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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Language
  • English
Subject
Date Range
2010 2019


In oxygenic photosynthesis, Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) are two transmembrane protein complexes that catalyze the main step of energy conversion; the light induced charge separation that drives an electron transfer reaction across the thylakoid membrane. Current knowledge of the structure of PSI and PSII is based on three structures: PSI and PSII from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elonagatus and the PSI/light harvesting complex I (PSI-LHCI) of the plant, Pisum sativum. To improve the knowledge of these important membrane protein complexes from a wider spectrum of photosynthetic organisms, photosynthetic apparatus of the thermo-acidophilic red alga, Galdieria sulphuraria and …

Contributors
Thangaraj, Balakumar, Fromme, Petra, Shock, Everett, et al.
Created Date
2010

In eukaryotes, DNA is packed in a highly condensed and hierarchically organized structure called chromatin, in which DNA tightly wraps around the histone octamer consisting of one histone 3-histone 4 (H3-H4) tetramer and two histone 2A- histone 2B (H2A-H2B) dimers with 147 base pairs in an almost two left handed turns. Almost all DNA dependent cellular processes, such as DNA duplication, transcription, DNA repair and recombination, take place in the chromatin form. Based on the critical importance of appropriate chromatin condensation, this thesis focused on the folding behavior of the nucleosome array reconstituted using different templates with various controllable factors …

Contributors
Fu, Qiang, Lindsay, Stuart M, Yan, Hao, et al.
Created Date
2010

ATP synthase is a large multimeric protein complex responsible for generating the energy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in most organisms. The catalysis involves the rotation of a ring of c-subunits, which is driven by the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. This dissertation reports how the eukaryotic c-subunit from spinach chloroplast ATP synthase has successfully been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified in mg quantities by incorporating a unique combination of methods. Expression was accomplished using a codon optimized gene for the c-subunit, and it was expressed as an attachment to the larger, more soluble, native maltose binding protein (MBP-c1). The fusion protein …

Contributors
Lawrence, Robert Michael, Fromme, Petra, Chen, Julian J.L., et al.
Created Date
2011

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide a particularly useful approach to understanding conformational change in biomolecular systems. MD simulations provide an atomistic, physics-based description of the motions accessible to biomolecular systems on the pico- to micro-second timescale, yielding important insight into the free energy of the system, the dynamical stability of contacts and the role of correlated motions in directing the motions of the system. In this thesis, I use molecular dynamics simulations to provide molecular mechanisms that rationalize structural, thermodynamic, and mutation data on the interactions between the lac repressor headpiece and its O1 operator DNA as well as the …

Contributors
Barr, Daniel, Van Der Vaart, Arjan, Matyushov, Dmitry, et al.
Created Date
2011

Conformational changes in biomolecules often take place on longer timescales than are easily accessible with unbiased molecular dynamics simulations, necessitating the use of enhanced sampling techniques, such as adaptive umbrella sampling. In this technique, the conformational free energy is calculated in terms of a designated set of reaction coordinates. At the same time, estimates of this free energy are subtracted from the potential energy in order to remove free energy barriers and cause conformational changes to take place more rapidly. This dissertation presents applications of adaptive umbrella sampling to a variety of biomolecular systems. The first study investigated the effects …

Contributors
Spiriti, Justin Matthew, Van Der Vaart, Arjan, Chizmeshya, Andrew, et al.
Created Date
2011

The heliobacterial reaction center (HbRC) is widely considered the simplest and most primitive photosynthetic reaction center (RC) still in existence. Despite the simplicity of the HbRC, many aspects of the electron transfer mechanism remain unknown or under debate. Improving our understanding of the structure and function of the HbRC is important in determining its role in the evolution of photosynthetic RCs. In this work, the function and properties of the iron-sulfur cluster FX and quinones of the HbRC were investigated, as these are the characteristic terminal electron acceptors used by Type-I and Type-II RCs, respectively. In Chapter 3, I develop …

Contributors
Cowgill, John, Redding, Kevin, Jones, Anne, et al.
Created Date
2012

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a biopolymer well known for its role in preserving genetic information in biology, is now drawing great deal of interest from material scientists. Ease of synthesis, predictable molecular recognition via Watson-Crick base pairing, vast numbers of available chemical modifications, and intrinsic nanoscale size makes DNA a suitable material for the construction of a plethora of nanostructures that can be used as scaffold to organize functional molecules with nanometer precision. This dissertation focuses on DNA-directed organization of metallic nanoparticles into well-defined, discrete structures and using them to study photonic interaction between fluorophore and metal particle. Presented here are …

