Skip to main content

ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Contributor
Subject
Date Range
2010 2019


Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted much interest during last decades as a functional material. Furthermore, ZnO is a potential material for transparent conducting oxide material competing with indium tin oxide (ITO), graphene, and carbon nanotube film. It has been known as a conductive material when doped with elements such as indium, gallium and aluminum. The solubility of those dopant elements in ZnO is still debatable; but, it is necessary to find alternative conducting materials when their form is film or nanostructure for display devices. This is a consequence of the ever increasing price of indium. In addition, a new generation …

Contributors
Choi, Hyung Woo, Alford, Terry L., Krause, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2012

The object of this study was a 26 year old residential Photovoltaic (PV) monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) power plant, called Solar One, built by developer John F. Long in Phoenix, Arizona (a hot-dry field condition). The task for Arizona State University Photovoltaic Reliability Laboratory (ASU-PRL) graduate students was to evaluate the power plant through visual inspection, electrical performance, and infrared thermography. The purpose of this evaluation was to measure and understand the extent of degradation to the system along with the identification of the failure modes in this hot-dry climatic condition. This 4000 module bipolar system was originally installed with a …

Contributors
Belmont, Jonathan Mark, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Henderson, Mark, et al.
Created Date
2013

ABSTRACT As the use of photovoltaic (PV) modules in large power plants continues to increase globally, more studies on degradation, reliability, failure modes, and mechanisms of field aged modules are needed to predict module life expectancy based on accelerated lifetime testing of PV modules. In this work, a 26+ year old PV power plant in Phoenix, Arizona has been evaluated for performance, reliability, and durability. The PV power plant, called Solar One, is owned and operated by John F. Long's homeowners association. It is a 200 kWdc, standard test conditions (STC) rated power plant comprised of 4000 PV modules or …

Contributors
Olakonu, Kolapo Olanrewaju, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Srinivasan, Devarajan, et al.
Created Date
2012

Energy poverty is pervasive in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria, located in sub-Saharan West Africa, is the world's seventh largest oil exporting country and is a resource-rich nation. It however experiences the same levels of energy poverty as most of its neighboring countries. Attributing this paradox only to corruption or the "Dutch Disease", where one sector booms at the expense of other sectors of the economy, is simplistic and enervates attempts at reform. In addition, data on energy consumption is aggregated at the national level via estimates, disaggregated data is virtually non-existent. Finally, the wave of decentralization of vertically integrated national utilities …

Contributors
Chidebell-Emordi, Chukwunonso, York, Abigail, Pasqualetti, Martin, et al.
Created Date
2015

The smart grid initiative is the impetus behind changes that are expected to culminate into an enhanced distribution system with the communication and control infrastructure to support advanced distribution system applications and resources such as distributed generation, energy storage systems, and price responsive loads. This research proposes a distribution-class analog of the transmission LMP (DLMP) as an enabler of the advanced applications of the enhanced distribution system. The DLMP is envisioned as a control signal that can incentivize distribution system resources to behave optimally in a manner that benefits economic efficiency and system reliability and that can optimally couple the …

Contributors
Akinbode, Oluwaseyi Wemimo, Hedman, Kory W, Heydt, Gerald T, et al.
Created Date
2013

This dissertation presents a novel current source converter topology that is primarily intended for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) applications. In comparison with the existing PV inverter technology, the salient features of the proposed topology are: a) the low frequency (double of line frequency) ripple that is common to single-phase inverters is greatly reduced; b) the absence of low frequency ripple enables significantly reduced size pass components to achieve necessary DC-link stiffness and c) improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) performance is readily achieved due to the tightened current ripple even with reduced-size passive components. The proposed topology does not utilize any …

Contributors
Bush, Craig R., Ayyanar, Raja, Karam, Lina, et al.
Created Date
2013

Battery energy storage has shown a lot of potential in the recent past to be effective in various grid services due to its near instantaneous ramp rates and modularity. This thesis aims to determine the commercial viability of customer premises and substation sited battery energy storage systems. Five different types of services have been analyzed considering current market pricing of Lithium-ion batteries and power conditioning equipment. Energy Storage Valuation Tool 3.0 (Beta) has been used to exclusively determine the value of energy storage in the services analyzed. The results indicate that on the residential level, Lithium-ion battery energy storage may …

Contributors
Nadkarni, Aditya Dilip, Karady, George G, Ayyanar, Raja, et al.
Created Date
2013

