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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Subject
Date Range
2011 2019


The main objective of this project was to create a framework for holistic ideation and research about the technical issues involved in creating a holistic approach. Towards that goal, we explored different components of ideation (both logical and intuitive), characterized ideation states, and found new ideation blocks with strategies used to overcome them. One of the major contributions of this research is the method by which easy traversal between different ideation methods with different components were facilitated, to support both creativity and functional quality. Another important part of the framework is the sensing of ideation states (blocks/ unfettered ideation) and …

Contributors
Mohan, Manikandan, Shah, Jami J, Huebner, Kenneth, et al.
Created Date
2011

Working memory capacity and fluid intelligence are important predictors of performance in educational settings. Thus, understanding the processes underlying the relation between working memory capacity and fluid intelligence is important. Three large scale individual differences experiments were conducted to determine the mechanisms underlying the relation between working memory capacity and fluid intelligence. Experiments 1 and 2 were designed to assess whether individual differences in strategic behavior contribute to the variance shared between working memory capacity and fluid intelligence. In Experiment 3, competing theories for describing the underlying processes (cognitive vs. strategy) were evaluated in a comprehensive examination of potential underlying …

Contributors
Wingert, Kimberly Marie, Brewer, Gene A, McNamara, Danielle, et al.
Created Date
2018

Currently, educational games are designed with the educational content as the primary factor driving the design of the game. While this may seem to be the optimal approach, this design paradigm causes multiple issues. For one, the games themselves are often not engaging as game design principles were put aside in favor of increasing the educational value of the game. The other issue is that the code base of the game is mostly or completely unusable for any other games as the game mechanics are too strongly connected to the educational content being taught. This means that the mechanics are …

Contributors
Baron, Tyler John, Amresh, Ashish, Nelson, Brian C, et al.
Created Date
2017

Magicians are informal cognitive scientists who regularly test their hypotheses in the real world. As such, they can provide scientists with novel hypotheses for formal psychological research as well as a real-world context in which to study them. One domain where magic can directly inform science is the deployment of attention in time and across modalities. Both magicians and scientists have an incomplete understanding of how attention operates in time, rather than in space. However, magicians have highlighted a set of variables that can create moments of visual attentional suppression, which they call "off-beats," and these variables can speak to …

Contributors
Barnhart, Anthony Scott, Goldinger, Stephen D., Glenberg, Arthur M., et al.
Created Date
2013

Observational tutoring has been found to be an effective method for teaching a variety of subjects by reusing dialogue from previous successful tutoring sessions. While it has been shown content can be learned through observational tutoring it has yet to been examined if a secondary behavior such as goal-setting can be influenced. The present study investigated if observing virtual humans engaging in a tutoring session on rotational kinematics with embedded positive goal oriented dialogue would increase knowledge of the material and perpetuate a shift an observer's goal-orientation from performance avoidance goal orientation (PAVGO) to learning goal orientation (LGO). Learning gains …

Contributors
Twyford, Jessica Brooke, Craig, Scotty D, Niemczyk, Mary, et al.
Created Date
2014

Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale …

Contributors
Billionniere, Elodie V., Collofello, James, Ganesh, Tirupalavanam, et al.
Created Date
2011

In baseball, the difference between a win and loss can come down to a single call, such as when an umpire judges force outs at first base by typically comparing competing auditory and visual inputs of the ball-mitt sound and the foot-on-base sight. Yet, because the speed of sound in air only travels about 1100 feet per second, fans observing from several hundred feet away will receive auditory cues that are delayed a significant portion of a second, and thus conceivably could systematically differ in judgments compared to the nearby umpire. The current research examines two questions. 1. How reliably …

Contributors
Krynen, Richard Chandler, McBeath, Michael, Homa, Donald, et al.
Created Date
2017

Highly automated vehicles require drivers to remain aware enough to takeover during critical events. Driver distraction is a key factor that prevents drivers from reacting adequately, and thus there is need for an alert to help drivers regain situational awareness and be able to act quickly and successfully should a critical event arise. This study examines two aspects of alerts that could help facilitate driver takeover: mode (auditory and tactile) and direction (towards and away). Auditory alerts appear to be somewhat more effective than tactile alerts, though both modes produce significantly faster reaction times than no alert. Alerts moving towards …

Contributors
Brogdon, Michael A, Gray, Robert, Branaghan, Russell, et al.
Created Date
2018