Contributors
Pal, Suchetan, Liu, Yan, Yan, Hao, et al.
Created Date
2012

The F1Fo ATP synthase is required for energy conversion in almost all living organisms. The F1 complex is a molecular motor that uses ATP hydrolysis to drive rotation of the γ–subunit. It has not been previously possible to resolve the speed and position of the γ–subunit of the F1–ATPase as it rotates during a power stroke. The single molecule experiments presented here measured light scattered from 45X91 nm gold nanorods attached to the γ–subunit that provide an unprecedented 5 μs resolution of rotational position as a function of time. The product of velocity and drag, which were both measured directly, …

Contributors
Martin Ii, James Leo, Frasch, Wayne D, Chandler, Douglas, et al.
Created Date
2012

Spider dragline silk is well known for its outstanding mechanical properties - a combination of strength and extensibility that makes it one of the toughest materials known. Two proteins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and 2 (MaSp2), comprise dragline silk fibers. There has been considerable focus placed on understanding the source of spider silk's unique mechanical properties by investigating the protein composition, molecular structure and dynamics. Chemical compositional heterogeneity of spider silk fiber is critical to understand as it provides important information for the interactions between MaSp1 and MaSp2. Here, the amino acid composition of dragline silk protein was precisely …

Contributors
Shi, Xiangyan, Yarger, Jeffery L, Holland, Gregory P, et al.
Created Date
2014

Proteins and peptides fold into dynamic structures that access a broad functional landscape, however, designing artificial polypeptide systems continues to be a great chal-lenge. Conversely, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) engineering is now routinely used to build a wide variety of two dimensional and three dimensional (3D) nanostructures from simple hybridization based rules, and their functional diversity can be significantly ex-panded through site specific incorporation of the appropriate guest molecules. This dis-sertation describes a gentle methodology for using short (8 nucleotide) peptide nucleic acid (PNA) linkers to assemble polypeptides within a 3D DNA nanocage, as a proof of concept for constructing artificial …

Contributors
Flory, Justin, Fromme, Petra, Yan, Hao, et al.
Created Date
2014

Membrane proteins are a vital part of cellular structure. They are directly involved in many important cellular functions, such as uptake, signaling, respiration, and photosynthesis, among others. Despite their importance, however, less than 500 unique membrane protein structures have been determined to date. This is due to several difficulties with macromolecular crystallography, primarily the difficulty of growing large, well-ordered protein crystals. Since the first proof of concept for femtosecond nanocrystallography showing that diffraction patterns can be collected on extremely small crystals, thus negating the need to grow larger crystals, there have been many exciting advancements in the field. The technique …

Contributors
Kupitz, Christopher, Fromme, Petra, Spence, John C., et al.
Created Date
2014

Cyanovirin-N (CVN) is a cyanobacterial lectin with potent anti-HIV activity, mediated by binding to the N-linked oligosaccharide moiety of the envelope protein gp120. CVN offers a scaffold to develop multivalent carbohydrate-binding proteins with tunable specificities and affinities. I present here biophysical calculations completed on a monomeric-stabilized mutant of cyanovirin-N, P51G-m4-CVN, in which domain A binding activity is abolished by four mutations; with comparisons made to CVN<super>mutDB</super>, in which domain B binding activity is abolished. Using Monte Carlo calculations and docking simulations, mutations in CVN<super>mutDB</super> were considered singularly, and the mutations E41A/G and T57A were found to impact the affinity towards …

Contributors
Woodrum, Brian William, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, Redding, Kevin, et al.
Created Date
2014

Photosystem I (PSI) is a multi-subunit, pigment-protein complex that catalyzes light-driven electron transfer (ET) in its bi-branched reaction center (RC). Recently it was suggested that the initial charge separation (CS) event can take place independently within each ec2/ec3 chlorophyll pair. In order to improve our understanding of this phenomenon, we have generated new mutations in the PsaA and PsaB subunits near the electron transfer cofactor 2 (ec2 chlorophyll). PsaA-Asn604 accepts a hydrogen bond from the water molecule that is the axial ligand of ec2B and the case is similar for PsaB-Asn591 and ec2A. The second set of targeted sites was …

Contributors
BADSHAH, SYED LAL, REDDING, KEVIN E, FROMME, PETRA, et al.
Created Date
2014