The ability to design high performance buildings has acquired great importance in recent years due to numerous federal, societal and environmental initiatives. However, this endeavor is much more demanding in terms of designer expertise and time. It requires a whole new level of synergy between automated performance prediction with the human capabilities to perceive, evaluate and ultimately select a suitable solution. While performance prediction can be highly automated through the use of computers, performance evaluation cannot, unless it is with respect to a single criterion. The need to address multi-criteria requirements makes it more valuable for a designer to know …

Contributors
Dutta, Ranojoy, Reddy, T Agami, Runger, George, et al.
Created Date
2013

Encapsulant is a key packaging component of photovoltaic (PV) modules, which protects the solar cell from physical, environmental and electrical damages. Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) is one of the major encapsulant materials used in the PV industry. This work focuses on indoor accelerated ultraviolet (UV) stress testing and characterization to investigate the EVA discoloration and delamination in PV modules by using various non-destructive characterization techniques, including current-voltage (IV) measurements, UV fluorescence (UVf) and colorimetry measurements. Mini-modules with glass/EVA/cell/EVA/backsheet construction were fabricated in the laboratory with two types of EVA, UV-cut EVA (UVC) and UV-pass EVA (UVP). The accelerated UV testing was …

Contributors
Dolia, Kshitiz, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Green, Matthew, et al.
Created Date
2018

An acute and crucial societal problem is the energy consumed in existing commercial buildings. There are 1.5 million commercial buildings in the U.S. with only about 3% being built each year. Hence, existing buildings need to be properly operated and maintained for several decades. Application of integrated centralized control systems in buildings could lead to more than 50% energy savings. This research work demonstrates an innovative adaptive integrated lighting control approach which could achieve significant energy savings and increase indoor comfort in high performance office buildings. In the first phase of the study, a predictive algorithm was developed and validated …

Contributors
Karizi, Nasim, Reddy, T. Agami, Bryan, Harvey, et al.
Created Date
2015

The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated method to study emergent behavior and consequences of evolution and adaptation in engineered complex adaptive systems (ECASs). A multi-layer conceptual framework and modeling approach including behavioral and structural aspects is provided to describe the structure of a class of engineered complex systems and predict their future adaptive patterns. The approach allows the examination of complexity in the structure and the behavior of components as a result of their connections and in relation to their environment. This research describes and uses the major differences of natural complex adaptive systems (CASs) …

Contributors
Haghnevis, Moeed, Askin, Ronald G, Armbruster, Dieter, et al.
Created Date
2013

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has always held the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear reactor fleet as a top priority. Continual improvements and advancements in nuclear fuels have been instrumental in maximizing energy generation from nuclear power plants and minimizing waste. One aspect of the DOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development Advanced Fuels Campaign is to improve the mechanical properties of uranium dioxide (UO2) for nuclear fuel applications. In an effort to improve the performance of UO2, by increasing the fracture toughness and ductility, small quantities of oxide materials have been added to samples to act …

Contributors
McDonald, Robert Edward, Peralta, Pedro, Rajagopalan, Jagannathan, et al.
Created Date
2014

Energy is a central concern of sustainability because how we produce and consume energy affects society, economy, and the environment. Sustainability scientists are interested in energy transitions away from fossil fuels because they are nonrenewable, increasingly expensive, have adverse health effects, and may be the main driver of climate change. They see an opportunity for developing countries to avoid the negative consequences fossil-fuel-based energy systems, and also to increase resilience, by leap-frogging-over the centralized energy grid systems that dominate the developed world. Energy transitions pose both challenges and opportunities. Obstacles to transitions include 1) an existing, centralized, complex energy-grid system, …

Contributors
Koster, Auriane M., Anderies, John M, Aggarwal, Rimjhim, et al.
Created Date
2013

Building Envelope includes walls, roofs and openings, which react to the outdoor environmental condition. Today, with the increasing use of glass in building envelope, the energy usage of the buildings is increasing, especially in the offices and commercial buildings. Use of right glass type and control triggers helps to optimize the energy use, by tradeoff between optical and thermal properties. The part of the research looks at the different control triggers and its range that governs the use of electrochromic glass to regulate the energy usage in building. All different control trigger that can be possibly used for regulating the …

Contributors
Munshi, Kavish Prakash, Bryan, Harvey, Reddy, Agami, et al.
Created Date
2012

The Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been known to have been around from as long as people have been urbanizing. The growth and conglomeration of cities in the past century has caused an increase in the intensity and impact of Urban Heat Island, causing significant changes to the micro-climate and causing imbalances in the temperature patterns of cities. The urban heat island (UHI) is a well established phenomenon and it has been attributed to the reduced heating loads and increased cooling loads, impacting the total energy consumption of affected buildings in all climatic regions. This thesis endeavors to understand the …