As automation becomes more prevalent in society, the frequency that systems involve interactive human-automation control increases. Previous studies have shown accountability to be a valuable way of eliciting human engagement and reducing various biases, but these studies have involved the presence of an authority figure during the research. The current research sought to explore the effect of accountability in the absence of an authority figure. To do this, 40 participants took part in this study by playing a microworld simulation. Half were told they would be interviewed after the simulation, and half were told data was not being collected. Eleven …

Contributors
Wilkins, Adam Michael, Chiou, Erin K, Gray, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2019

Previous research has shown that people can implicitly learn repeated visual contexts and use this information when locating relevant items. For example, when people are presented with repeated spatial configurations of distractor items or distractor identities in visual search, they become faster to find target stimuli in these repeated contexts over time (Chun and Jiang, 1998; 1999). Given that people learn these repeated distractor configurations and identities, might they also implicitly encode semantic information about distractors, if this information is predictive of the target location? We investigated this question with a series of visual search experiments using real-world stimuli within …

Contributors
Walenchok, Stephen Charles, Goldinger, Stephen D, Azuma, Tamiko, et al.
Created Date
2014

Political party identification has an immense influence on shaping individual attitudes and processes of reasoning to the point where otherwise knowledgeable people endorse political conspiracies that support one's political in-group and simultaneously disparage an out-group. Although recent research has explored this tendency among partisans, less is known about how Independents respond in comparison. Previous research fails to identify the Independent as a unique type of voter, but rather categorizes this group as ostensibly partisan, not a separate phenomenon to investigate. However, most Independents purport neutrality and, by recent polls, are becoming a substantial body worthy of concerted focus. Many questions …

Contributors
Johnson, Chelsea K., Duran, Nicholas D, Robles-Sotelo, Elias, et al.
Created Date
2017

A converging operations approach using response time distribution modeling was adopted to better characterize the cognitive control dynamics underlying ongoing task cost and cue detection in event based prospective memory (PM). In Experiment 1, individual differences analyses revealed that working memory capacity uniquely predicted nonfocal cue detection, while proactive control and inhibition predicted variation in ongoing task cost of the ex-Gaussian parameter associated with continuous monitoring strategies (mu). In Experiments 2A and 2B, quasi-experimental techniques aimed at identifying the role of proactive control abilities in PM monitoring and cue detection suggested that low ability participants may have PM deficits during …

Contributors
Ball, Brett Hunter, Brewer, Gene A, Goldinger, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2015

Color as a communication medium plays an important role in conveying meaning. It has been identified as a major element in marketing and advertising, and has shown to influence consumer's emotions (Labrecque & Milne, 2012). Despite the large volume of color-centered research, the literature on the subject remains largely abstract and unreliable. Academic research on the impact of color on brand personality it is still in its early stages of investigation, and therefore fragmented and inadequate. The goal of this study is to identify and visually represent patterns of association between colors and specific brand personality traits. We hypothesized that …

Contributors
Toteva, Maya Georgieva, Branaghan, Russell, Gray, Rob, et al.
Created Date
2017

Although current urban search and rescue (USAR) robots are little more than remotely controlled cameras, the end goal is for them to work alongside humans as trusted teammates. Natural language communications and performance data are collected as a team of humans works to carry out a simulated search and rescue task in an uncertain virtual environment. Conditions are tested emulating a remotely controlled robot versus an intelligent one. Differences in performance, situation awareness, trust, workload, and communications are measured. The Intelligent robot condition resulted in higher levels of performance and operator situation awareness (SA). Dissertation/Thesis

Contributors
Bartlett, Cade Earl, Cooke, Nancy J, Kambhampati, Subbarao, et al.
Created Date
2015

Magnocellular-Dorsal pathway’s function had been related to reading ability, and visual perceptual learning can effectively increase the function of this neural pathway. Previous researches training people with a traditional dot motion paradigm and an integrated visual perceptual training “video game” called Ultimeyes pro, all showed improvement with regard to people’s reading performance. This research used 2 paradigms in 2 groups in order to compare the 2 paradigms’ effect on improving people’s reading ability. We also measured participants’ critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), which is related to word decoding ability. The result did not show significant improvement of reading performance in …

Contributors
Zhou, Tianyou, Náñez, Jose E, Robles-Sotelo, Elias, et al.
Created Date
2015

