA ends, which is carried out by the ubiquitous non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ). The V(D)J recombination reaction is obliged to be tightly controlled under all circumstances, as it involves generations of DNA double strand breaks, which are considered the most dangerous lesion …

Contributors
Wang, Guannan, Chang, Yung, Levitus, Marcia, et al.
Created Date
2012

Single-cell proteomics and transcriptomics analysis are crucial to gain insights of healthy physiology and disease pathogenesis. The comprehensive profiling of biomolecules in individual cells of a heterogeneous system can provide deep insights into many important biological questions, such as the distinct cellular compositions or regulation of inter- and intracellular signaling pathways of healthy and diseased tissues. With multidimensional molecular imaging of many different biomarkers in patient biopsies, diseases can be accurately diagnosed to guide the selection of the ideal treatment. As an urgent need to advance single-cell analysis, imaging-based technologies have been developed to detect and quantify multiple DNA, RNA …

Contributors
Mondal, Manas, Guo, Jia, Gould, Ian, et al.
Created Date
2018

Photosystem I (PSI) is a multi-subunit, pigment-protein complex that catalyzes light-driven electron transfer (ET) in its bi-branched reaction center (RC). Recently it was suggested that the initial charge separation (CS) event can take place independently within each ec2/ec3 chlorophyll pair. In order to improve our understanding of this phenomenon, we have generated new mutations in the PsaA and PsaB subunits near the electron transfer cofactor 2 (ec2 chlorophyll). PsaA-Asn604 accepts a hydrogen bond from the water molecule that is the axial ligand of ec2B and the case is similar for PsaB-Asn591 and ec2A. The second set of targeted sites was …

Contributors
BADSHAH, SYED LAL, REDDING, KEVIN E, FROMME, PETRA, et al.
Created Date
2014

The biological and chemical diversity of protein structure and function can be greatly expanded by position-specific incorporation of non-natural amino acids bearing a variety of functional groups. Non-cognate amino acids can be incorporated into proteins at specific sites by using orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs in conjunction with nonsense, rare, or 4-bp codons. There has been considerable progress in developing new types of amino acids, in identifying novel methods of tRNA aminoacylation, and in expanding the genetic code to direct their position. Chemical aminoacylation of tRNAs is accomplished by acylation and ligation of a dinucleotide (pdCpA) to the 3'-terminus of truncated …

Contributors
Nangreave, Ryan Christopher, Hecht, Sidney M, Yan, Hao, et al.
Created Date
2013

Biological fluids, in particular blood plasma, provide a vital source of information on the state of human health. While specific detection of biomarker species can aid in disease diagnostics, the complexity of plasma makes analysis challenging. Despite the challenge of complex sample analysis, biomarker quantification has become a primary interest in biomedical analysis. Due to the extremely specific interaction between antibody and analyte, immunoassays are attractive for the analysis of these samples and have gained popularity since their initial introduction several decades ago. Current limitations to diagnostics through blood testing include long incubation times, interference from non-specific binding, and the …

Contributors
Woolley, Christine F, Hayes, Mark A, Ros, Alexandra, et al.
Created Date
2015

Proteins and peptides fold into dynamic structures that access a broad functional landscape, however, designing artificial polypeptide systems continues to be a great chal-lenge. Conversely, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) engineering is now routinely used to build a wide variety of two dimensional and three dimensional (3D) nanostructures from simple hybridization based rules, and their functional diversity can be significantly ex-panded through site specific incorporation of the appropriate guest molecules. This dis-sertation describes a gentle methodology for using short (8 nucleotide) peptide nucleic acid (PNA) linkers to assemble polypeptides within a 3D DNA nanocage, as a proof of concept for constructing artificial …

Contributors
Flory, Justin, Fromme, Petra, Yan, Hao, et al.
Created Date
2014

DNA is a unique, highly programmable and addressable biomolecule. Due to its reliable and predictable base recognition behavior, uniform structural properties, and extraordinary stability, DNA molecules are desirable substrates for biological computation and nanotechnology. The field of DNA computation has gained considerable attention due to the possibility of exploiting the massive parallelism that is inherent in natural systems to solve computational problems. This dissertation focuses on building novel types of computational DNA systems based on both DNA reaction networks and DNA nanotechnology. A series of related research projects are presented here. First, a novel, three-input majority logic gate based on …

Contributors
Li, Wei, Yan, Hao, Liu, Yan, et al.
Created Date
2014

Rapid and reliable separation and analysis of proteins require powerful analytical methods. The analysis of proteins becomes especially challenging when only small sample volumes are available, concomitantly with low concentrations of proteins. Time critical situations pose additional challenges. Due to these challenges, conventional macro-scale separation techniques reach their limitations. While microfluidic devices require only pL-nL sample volumes, they offer several advantages such as speed, efficiency, and high throughput. This work elucidates the capability to manipulate proteins in a rapid and reliable manner with a novel migration technique, namely dielectrophoresis (DEP). Since protein analysis can often be achieved through a combination …