Contributors
Doddaballapur, Sandeep Srinath, Bryan, Harvey, Reddy, Agami T, et al.
Created Date
2011

After a major disturbance, the power system response is highly dependent on protection schemes and system dynamics. Improving power systems situational awareness requires proper and simultaneous modeling of both protection schemes and dynamic characteristics in power systems analysis tools. Historical information and ex-post analysis of blackouts reaffirm the critical role of protective devices in cascading events, thereby confirming the necessity to represent protective functions in transient stability studies. This dissertation is aimed at studying the importance of representing protective relays in power system dynamic studies. Although modeling all of the protective relays within transient stability studies may result in a …

Contributors
Hedman, Mojdeh Khorsand, Vittal, Vijay, Ayyanar, Raja, et al.
Created Date
2017

The automotive industry is committed to moving towards sustainable modes of transportation through electrified vehicles to improve the fuel economy with a reduced carbon footprint. In this context, battery-operated hybrid, plug-in hybrid and all-electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming commercially viable throughout the world. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with various active materials, electrolytes, and separators are currently being used for electric vehicle applications. Specifically, lithium-ion batteries with Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4 - LFP) and Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (Li(NiMnCo)O2 - NMC) cathodes are being studied mainly due to higher cycle life and higher energy density values, respectively. In the present work, …

Contributors
Vaidya, Rutvik Milind, Kannan, Arunachala Mada, Alford, Terry, et al.
Created Date
2017

Phase Change Material (PCM) plays an important role as a thermal energy storage device by utilizing its high storage density and latent heat property. One of the potential applications for PCM is in buildings by incorporating them in the envelope for energy conservation. During the summer season, the benefits are a decrease in overall energy consumption by the air conditioning unit and a time shift in peak load during the day. Experimental work was carried out by Arizona Public Service (APS) in collaboration with Phase Change Energy Solutions (PCES) Inc. with a new class of organic-based PCM. This "BioPCM" has …

Contributors
Muruganantham, Karthik, Phelan, Patrick, Reddy, Agami, et al.
Created Date
2010

Underground transmission cables in power systems are less likely to experience electrical faults, however, resulting outage times are much greater in the event that a failure does occur. Unlike overhead lines, underground cables are not self-healing from flashover events. The faulted section must be located and repaired before the line can be put back into service. Since this will often require excavation of the underground duct bank, the procedure to repair the faulted section is both costly and time consuming. These added complications are the prime motivators for developing accurate and reliable ratings for underground cable circuits. This work will …

Contributors
Stowers, Travis, Tylavsky, Daniel, Karady, George, et al.
Created Date
2015

Buildings consume nearly 50% of the total energy in the United States, which drives the need to develop high-fidelity models for building energy systems. Extensive methods and techniques have been developed, studied, and applied to building energy simulation and forecasting, while most of work have focused on developing dedicated modeling approach for generic buildings. In this study, an integrated computationally efficient and high-fidelity building energy modeling framework is proposed, with the concentration on developing a generalized modeling approach for various types of buildings. First, a number of data-driven simulation models are reviewed and assessed on various types of computationally expensive …

Contributors
Cui, Can, Wu, Teresa, Weir, Jeffery D., et al.
Created Date
2016

Emission of CO2 into the atmosphere has become an increasingly concerning issue as we progress into the 21st century Flue gas from coal-burning power plants accounts for 40% of all carbon dioxide emissions. The key to successful separation and sequestration is to separate CO2 directly from flue gas (10-15% CO2, 70% N2), which can range from a few hundred to as high as 1000°C. Conventional microporous membranes (carbons/silicas/zeolites) are capable of separating CO2 from N2 at low temperatures, but cannot achieve separation above 200°C. To overcome the limitations of microporous membranes, a novel ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane for high temperature CO2 …

Contributors
Anderson, Matthew Brandon, Lin, Jerry, Alford, Terry, et al.
Created Date
2011

This study uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling to analyze the dependence of wind power potential and turbulence intensity on aerodynamic design of a special type of building with a nuzzle-like gap at its rooftop. Numerical simulations using ANSYS Fluent are carried out to quantify the above-mentioned dependency due to three major geometric parameters of the building: (i) the height of the building, (ii) the depth of the roof-top gap, and (iii) the width of the roof-top gap. The height of the building is varied from 8 m to 24 m. Likewise, the gap depth is varied from 3 m …

Contributors
Kailkhura, Gargi, Huang, Huei-Ping, Rajagopalan, Jagannathan, et al.
Created Date
2017