When a rolling ball exits a spiral tube, it typically maintains its final inertial state and travels along straight line in concordance with Newton's first law of motion. Yet, most people predict that the ball will curve, a "naive physics" misconception called the curvilinear impetus (CI) bias. In the current paper, we explore the ecological hypothesis that the CI bias arises from overgeneralization of correct motion of biological agents. Previous research has established that humans curve when exiting a spiral maze, and college students believe this motion is the same for balls and humans. The current paper consists of two …

Contributors
Dye, Rosaline Alice, Mcbeath, Michael K, Sanabria, Federico, et al.
Created Date
2013

In most of the work using event-related potentials (ERPs), researchers presume the function of specific components based on the careful manipulation of experimental factors, but rarely report direct evidence supporting a relationship between the neural signal and other outcomes. Perhaps most troubling is the lack of evidence that ERPs correlate with related behavioral outcomes which should result, at least in part, from the neural processes that ERPs capture. One such example is the NoGo-N2 component, an ERP component elicited in Go/NoGo paradigms. There are two primary theories regarding the functional significance of this component in this context: that the signal …

Contributors
Hampton, Ryan Scott, Varnum, Michael E.W., Shiota, Michelle N., et al.
Created Date
2019

Watanabe, Náñez, and Sasaki (2001) introduced a phenomenon they named “task-irrelevant perceptual learning” in which near-threshold stimuli that are not essential to a given task can be associatively learned when consistently and concurrently paired with the focal task. The present study employs a visual paired-shapes recognition task, using colored polygon targets as salient attended focal stimuli, with the goal of comparing the increases in perceptual sensitivity observed when near-threshold stimuli are temporally paired in varying manners with focal targets. Experiment 1 separated and compared the target-acquisition and target-recognition phases and revealed that sensitivity improved most when the near-threshold motion stimuli …

Contributors
Holloway, Steven Robert, McBeath, Michael K, Macknik, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2016

Collaborative learning is a common teaching strategy in classrooms across age groups and content areas. It is important to measure and understand the cognitive process involved during collaboration to improve teaching methods involving interactive activities. This research attempted to answer the question: why do students learn more in collaborative settings? Using three measurement tools, 142 participants from seven different biology courses at a community college and at a university were tested before and after collaborating about the biological process of natural selection. Three factors were analyzed to measure their effect on learning at the individual level and the group level. …

Contributors
Touchman, Stephanie, Baker, Dale, Rosenberg, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2012

The present study examined the effect of value-directed encoding on recognition memory and how various divided attention tasks at encoding alter value-directed remembering. In the first experiment, participants encoded words that were assigned either high or low point values in multiple study-test phases. The points corresponded to the value the participants could earn by successfully recognizing the words in an upcoming recognition memory task. Importantly, participants were instructed that their goal was to maximize their score in this memory task. The second experiment was modified such that while studying the words participants simultaneously completed a divided attention task (either articulatory …

Contributors
Elliott, Blake, Brewer, Gene A, McClure, Samuel M, et al.
Created Date
2019

Modern day driving continues to burgeon with attention detractors found inside and outside drivers' vehicles (e.g. cell phones, other road users, etc.). This study explores a regularly disregarded attention detractor experienced by drivers: self-regulation. Results suggest self-regulation and WMC has the potential to affect attentional control, producing maladaptive changes in driving performance in maximum speed, acceleration, and time headway. Dissertation/Thesis

Contributors
Sinocruz, Jerome Quinto, Sanchez, Christopher A, Branaghan, Russel J, et al.
Created Date
2012

Research on priming has shown that a stimulus can cause people to behave according to the stereotype held about the stimulus. Two experiments were conducted in which the effects of elderly priming were tested by use of a driving simulator. In both experiments, participants drove through a simulated world guided by either an elderly or a younger female voice. The voices told the participants where to make each of six turns. Both experiments yielded slower driving speeds in the elderly voice condition. The effect was universal regardless of implicit and explicit attitudes towards elderly people. Dissertation/Thesis

Contributors
Foster, L Bryant, Branaghan, Russell, Becker, David, et al.
Created Date
2012