Contributors
Nakano, Asuka, Ros, Alexandra, Hayes, Mark, et al.
Created Date
2014

ABSTRACT Post Translational Modifications (PTMs) are a series of chemical modifications with the capacity to expand the structural and functional repertoire of proteins. PTMs can regulate protein-protein interaction, localization, protein turn-over, the active state of the protein, and much more. This can dramatically affect cell processes as relevant as gene expression, cell-cell recognition, and cell signaling. Along these lines, this Ph.D. thesis examines the role of two of the most important PTMs: glycosylation and phosphorylation. In chapters 2, 3 and 4, a 10,000 peptide microarray is used to analyze the glycan variations in a series lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram negative …

Contributors
Morales Betanzos, Carlos Alberto, LaBaer, Joshua, Allen, James, et al.
Created Date
2014

It has been well established that mitochondria play a critical role in the pathology of Friedreich's Ataxia. This disease is believed to be caused by a deficiency of frataxin, which research suggests is responsible for iron sulfur cluster assembly. This incomplete assembly of iron sulfur clusters is believed to be linked with dysfunctional complexes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, increased oxidative stress, and potential cell death. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease has enabled the development of various therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring mitochondrial respiration. This thesis contains an analysis of the biological activity of several classes of …

Contributors
Jaruvangsanti, Jennifer, Hecht, Sidney, Woodbury, Neal, et al.
Created Date
2012

Accurate virus detection is important for diagnosis in a timely manner to facilitate rapid interventions and treatments. RNA viruses affect an extensive amount of the world’s population, particularly in tropical countries where emerging infectious agents often arise. Current diagnostic methods have three main problems: they are time consuming, typically not field-portable, and expensive. My research goal is to develop rapid, field-portable and cost sensitive diagnostic methods for RNA viruses. Herein, two different approaches to detect RNA viruses were proposed: Conjugated gold nanoparticles for detection of viral particles or virus-specific antibodies by monitoring changes in their optical properties, and Tentacle Probes …

Contributors
Franco, Lina Stella, Mujica, Vladimiro, Blattman, Joseph N, et al.
Created Date
2016

Measles is a contagious, vaccine-preventable disease that continues to be the leading cause of death in children younger than the age of 5 years. While the introduction of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine (MMR) has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, vaccine coverage is highly variable across global regions. Current diagnostic methods rely on enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to detect IgM or IgG Abs in serum. Commercially available Diamedix Immunosimplicity® Measles IgG test kit has been shown to have 91.1% sensitivity and 93.8% specificity, with a positive predictive value of 88.7% and a negative predictive value of 90.9% on …

Contributors
Mushtaq, Zuena, Anderson, Karen, Blattman, Joseph, et al.
Created Date
2016

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide a particularly useful approach to understanding conformational change in biomolecular systems. MD simulations provide an atomistic, physics-based description of the motions accessible to biomolecular systems on the pico- to micro-second timescale, yielding important insight into the free energy of the system, the dynamical stability of contacts and the role of correlated motions in directing the motions of the system. In this thesis, I use molecular dynamics simulations to provide molecular mechanisms that rationalize structural, thermodynamic, and mutation data on the interactions between the lac repressor headpiece and its O1 operator DNA as well as the …

Contributors
Barr, Daniel, Van Der Vaart, Arjan, Matyushov, Dmitry, et al.
Created Date
2011

The Heliobacterial reaction center (HbRC) is generally regarded as the most primitive photosynthetic reaction center (RC) known. Even if the HbRC is structurally and functionally simple compared to higher plants, the mechanisms of energy transduction preceding, inside the core, and from the RC are not totally established. Elucidating these structures and mechanisms are paramount to determining where the HbRC is in the grand scheme of RC evolution. In this work, the function and properties of the solubilized cyt c553, PetJ, were investigated, as well as the role HbRC localized menaquinone plays in light-induced electron transfer, and the interaction of the …

Contributors
Kashey, Trevor Scott, Redding, Kevin E, Fromme, Petra, et al.
Created Date
2015

ATP synthase is a large multimeric protein complex responsible for generating the energy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in most organisms. The catalysis involves the rotation of a ring of c-subunits, which is driven by the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. This dissertation reports how the eukaryotic c-subunit from spinach chloroplast ATP synthase has successfully been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified in mg quantities by incorporating a unique combination of methods. Expression was accomplished using a codon optimized gene for the c-subunit, and it was expressed as an attachment to the larger, more soluble, native maltose binding protein (MBP-c1). The fusion protein …