Utilizing both 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing alongside energetic calculations from geochemical measurements offers a bridged perspective of prokaryotic and eukaryotic community diversities and their relationships to geochemical diversity. Yellowstone National Park hot spring outflows from varied geochemical compositions, ranging in pH from < 2 to > 9 and in temperature from < 30°C to > 90°C, were sampled across the photosynthetic fringe, a transition in these outflows from exclusively chemosynthetic microbial communities to those that include photosynthesis. Illumina sequencing was performed to document the diversity of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes above, at, and below the photosynthetic fringe of twelve …

Contributors
Romero, Joseph Thomas, Shock, Everett L, Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby, et al.
Created Date
2018

Among the various end-use sectors, the commercial sector is expected to have the second-largest increase in total primary energy consump¬tion from 2009 to 2035 (5.8 quadrillion Btu) with a growth rate of 1.1% per year, it is the fastest growing end-use sectors. In order to make major gains in reducing U.S. building energy use commercial sector buildings must be improved. Energy benchmarking of buildings gives the facility manager or the building owner a quick evaluation of energy use and the potential for energy savings. It is the process of comparing the energy performance of a building to standards and codes, …

Contributors
Agnihotri, Shreya, Reddy, T Agami, Bryan, Harvey, et al.
Created Date
2011

Solar power generation is the most promising technology to transfer energy consumption reliance from fossil fuel to renewable sources. Concentrated solar power generation is a method to concentrate the sunlight from a bigger area to a smaller area. The collected sunlight is converted more efficiently through two types of technologies: concentrated solar photovoltaics (CSPV) and concentrated solar thermal power (CSTP) generation. In this thesis, these two technologies were evaluated in terms of system construction, performance characteristics, design considerations, cost benefit analysis and their field experience. The two concentrated solar power generation systems were implemented with similar solar concentrators and solar …

Contributors
Jin, Zhilei, Hui, Yu, Ayyanar, Raja, et al.
Created Date
2013

Passive cooling designs & technologies offer great promise to lower energy use in buildings. Though the working principles of these designs and technologies are well understood, simplified tools to quantitatively evaluate their performance are lacking. Cooling by night ventilation, which is the topic of this research, is one of the well known passive cooling technologies. The building's thermal mass can be cooled at night by ventilating the inside of the space with the relatively lower outdoor air temperatures, thereby maintaining lower indoor temperatures during the warmer daytime period. Numerous studies, both experimental and theoretical, have been performed and have shown …

Contributors
Endurthy, Akhilesh Reddy, Reddy, T Agami, Phelan, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2011

Synthetic power system test cases offer a wealth of new data for research and development purposes, as well as an avenue through which new kinds of analyses and questions can be examined. This work provides both a methodology for creating and validating synthetic test cases, as well as a few use-cases for how access to synthetic data enables otherwise impossible analysis. First, the question of how synthetic cases may be generated in an automatic manner, and how synthetic samples should be validated to assess whether they are sufficiently ``real'' is considered. Transmission and distribution levels are treated separately, due to …

Contributors
Schweitzer, Eran, Scaglione, Anna, Hedman, Kory W, et al.
Created Date
2019

The solar energy sector has been growing rapidly over the past decade. Growth in renewable electricity generation using photovoltaic (PV) systems is accompanied by an increased awareness of the fault conditions developing during the operational lifetime of these systems. While the annual energy losses caused by faults in PV systems could reach up to 18.9% of their total capacity, emerging technologies and models are driving for greater efficiency to assure the reliability of a product under its actual application. The objectives of this dissertation consist of (1) reviewing the state of the art and practice of prognostics and health management …

Contributors
Chokor, Abbas, El Asmar, Mounir, Chong, Oswald, et al.
Created Date
2017

As the photovoltaic (PV) power plants age in the field, the PV modules degrade and generate visible and invisible defects. A defect and statistical degradation rate analysis of photovoltaic (PV) power plants is presented in two-part thesis. The first part of the thesis deals with the defect analysis and the second part of the thesis deals with the statistical degradation rate analysis. In the first part, a detailed analysis on the performance or financial risk related to each defect found in multiple PV power plants across various climatic regions of the USA is presented by assigning a risk priority number …

Contributors
Sundarajan, Prasanna, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Rogers, Bradley, et al.
Created Date
2016

This thesis pursues a method to deregulate the electric distribution system and provide support to distributed renewable generation. A locational marginal price is used to determine prices across a distribution network in real-time. The real-time pricing may provide benefits such as a reduced electricity bill, decreased peak demand, and lower emissions. This distribution locational marginal price (D-LMP) determines the cost of electricity at each node in the electrical network. The D-LMP is comprised of the cost of energy, cost of losses, and a renewable energy premium. The renewable premium is an adjustable function to compensate `green' distributed generation. A D-LMP …