In 2013, 1.8 million US drivers were responsible for rear-end collisions with other vehicles (NHTSA 2014), for which driver distraction has been identified as the main factor (Campbell, Smith & Najm, 2003; Knipling, Mironer, Hendricks, Tijerina, Everson, Allen & Wilson 1993; Wang, Knipling & Goodman, 1996). The ubiquity of cell phones and their use behind the wheel has played a major role in distracting these drivers. To mitigate this, some manufacturers are equipping vehicles with forward collision warning (FCW) systems. Generally, warnings that are perceived as being urgent produce lower response times. One technique for increasing perceived urgency of a …

Contributors
Becker, Mike, Gray, Robert, Branaghan, Russell, et al.
Created Date
2016

In sports, athletes reach new levels every day and are truly masters of their own bodies. Yet, when placed under pressure, the pin-point accuracy and elite level of performance can begin to wane. Despite plentiful literature investigating the effects of pressure on performance, the underlying mechanisms behind decreased performance in sport are not yet clear. The current research discusses possible theories for “choking under pressure”, the specific mechanisms through which pressure has its effects, and methods to prevent “choking.” Fourteen current and former basketball players shot free throws with two primary predictor variables: the presence/absence of performance pressure and the …

Contributors
Orn, Anders, Gray, Robert, Branaghan, Russell, et al.
Created Date
2017

Medical errors are now estimated to be the third leading cause of death in the United States (Makary & Daniel, 2016). Look-alike, sound- alike prescription drug mix-ups contribute to this figure. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) have recommended the use of Tall Man lettering since 2008, in which dissimilar portions of confusable drug names pairs are capitalized in order to make them more distinguishable. Research on the efficacy of Tall Man lettering in differentiating confusable drug name pairs has been inconclusive and it is imperative to investigate potential efficacy further considering …

Contributors
Knobloch, Ashley, Branaghan, Russell, Cooke, Nancy, et al.
Created Date
2017

Properly deciding to engage in or to withhold an action is a critical ability for goal-oriented movement control. Such decision may be driven by expected value from the choice of action but associating physical effort may discount such value. A novel anticipatory stopping task was developed to investigate effort discounted decision process potentially present in proactive inhibitory control. Subjects performed or abstained from target reach if they believed it was a Go or Stop trial respectively. Reward was awarded to a reach, correctly timed to hit a target at the same time as the moving bar in Go trials. During …

Contributors
Tsuchiya, Toshiki, Santello, Marco, Fine, Justin, et al.
Created Date
2018

This dissertation draws upon modern Chomskyan theory to address issues surrounding the development of a unified, minimalist account of language as a mental and biological object, both in terms of its generation and historic change. Towards that end, I investigate, apply, and advance the labeling approach to generative syntax. Labeling is a hypothetical process, operating within the confines of phase theory, which is thought to prepare constructed syntactic objects for interpretation at relevant mental interfaces. I argue a number of points applicable to both synchronic and diachronic linguistics: 1) Labeling failures happen as a matter of course during a derivation, …

Contributors
LaBarge, Robert Earl, van Gelderen, Elly, Ingram, David, et al.
Created Date
2016

A commonly held belief among educators, researchers, and students is that high-quality texts are easier to read than low-quality texts, as they contain more engaging narrative and story-like elements. Interestingly, these assumptions have typically failed to be supported by the writing literature. Research suggests that higher quality writing is typically associated with decreased levels of text narrativity and readability. Although narrative elements may sometimes be associated with high-quality writing, the majority of research suggests that higher quality writing is associated with decreased levels of text narrativity, and measures of readability in general. One potential explanation for this conflicting evidence lies …

Contributors
Allen, Laura Kristen, McNamara, Danielle S, Glenberg, Arthur, et al.
Created Date
2017

The label-feedback hypothesis (Lupyan, 2007) proposes that language can modulate low- and high-level visual processing, such as “priming” a visual object. Lupyan and Swingley (2012) found that repeating target names facilitates visual search, resulting in shorter reaction times (RTs) and higher accuracy. However, a design limitation made their results challenging to assess. This study evaluated whether self-directed speech influences target locating (i.e. attentional guidance) or target identification after location (i.e. decision time), testing whether the Label Feedback Effect reflects changes in visual attention or some other mechanism (e.g. template maintenance in working memory). Across three experiments, search RTs and eye …

Contributors
Hebert, Katherine Paige, Goldinger, Stephen D, Rogalsky, Corianne, et al.
Created Date
2016