Contributors
Lawrence, Robert Michael, Fromme, Petra, Chen, Julian J.L., et al.
Created Date
2011

To mimic the membrane environment for the photosynthetic reaction center of the photoheterotrophic Heliobacterium modesticaldum, a proteoliposome system was developed using the lipids found in native membranes, as well as a lipid possessing a Ni(II)-NTA head group. The liposomes were also saturated with menaquinone-9 to provide further native conditions, given that menaquinone is active within the heliobacterial reaction center in some way. Purified heliobacterial reaction center was reconstituted into the liposomes and a recombinant cytochrome c553 was decorated onto the liposome surface. The native lipid-attachment sequence of cytochrome c553 was truncated and replaced with a hexahistidine tag. Thus, the membrane-anchoring …

Contributors
Johnson, William Alexander, Redding, Kevin E, Van Horn, Wade D, et al.
Created Date
2018

Microscopic algae have been investigated extensively by researchers for decades for their ability to bioremediate wastewater and flue gas while producing valuable biomass for use as feed, fuel, fertilizer, nutraceutical, and other specialty products. Reports of the exciting commercial potential of this diverse group of organisms started appearing in the literature as early as the 1940’s. However, nearly 80 years later, relatively few successful commercial microalgae installations exist and algae have not yet reached agricultural commodity status. This dissertation examines three major bottlenecks to commercial microalgae production including lack of an efficient and economical cultivation strategy, poor management of volatile …

Contributors
Wray, Joshua, Dempster, Thomas, Roberson, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2019

The AAA+ ATPase Rubisco activase (Rca) regulates the activity of Rubisco, the photosynthetic enzyme responsible for catalyzing biological carbon fixation. However, the detailed mechanism by which Rca self-association controls Rubisco reactivation activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we are using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to better characterize the thermodynamics of the assembly process of cotton Rca. We present FCS data for Rca in the presence of Mg*ATPgS and Mg*ADP and for the D173N Walker B motif mutant in the presence of Mg*ATP. Our data are consistent with promotion and stabilization of hexamers by Mg*ATPgS and Mg*ATP, whereas Mg*ADP facilitates …

Contributors
Kuriata, Agnieszka Magdalena, Wachter, Rebekka, Redding, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2014

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has emerged as an excellent molecular building block for nanoconstruction in addition to its biological role of preserving genetic information. Its unique features such as predictable conformation and programmable intra- and inter-molecular Watson-Crick base pairing interactions make it a remarkable engineering material. A variety of convenient design rules and reliable assembly methods have been developed to engineer DNA nanostructures. The ability to create designer DNA architectures with accurate spatial control has allowed researchers to explore novel applications in directed material assembly, structural biology, biocatalysis, DNA computing, nano-robotics, disease diagnosis, and drug delivery. This dissertation focuses on developing …

Contributors
Zhang, Fei, Yan, Hao, Liu, Yan, et al.
Created Date
2015

The highly predictable structural and thermodynamic behavior of deoxynucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) have made them versatile tools for creating artificial nanostructures over broad range. Moreover, DNA and RNA are able to interact with biological ligand as either synthetic aptamers or natural components, conferring direct biological functions to the nucleic acid devices. The applications of nucleic acids greatly relies on the bio-reactivity and specificity when applied to highly complexed biological systems. This dissertation aims to 1) develop new strategy to identify high affinity nucleic acid aptamers against biological ligand; and 2) explore highly orthogonal RNA riboregulators in vivo …

Contributors
Zhou, Yu, Yan, Hao, Green, Alexander, et al.
Created Date
2019

Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) is a highly conserved disulfide bond-generating enzyme that represents the ancient fusion of two major thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase gene families: thioredoxin and ERV. QSOX1 was first linked with cancer after being identified as overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (but not in adjacent normal ductal epithelia, infiltrating lymphocytes, or chronic pancreatitis). QSOX1 overexpression has been confirmed in a number of other histological tumor types, such as breast, lung, kidney, prostate, and others. Expression of QSOX1 supports a proliferative and invasive phenotype in tumor cells, and its enzymatic activity is critical for promoting an invasive phenotype. An in …

Contributors
Hanavan, Paul Daniel, Lake, Douglas, LaBaer, Joshua, et al.
Created Date
2015

Acquisition of fluorescence via autocatalytic processes is unique to few proteins in the natural world. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been integral to live-cell imaging techniques for decades; however, mechanistic information is still emerging fifty years after the discovery of the original green fluorescent protein (GFP). Modification of the fluorescence properties of the proteins derived from GFP allows increased complexity of experiments and consequently, information content of the data acquired. The importance of arginine-96 in GFP has been widely discussed. It has been established as vital to the kinetics of chromophore maturation and to the overall fold of GFP before post-translational …