Contributors
Kiefer, Brian, Heydt, Gerald T, Shunk, Dan, et al.
Created Date
2011

This work aimed to characterize and optimize the variables that influence the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) preparation using design of experiment (DOE) approach. In the process of GDL preparation, the quantity of carbon support and Teflon were found to have significant influence on the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). Characterization methods like surface roughness, wetting characteristics, microstructure surface morphology, pore size distribution, thermal conductivity of GDLs were examined using laser interferometer, Goniometer, SEM, porosimetry and thermal conductivity analyzer respectively. The GDLs were evaluated in single cell PEMFC under various operating conditions of temperature and relative humidity (RH) using air …

Contributors
Kasat, Harshal Kasat, Kannan, Arunachalana, Phelan, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2016

Thermodynamic development and balance of plant study is completed for a 30 MW solar thermochemical water splitting process that generates hydrogen gas and electric power. The generalized thermodynamic model includes 23 components and 45 states. Quasi-steady state simulations are completed for design point system sizing, annual performance analysis and sensitivity analysis. Detailed consideration is given to water splitting reaction kinetics with governing equations generalized for use with any redox-active metal oxide material. Specific results for Ceria illustrate particle reduction in two solar receivers for target oxygen partial pressure of 10 Pa and particle temperature of 1773 K at a design …

Contributors
Budama, Vishnu Kumar, Johnson, Nathan, Stechel, Ellen, et al.
Created Date
2018

A low cost expander, combustor device that takes compressed air, adds thermal energy and then expands the gas to drive an electrical generator is to be designed by modifying an existing reciprocating spark ignition engine. The engine used is the 6.5 hp Briggs and Stratton series 122600 engine. Compressed air that is stored in a tank at a particular pressure will be introduced during the compression stage of the engine cycle to reduce pump work. In the modified design the intake and exhaust valve timings are modified to achieve this process. The time required to fill the combustion chamber with …

Contributors
Joy, Lijin, Trimble, Steven, Davidson, Joseph, et al.
Created Date
2011

Research was conducted to quantify the energy and cost savings of two different domestic solar water heating systems compared to an all-electric water heater for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona. The knowledge gained from this research will enable utilities to better align incentives and consumers to make more informed decisions prior to purchasing a solar water heater. Daily energy and temperature data were collected in a controlled, closed environment lab. Three mathematical models were designed in TRNSYS 17, a transient system simulation tool. The data from the lab were used to validate the TRNSYS models, and the TRNSYS results …

Contributors
Defresart, Edouard Thomas, Rogers, Bradley, Arizona State University
Created Date
2012

This is a two part thesis: Part 1 of this thesis determines the most dominant failure modes of field aged photovoltaic (PV) modules using experimental data and statistical analysis, FMECA (Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis). The failure and degradation modes of about 5900 crystalline-Si glass/polymer modules fielded for 6 to 16 years in three different photovoltaic (PV) power plants with different mounting systems under the hot-dry desert climate of Arizona are evaluated. A statistical reliability tool, FMECA that uses Risk Priority Number (RPN) is performed for each PV power plant to determine the dominant failure modes in the modules …

Contributors
Shrestha, Sanjay Mohan, Tamizhmani, Govindsamy, Srinivasan, Devrajan, et al.
Created Date
2014

With the need to address the world's growing energy demand, many new alternative and renewable energy sources are being researched and developed. Many of these technologies are in their infancy, still being too inefficient or too costly to implement on a large scale. This list of alternative energies include biofuels, geothermal power, solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectric power. This thesis focuses on developing a concentrating solar thermal energy unit for the application of an on-demand hot water system with phase change material. This system already has a prototype constructed and needs refinement in several areas in order to increase …

Contributors
Donovan, Benjamin James, Rajadas, John, Kannan, Arunachala, et al.
Created Date
2016

In this thesis, a novel silica nanosphere (SNS) lithography technique has been developed to offer a fast, cost-effective, and large area applicable nano-lithography approach. The SNS can be easily deposited with a simple spin-coating process after introducing a N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF) solvent which can produce a highly close packed SNS monolayer over large silicon (Si) surface area, since DMF offers greatly improved wetting, capillary and convective forces in addition to slow solvent evaporation rate. Since the period and dimension of the surface pattern can be conveniently changed and controlled by introducing a desired size of SNS, and additional SNS size reduction …