Past research has focused on the important role humor plays in interpersonal relationships; however, researchers have also identified intrapersonal applications of humor, showing that people often use humor to alleviate negative affect, and that humor has generally been found to beneficially influence mental health. The purpose of this study is to examine whether humor-based coping can be utilized as an intrapersonal tool to aid or facilitate creative thinking and problem solving when faced with a distressing situation. The current study posits reduced rumination as the mechanism by which humor facilitates creativity. To measure creativity, a task was devised that had …

Contributors
Pages, Erika Beatrice, Shiota, Michelle N., Kenrick, Douglas T., et al.
Created Date
2019

Older adults often experience communication difficulties, including poorer comprehension of auditory speech when it contains complex sentence structures or occurs in noisy environments. Previous work has linked cognitive abilities and the engagement of domain-general cognitive resources, such as the cingulo-opercular and frontoparietal brain networks, in response to challenging speech. However, the degree to which these networks can support comprehension remains unclear. Furthermore, how hearing loss may be related to the cognitive resources recruited during challenging speech comprehension is unknown. This dissertation investigated how hearing, cognitive performance, and functional brain networks contribute to challenging auditory speech comprehension in older adults. Experiment …

Contributors
Fitzhugh, Megan, (Reddy) Rogalsky, Corianne, Baxter, Leslie C, et al.
Created Date
2019

Possible selves research has focused primarily on academic achievement and student learning, for at-risk, adolescent or college aged students. The research has not examined an occupation possible self, nor the implications of how time is considered by incarcerated populations. This study was designed to expand the Possible Selves Questionaire (PSQ) designed by Oyserman for an occupational achievement code and explore any unique codes present for incarcerated young adult males, aged 18-22. Additionally, this study was designed to compare two distinct time horizons for incarcerated young adults, a more proximal one-year event which would represent continued incarceration and a post-release distal …

Contributors
ONeill, Edward, Husman, Jenefer, Mathur, Sarup, et al.
Created Date
2016

As technology enhances our communication capabilities, the number of distributed teams has risen in both public and private sectors. There is no doubt that these technological advancements have addressed a need for communication and collaboration of distributed teams. However, is all technology useful for effective collaboration? Are some methods (modalities) of communication more conducive than others to effective performance and collaboration of distributed teams? Although previous literature identifies some differences in modalities, there is little research on geographically distributed mobile teams (DMTs) performing a collaborative task. To investigate communication and performance in this context, I developed the GeoCog system. This …

Contributors
Champion, Michael, Cooke, Nancy J, Shope, Steven, et al.
Created Date
2012

Categories are often defined by rules regarding their features. These rules may be intensely complex yet, despite the complexity of these rules, we are often able to learn them with sufficient practice. A possible explanation for how we arrive at consistent category judgments despite these difficulties would be that we may define these complex categories such as chairs, tables, or stairs by understanding the simpler rules defined by potential interactions with these objects. This concept, called grounding, allows for the learning and transfer of complex categorization rules if said rules are capable of being expressed in a more simple fashion …

Contributors
Crawford, Thomas Marshall, Homa, Donald, Glenberg, Arthur, et al.
Created Date
2014

In this research work, a novel control system strategy for the robust control of an unmanned ground vehicle is proposed. This strategy is motivated by efforts to mitigate the problem for scenarios in which the human operator is unable to properly communicate with the vehicle. This novel control system strategy consisted of three major components: I.) Two independent intelligent controllers, II.) An intelligent navigation system, and III.) An intelligent controller tuning unit. The inner workings of the first two components are based off the Brain Emotional Learning (BEL), which is a mathematical model of the Amygdala-Orbitofrontal, a region in mammalians …

Contributors
Vargas-Clara, Alvaro, Redkar, Sangram, McKenna, Ann, et al.
Created Date
2015

Driving a vehicle is a complex task that typically requires several physical interactions and mental tasks. Inattentive driving takes a driver’s attention away from the primary task of driving, which can endanger the safety of driver, passenger(s), as well as pedestrians. According to several traffic safety administration organizations, distracted and inattentive driving are the primary causes of vehicle crashes or near crashes. In this research, a novel approach to detect and mitigate various levels of driving distractions is proposed. This novel approach consists of two main phases: i.) Proposing a system to detect various levels of driver distractions (low, medium, …

Contributors
Alomari, Jamil, Mayyas, AbdRaouf, Cooke, Nancy, et al.
Created Date
2017