Contributors
Watkins, Jennifer L., Wachter, Rebekka M, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, et al.
Created Date
2012

Cancer claims hundreds of thousands of lives every year in US alone. Finding ways for early detection of cancer onset is crucial for better management and treatment of cancer. Thus, biomarkers especially protein biomarkers, being the functional units which reflect dynamic physiological changes, need to be discovered. Though important, there are only a few approved protein cancer biomarkers till date. To accelerate this process, fast, comprehensive and affordable assays are required which can be applied to large population studies. For this, these assays should be able to comprehensively characterize and explore the molecular diversity of nominally "single" proteins across populations. …

Contributors
Rai, Samita, Nelson, Randall, Hayes, Mark, et al.
Created Date
2012

Over the last century, X-ray crystallography has been established as the most successful technique for unravelling the structure-function relationship in molecules. For integral membrane proteins, growing well-ordered large crystals is a challenge and hence, there is room for improving current methods of macromolecular crystallography and for exploring complimentary techniques. Since protein function is deeply associated with its structural dynamics, static position of atoms in a macromolecule are insufficient to unlock the mechanism. The availability of X-ray free electron lasers presents an opportunity to study micron-sized crystals that could be triggered (using light, small molecules or physical conditions) to capture macromolecules …

Contributors
Roy Chowdhury, Shatabdi, Fromme, Petra, Ros, Alexandra, et al.
Created Date
2018

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long chains of negatively charged sulfated polysaccharides. They are often found to be covalently attached to proteins and form proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many proteins bind GAGs through electrostatic interactions. GAG-binding proteins (GBPs) are involved in diverse physiological activities ranging from bacterial infections to cell-cell/cell-ECM contacts. This thesis is devoted to understanding how interactions between GBPs and their receptors modulate biological phenomena. Bacteria express GBPs on surface that facilitate dissemination and colonization by attaching to host ECM. The first GBP investigated in this thesis is decorin binding protein (DBP) found on the surface of Borrelia …

Contributors
Feng, Wei, Wang, Xu, Yarger, Jeff L, et al.
Created Date
2019

Many natural and synthetic quinones have shown biological and pharmacological activity. Some of them have also shown anticancer activity. Ubiquinone (CoQ10) which is a natural quinone, is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in generation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Cellular oxidative stress is key feature of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Friedreich's ataxia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The increased generation of reactive oxygen species damages cell membranes and leads to cell death. Analogues of ubiquinone in the form of pyrimidinols and pyridinols, were effective in protecting Friedreich's ataxia lymphocytes from oxidative stress- induced cell death. There …

Contributors
Raghav, Nidhi, Hecht, Sidney M, Gould, Ian R, et al.
Created Date
2011

The evolution of photosynthesis caused the oxygen-rich atmosphere in which we thrive today. Although the reaction centers involved in oxygenic photosynthesis probably evolved from a protein like the reaction centers in modern anoxygenic photosynthesis, modern anoxygenic reaction centers are poorly understood. One such anaerobic reaction center is found in Heliobacterium modesticaldum. Here, the photosynthetic properties of H. modesticaldum are investigated, especially as they pertain to its unique photochemical reaction center. The first part of this dissertation describes the optimization of the previously established protocol for the H. modesticaldum reaction center isolation. Subsequently, electron transfer is characterized by ultrafast spectroscopy; the …

Contributors
Gisriel, Christopher James, Redding, Kevin E, Jones, Anne K, et al.
Created Date
2017

Telomerase ribonucleoprotein is a unique reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA repeats to chromosome ends. Telomerase RNA (TER) is extremely divergent in size, sequence and has to date only been identified in vertebrate, yeast, ciliate and plant species. Herein, the identification and characterization of TERs from an evolutionarily distinct group, filamentous fungi, is presented. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 69 TER sequences and mutagenesis analysis of in vitro reconstituted Neurospora telomerase, we discovered a conserved functional core in filamentous fungal TERs sharing homologous structural features with vertebrate TERs. This core contains the template-pseudoknot and P6/P6.1 domains, essential for enzymatic activity, …

Contributors
Qi, Xiaodong, Chen, Julian, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, et al.
Created Date
2011

Membrane protein structure is continuing to be a topic of interest across the scientific community. However, high resolution structural data of these proteins is difficult to obtain. The amino acid transport protein, Outer Envelope Protein, 16kDa (OEP16) is a transmembrane protein channel that allows the passive diffusion of amino acids across the outer chloroplast membrane, and is used as a model protein in order to establish methods that ultimately reveal structural details about membrane proteins using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Methods include recombinant expression of isotope enriched inclusion bodies, purification and reconstitution in detergent micelles, and pre-characterization techniques including …

Contributors
Zook, James Duncan, Fromme, Petra, Chen, Julian, et al.
Created Date
2012