Contributors
Choi, Jeayoung, Honsberg, Christiana, Alford, Terry, et al.
Created Date
2015

In this thesis, the methods of aluminum electroplating in an ionic liquid for silicon solar cell front side metallization were studied. It focused on replacing the current silver screen printing with an alternative metallization technology using a low-cost Earth-abundant metal for mass production, due to the high cost and limited availability of silver. A conventional aluminum electroplating method was employed for silicon solar cells fabrication on both p-type and n-type substrates. The highest efficiency of 17.9% was achieved in the n-type solar cell with a rear junction, which is comparable to that of the same structure cell with screen printed …

Contributors
Wang, Laidong, Tao, Meng, Vasileska, Dragica, et al.
Created Date
2018

With a recent shift to a more environmentally conscious society, low-carbon and non-carbon producing energy production methods are being investigated and applied all over the world. Of these methods, fuel cells show great potential for clean energy production. A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device which directly converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are a highly researched energy source for automotive and stationary power applications. In order to produce the power required to meet Department of Energy requirements, platinum (Pt) must be used as a catalyst material in PEMFCs. Platinum, however, is …

Contributors
Adame, Anthony, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Peng, Xihong, et al.
Created Date
2012

To date, the most popular and dominant material for commercial solar cells is crystalline silicon (or wafer-Si). It has the highest cell efficiency and cell lifetime out of all commercial solar cells. Although the potential of crystalline-Si solar cells in supplying energy demands is enormous, their future growth will likely be constrained by two major bottlenecks. The first is the high electricity input to produce crystalline-Si solar cells and modules, and the second is the limited supply of silver (Ag) reserves. These bottlenecks prevent crystalline-Si solar cells from reaching terawatt-scale deployment, which means the electricity produced by crystalline-Si solar cells …

Contributors
Sun, Wen-Cheng, Tao, Meng, Vasileska, Dragica, et al.
Created Date
2016

Low temperature fuel cells are very attractive energy conversion technology for automotive applications due to their qualities of being clean, quiet, efficient and good peak power densities. However, due to high cost and limited durability and reliability, commercialization of this technology has not been possible as yet. The high fuel cell cost is mostly due to the expensive noble catalyst Pt. Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) systems, have potential to make use of non-noble catalysts and thus, provides with a solution of overall lower cost. Therefore, this issue has been addressed in this thesis work. Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells using an alkaline …

Contributors
Shah, Quratulain Jawed, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, et al.
Created Date
2012

The prevalence of renewable generation will increase in the next several decades and offset conventional generation more and more. Yet this increase is not coming without challenges. Solar, wind, and even some water resources are intermittent and unpredictable, and thereby create scheduling challenges due to their inherent “uncontrolled” nature. To effectively manage these distributed renewable assets, new control algorithms must be developed for applications including energy management, bridge power, and system stability. This can be completed through a centralized control center though efforts are being made to parallel the control architecture with the organization of the renewable assets themselves—namely, distributed …

Contributors
Cardwell, Joseph Farrand, Johnson, Nathan, Rogers, Bradley, et al.
Created Date
2015

The past few decades have seen a consistent growth of distributed PV sources. Distributed PV, like other DG sources, can be located at or near load centers and provide benefits which traditional generation may lack. However, distribution systems were not designed to accommodate such power generation sources as these sources might lead to operational as well as power quality issues. A high penetration of distributed PV resources may lead to bi-directional power flow resulting in voltage swells, increased losses and overloading of conductors. Voltage unbalance is a concern in distribution systems and the effect of single-phase residential PV systems on …

Contributors
Mitra, Parag, Heydt, Gerald T, Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2013

To present the importance of understanding American commercial influence through the utilization of geopolitics while referencing the economic viability and public policy in Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries nations, relative to oil production, consumption and the price per barrel. For the purpose, of successfully completing western led hydrocarbon construction activities Internationally. Additionally, this thesis will theorize several non-traditional strategies that will allow western led construction contractors and managers to effectively maintain and foster relationships with international trade labor. Allowing for more insight and project planning to complete successful and safe projects. Dissertation/Thesis

Contributors
Apt, Michael, Sullivan, Kenneth, Lines, Brian, et al.
Created Date
2017

Lipids and free fatty acids (FFA) from cyanobacterium Synechocystis can be used for biofuel (e.g. biodiesel or renewable diesel) production. In order to utilize and scale up this technique, downstream processes including culturing and harvest, cell disruption, and extraction were studied. Several solvents/solvent systems were screened for lipid extraction from Synechocystis. Chloroform + methanol-based Folch and Bligh & Dyer methods were proved to be "gold standard" for small-scale analysis due to their highest lipid recoveries that were confirmed by their penetration of the cell membranes, higher polarity, and stronger interaction with hydrogen bonds. Less toxic solvents, such as methanol and …