The Imagination + Imagery model for design pedagogy is presented. Two studies were conducted to develop the model: (a) the visual imagery assessment of design students; and (b) a historical research on the concept of imagination. Results suggest the following implications as the components of strong imagination for design thinkers: (a) the ability to shape vivid images of objects in mind; (b) the ability to mentally transform the spatial representations of images; (c) to consider the ethical consequences of imagined situation; (d) to use imagination for resolving design wicked problems; and (e) to actively imagine for mental and emotional health. …

Contributors
Hedayati, Farzaneh, Takamura, John, Lerman, Liz, et al.
Created Date
2018

This study investigated the ability to relate a test taker’s non-verbal cues during online assessments to probable cheating incidents. Specifically, this study focused on the role of time delay, head pose and affective state for detection of cheating incidences in a lab-based online testing session. The analysis of a test taker’s non-verbal cues indicated that time delay, the variation of a student’s head pose relative to the computer screen and confusion had significantly statistical relation to cheating behaviors. Additionally, time delay, head pose relative to the computer screen, confusion, and the interaction term of confusion and time delay were predictors …

Contributors
Chuang, Chia-yuan, Femiani, John C., Craig, Scotty D., et al.
Created Date
2015

In the noise and commotion of daily life, people achieve effective communication partly because spoken messages are replete with redundant information. Listeners exploit available contextual, linguistic, phonemic, and prosodic cues to decipher degraded speech. When other cues are absent or ambiguous, phonemic and prosodic cues are particularly important because they help identify word boundaries, a process known as lexical segmentation. Individuals vary in the degree to which they rely on phonemic or prosodic cues for lexical segmentation in degraded conditions. Deafened individuals who use a cochlear implant have diminished access to fine frequency information in the speech signal, and show …

Contributors
Helms Tillery, Augusta Katherine, Liss, Julie M., Azuma, Tamiko, et al.
Created Date
2015

Cyber threats are growing in number and sophistication making it important to continually study and improve all dimensions of cyber defense. Human teamwork in cyber defense analysis has been overlooked even though it has been identified as an important predictor of cyber defense performance. Also, to detect advanced forms of threats effective information sharing and collaboration between the cyber defense analysts becomes imperative. Therefore, through this dissertation work, I took a cognitive engineering approach to investigate and improve cyber defense teamwork. The approach involved investigating a plausible team-level bias called the information pooling bias in cyber defense analyst teams conducting …

Contributors
Rajivan, Prashanth, Cooke, Nancy J, Ahn, Gail-Joon, et al.
Created Date
2014

Despite the various driver assistance systems and electronics, the threat to life of driver, passengers and other people on the road still persists. With the growth in technology, the use of in-vehicle devices with a plethora of buttons and features is increasing resulting in increased distraction. Recently, speech recognition has emerged as an alternative to distraction and has the potential to be beneficial. However, considering the fact that automotive environment is dynamic and noisy in nature, distraction may not arise from the manual interaction, but due to the cognitive load. Hence, speech recognition certainly cannot be a reliable mode of …

Contributors
Mittal, Richa, Gaffar, Ashraf, Femiani, John, et al.
Created Date
2015

Safe headway learning plays a core role in driving education. Traditional safe headway education just use the oral and literal methods to educate drivers the concept of safe headway time, while with the limitation of combining drivers subject and situational domains for drivers to learn. This study investigated that whether using ego-moving metaphor to embody driver's self-awareness can help to solve this problem. This study used multiple treatments (ego-moving and time-moving instruction of safe time headway) and controls with pretest experimental design to investigate the embody self-awareness effect in a car-following task. Drivers (N=40) were asked to follow a lead …

Contributors
Lu, Shaowen, Craig, Scotty D., Gray, Robort, et al.
Created Date
2016

It is commonly known that the left hemisphere of the brain is more efficient in the processing of verbal information, compared to the right hemisphere. One proposal suggests that hemispheric asymmetries in verbal processing are due in part to the efficient use of top-down mechanisms by the left hemisphere. Most evidence for this comes from hemispheric semantic priming, though fewer studies have investigated verbal memory in the cerebral hemispheres. The goal of the current investigations is to examine how top-down mechanisms influence hemispheric asymmetries in verbal memory, and determine the specific nature of hypothesized top-down mechanisms. Five experiments were conducted …

Contributors
Tat, Michael Jon, Azuma, Tamiko, Goldinger, Stephen D, et al.
Created Date
2013