Biophysical techniques have been increasingly applied toward answering biological questions with more precision. Here, three different biological systems were studied with the goal of understanding their dynamic differences, either conformational dynamics within the system or oligomerization dynamics between monomers. With Cy3 on the 5' end of DNA, the effects of changing the terminal base pair were explored using temperature-dependent quantum yields. It was discovered, in combination with simulations, that a terminal thymine base has the weakest stacking interactions with the Cy3 dye compared to the other three bases. With ME1 heterodimers, the goal was to see if engineering a salt …

Contributors
Binder, Jennifer K., Levitus, Marcia, Wachter, Rebekka, et al.
Created Date
2015

Biological fluids contain information-rich mixtures of biochemicals and particles such as cells, proteins, and viruses. Selective and sensitive analysis of these fluids can enable clinicians to accurately diagnose a wide range of pathologies. Fluid samples such as these present an intriguing challenge to researchers; they are packed with potentially vital information, but notoriously difficult to analyze. Rapid and inexpensive analysis of blood and other bodily fluids is a topic gaining substantial attention in both science and medicine. Current limitations to many analyses include long culture times, expensive reagents, and the need for specialized laboratory facilities and personnel. Improving these tests …

Contributors
Jones, Paul Vernon, Hayes, Mark, Ros, Alexandra, et al.
Created Date
2015

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a class of complex biomolecules comprised of linear, sulfated polysaccharides whose presence on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix involve them in many physiological phenomena as well as in interactions with pathogenic microbes. Decorin binding protein A (DBPA), a Borrelia surface lipoprotein involved in the infectivity of Lyme disease, is responsible for binding GAGs found on decorin, a small proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix. Different DBPA strains have notable sequence heterogeneity that results in varying levels of GAG-binding affinity. In this dissertation, the structures and GAG-binding mechanisms for three strains of DBPA (B31 and N40 …

Contributors
Morgan, Ashli, Wang, Xu, Allen, James, et al.
Created Date
2015

Molecular docking serves as an important tool in modeling protein-ligand interactions. Most of the docking approaches treat the protein receptor as rigid and move the ligand in the binding pocket through an energy minimization, which is an incorrect approach as proteins are flexible and undergo conformational changes upon ligand binding. However, modeling receptor backbone flexibility in docking is challenging and computationally expensive due to the large conformational space that needs to be sampled. A novel flexible docking approach called BP-Dock (Backbone Perturbation docking) was developed to overcome this challenge. BP-Dock integrates both backbone and side chain conformational changes of a …

Contributors
Bolia, Ashini, Ozkan, Sefika Banu, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, et al.
Created Date
2015

Viral protein U (Vpu) is a type-III integral membrane protein encoded by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV- 1). It is expressed in infected host cells and plays vital roles in down-regulation of CD4 receptors in T cells and also in the budding of virions. But, there remain key structure/function questions regarding the mechanisms by which the Vpu protein contributes to HIV-1 pathogenesis and thus, it makes for an attractive target to study the structural attributes of this protein by elucidating a structural model with X-ray crystallography. This study describes a multi-pronged approach of heterologous over-expression of Vpu. The strategies of …

Contributors
Deb, Arpan, Leket-Mor, Tsafrir S, Fromme, Petra, et al.
Created Date
2016

The evolution of photosynthesis caused the oxygen-rich atmosphere in which we thrive today. Although the reaction centers involved in oxygenic photosynthesis probably evolved from a protein like the reaction centers in modern anoxygenic photosynthesis, modern anoxygenic reaction centers are poorly understood. One such anaerobic reaction center is found in Heliobacterium modesticaldum. Here, the photosynthetic properties of H. modesticaldum are investigated, especially as they pertain to its unique photochemical reaction center. The first part of this dissertation describes the optimization of the previously established protocol for the H. modesticaldum reaction center isolation. Subsequently, electron transfer is characterized by ultrafast spectroscopy; the …

Contributors
Gisriel, Christopher James, Redding, Kevin E, Jones, Anne K, et al.
Created Date
2017

Transient receptor potential vanilloid member 1 (TRPV1) is a membrane protein ion channel that functions as a heat and capsaicin receptor. In addition to activation by hot temperature and vanilloid compounds such as capsaicin, TRPV1 is modulated by various stimuli including acidic pH, endogenous lipids, diverse biological and synthetic chemical ligands, and modulatory proteins. Due to its sensitivity to noxious stimuli such as high temperature and pungent chemicals, there has been significant evidence that TRPV1 participates in a variety of human physiological and pathophysiological pathways, raising the potential of TRPV1 as an attractive therapeutic target. However, the polymodal nature of …

Contributors
Kim, Minjoo, Van Horn, Wade D, Wang, Xu, et al.
Created Date
2019