Contributors
Sheng, Jie, Rittmann, Bruce E, Westerhoff, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2011

The proposed research mainly focuses on employing tunable materials to achieve dynamic control of radiative heat transfer in both far and near fields for thermal management. Vanadium dioxide (VO2), which undergoes a phase transition from insulator to metal at the temperature of 341 K, is one tunable material being applied. The other one is graphene, whose optical properties can be tuned by chemical potential through external bias or chemical doping. In the far field, a VO2-based metamaterial thermal emitter with switchable emittance in the mid-infrared has been theoretically studied. When VO2 is in the insulating phase, high emittance is observed …

Contributors
YANG, YUE, Wang, Liping, Phelan, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2016

Recent trends in the electric power industry have led to more attention to optimal operation of power transformers. In a deregulated environment, optimal operation means minimizing the maintenance and extending the life of this critical and costly equipment for the purpose of maximizing profits. Optimal utilization of a transformer can be achieved through the use of dynamic loading. A benefit of dynamic loading is that it allows better utilization of the transformer capacity, thus increasing the flexibility and reliability of the power system. This document presents the progress on a software application which can estimate the maximum time-varying loading capability …

Contributors
Zhang, Ming, Tylavsky, Daniel J, Ayyanar, Raja, et al.
Created Date
2013

Residential energy consumption accounts for 22% of the total energy use in the United States. The consumer's perception of energy usage and conservation are very inaccurate which is leading to growing number of individuals who try to seek out ways to use energy more wisely. Hence behavioral change in consumers with respect to energy use, by providing energy use feedback may be important in reducing home energy consumption. Real-time energy information feedback delivered via technology along with feedback interventions has been reported to produce up to 20 percent declines in residential energy consumption through past research and pilot studies. There …

Contributors
Rungta, Shaily, Bryan, Harvey, Reddy, Agami, et al.
Created Date
2013

Mechanisms for oxygen reduction are proposed for three distinct cases covering two ionic liquids of fundamentally different archetypes and almost thirty orders of magnitude of proton activity. Proton activity is treated both extrinsically by varying the concentration and intrinsically by selecting proton donors with a wide range of aqueous pKa values. The mechanism of oxygen reduction in ionic liquids is introduced by way of the protic ionic liquid (pIL) triethylammonium triflate (TEATf) which shares some similarities with aqueous acid solutions. Oxygen reduction in TEATf begins as the one electron rate limited step to form superoxide, O2*-, which is then rapidly …

Contributors
Zeller, Robert August, Friesen, Cody, Sieradzki, Karl, et al.
Created Date
2011

Recent technology advancements in photovoltaics have enabled crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells to establish outstanding photoconversion efficiency records. Remarkable progresses in research and development have been made both on the silicon feedstock quality as well as the technology required for surface passivation, the two dominant sources of performance loss via recombination of photo-generated charge carriers within advanced solar cell architectures. As these two aspects of the solar cell framework improve, the need for a thorough analysis of their respective contribution under varying operation conditions has emerged along with challenges related to the lack of sensitivity of available characterization techniques. The …

Contributors
Bernardini, Simone, Bertoni, Mariana I, Coletti, Gianluca, et al.
Created Date
2018

Waste heat energy conversion remains an inviting subject for research, given the renewed emphasis on energy efficiency and carbon emissions reduction. Solid-state thermoelectric devices have been widely investigated, but their practical application remains challenging because of cost and the inability to fabricate them in geometries that are easily compatible with heat sources. An intriguing alternative to solid-state thermoelectric devices is thermogalvanic cells, which include a generally liquid electrolyte that permits the transport of ions. Thermogalvanic cells have long been known in the electrochemistry community, but have not received much attention from the thermal transport community. This is surprising given that …

Contributors
Gunawan, Andrey, Phelan, Patrick E, Buttry, Daniel A, et al.
Created Date
2015

With the increasing penetration of converter interfaced renewable generation into power systems, the structure and behavior of the power system is changing, catalyzing alterations and enhancements in modeling and simulation methods. This work puts forth a Hybrid Electromagnetic Transient-Transient Stability simulation method implemented using MATLAB and Simulink, to study power electronic based power systems. Hybrid Simulation enables detailed, accurate modeling, along with fast, efficient simulation, on account of the Electromagnetic Transient (EMT) and Transient Stability (TS) simulations respectively. A critical component of hybrid simulation is the interaction between the EMT and TS simulators, established through a well-defined interface technique, which …