Previous research from Rajsic et al. (2015, 2017) suggests that a visual form of confirmation bias arises during visual search for simple stimuli, under certain conditions, wherein people are biased to seek stimuli matching an initial cue color even when this strategy is not optimal. Furthermore, recent research from our lab suggests that varying the prevalence of cue-colored targets does not attenuate the visual confirmation bias, although people still fail to detect rare targets regardless of whether they match the initial cue (Walenchok et al. under review). The present investigation examines the boundary conditions of the visual confirmation bias under …

Contributors
Walenchok, Stephen Charles, Goldinger, Stephen D, Azuma, Tamiko, et al.
Created Date
2018

Writing is an intricate cognitive and social process that involves the production of texts for the purpose of conveying meaning to others. The importance of lower level cognitive skills and language knowledge during this text production process has been well documented in the literature. However, the role of higher level skills (e.g., metacognition, strategy use, etc.) has been less strongly emphasized. This thesis proposal examines higher level cognitive skills in the context of persuasive essay writing. Specifically, two published manuscripts are presented, which both examine the role of higher level skills in the context of writing. The first manuscript investigates …

Contributors
Allen, Laura K., McNamara, Danielle S, Connor, Carol, et al.
Created Date
2014

Web-based learning resources have been criticized as being developed with minimal consideration as to the effectiveness of the design principles or guidelines used to create them. Extraneous material is oftentimes present and necessary for learners to engage in effective learning with multimedia learning material. Signaling learners towards important information between images and corresponding text has been shown to be an effective method for providing learners a way to quickly find information between the two parts of the learning material. However, not all signaling methods are equally effective in all applications. This study investigates a novel signaling method, using spatial isolation …

Contributors
Chin, Joshua, Craig, Scotty D, Branaghan, Russell, et al.
Created Date
2017

Recent research has shown that reward-related stimuli capture attention in an automatic and involuntary manner, or reward-salience (Le Pelley, Pearson, Griffiths, & Beesley, 2015). Although patterns of oculomotor behavior have been previously examined in recent experiments, questions surrounding a potential neural signal of reward remain. Consequently, this study used pupillometry to investigate how reward-related stimuli affect pupil size and attention. Across three experiments, response time, accuracy, and pupil were measured as participants searched for targets among distractors. Participants were informed that singleton distractors indicated the magnitude of a potential gain/loss available in a trial. Two visual search conditions were included …

Contributors
Phifer, Casey, Goldinger, Stephen D, Homa, Donald J, et al.
Created Date
2017

ABSTRACT Learning a novel motor pattern through imitation of the skilled performance of an expert has been shown to result in better learning outcomes relative to observational or physical practice. The aim of the present project was to examine if the advantages of imitational practice could be further augmented through a supplementary technique derived from my previous research. This research has provided converging behavioral evidence that dyads engaged in joint action in a familiar task requiring spatial and temporal synchrony end up developing an extended overlap in their body representations, termed a joint body schema (JBS). The present research examined …

Contributors
Soliman, Tamer, Glenberg, Arthur, Helms Tillery, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2015

The current work investigated the emergence of leader-follower roles during social motor coordination. Previous research has presumed a leader during coordination assumes a spatiotemporally advanced position (e.g., relative phase lead). While intuitive, this definition discounts what role-taking implies. Leading and following is defined as one person (or limb) having a larger influence on the motor state changes of another; the coupling is asymmetric. Three experiments demonstrated asymmetric coupling effects emerge when task or biomechanical asymmetries are imputed between actors. Participants coordinated in-phase (Ф =0o) swinging of handheld pendulums, which differed in their uncoupled eigenfrequencies (frequency detuning). Coupling effects were recovered …

Contributors
Fine, Justin Michael, Amazeen, Eric L., Amazeen, Polemnia G., et al.
Created Date
2015

This study investigated the role of broad cognitive processes in the development of mathematics skills among children and adolescents. The participants for this study were a subsample of a nationally representative sample used in the standardization of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement, Normative Update (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2007). Participants were between 5 years old and 18 years old (N = 4721; mean of 10.98 years, median of 10.00 years, standard deviation of 3.48 years), and were 50.7% male and 49.3% female. Structural equation models supported the theoretical suggestion that broad …

Contributors
Calderon, Carlos, Caterino, Linda, Nakagawa, Kathryn, et al.
Created Date
2012