Contributors
Athaide, Denise Maria Christine, Qin, Jiangchao, Ayyanar, Raja, et al.
Created Date
2018

Commercial buildings in the United States account for 19% of the total energy consumption annually. Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which serves as the benchmark for all the commercial buildings provides critical input for EnergyStar models. Smart energy management technologies, sensors, innovative demand response programs, and updated versions of certification programs elevate the opportunity to mitigate energy-related problems (blackouts and overproduction) and guides energy managers to optimize the consumption characteristics. With increasing advancements in technologies relying on the ‘Big Data,' codes and certification programs such as the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), and the Leadership …

Contributors
Naganathan, Hariharan, Chong, Oswald W, Ariaratnam, Samuel T, et al.
Created Date
2017

Many different levels of government, organizations, and programs actively shape the future of energy in Arizona, a state that lacks a comprehensive energy plan. Disparate actions by multiple actors may slow the energy policy process rather than expedite it. The absence of a state energy policy or plan raises questions about how multiple actors and ideas engage with state energy policy development and whether the absence of a comprehensive state plan can be understood. Improving how policy development is conceptualized and giving more focused attention to the mechanisms by which interested parties become involved in shaping Arizona energy policy. To …

Contributors
Bryck, Drew Michael Gary, Graffy, Elisabeth A, Dalrymple, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2013

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the energy cost of four modes of resistance training (push-ups, pull-ups, curl-ups, lunges). Twelve well trained men aged 23.6 (SD=2.84) years were recruited to participate in the study. Each of the 12 men completed three trials of each of the four exercises on one visit to the laboratory lasting slightly over one hour (M=72 min, SD=5.9 min). The oxygen consumption of the men was monitored constantly throughout the trial and data was recorded every five seconds. Mean VO2 values were calculated for each exercise. The values for push-ups (M=11.57 ml/kg/min, SD=1.99), …

Contributors
Vezina, Jesse, Ainsworth, Barbara, Campbell, Kathryn, et al.
Created Date
2011

The use of energy-harvesting in a wireless sensor network (WSN) is essential for situations where it is either difficult or not cost effective to access the network's nodes to replace the batteries. In this paper, the problems involved in controlling an active sensor network that is powered both by batteries and solar energy are investigated. The objective is to develop control strategies to maximize the quality of coverage (QoC), which is defined as the minimum number of targets that must be covered and reported over a 24 hour period. Assuming a time varying solar profile, the problem is to optimally …

Contributors
Gaudette, Benjamin David, Vrudhula, Sarma, Shrivastava, Aviral, et al.
Created Date
2012

This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have on market outcomes. The practice of constraint relaxations similar to those an Independent System Operator (ISO) might perform in day-ahead market models is implemented. The benefits of these practices are well understood by the industry; however, the implications these practices have on market outcomes and system security have not been thoroughly investigated. By solving a day-ahead market model with and without select constraint relaxations and comparing the resulting market outcomes …

Contributors
Al-Abdullah, Yousef Mohammad, Hedman, Kory W, Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2016

The objective of this thesis is to investigate the various types of energy end-uses to be expected in future high efficiency single family residences. For this purpose, this study has analyzed monitored data from 14 houses in the 2013 Solar Decathlon competition, and segregates the energy consumption patterns in various residential end-uses (such as lights, refrigerators, washing machines, ...). The analysis was not straight-forward since these homes were operated according to schedules previously determined by the contest rules. The analysis approach allowed the isolation of the comfort energy use by the Heating, Venting and Cooling (HVAC) systems. HVAC are the …

Contributors
Garkhail, Rahul, Reddy, T Agami, Bryan, Harvey, et al.
Created Date
2014

In recent years environmental life-cycle assessments (LCA) have been increasingly used to support planning and development of sustainable infrastructure. This study demonstrates the application of LCA to estimate embedded energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to materials manufacturing and construction processes for low and high density single-family neighborhoods typically found in the Southwest. The LCA analysis presented in this study includes the assessment of more than 8,500 single family detached units, and 130 miles of related roadway infrastructure. The study estimates embedded and GHG emissions as a function of building size (1,500 - 3000 square feet), number of …

Contributors
Frijia, Stephane, Guhathakurta, Subhrajit, Williams, Eric D, et al.
Created Date
2011

The electrode-electrolyte interface in electrochemical environments involves the understanding of complex processes relevant for all electrochemical applications. Some of these processes include electronic structure, charge storage, charge transfer, solvent dynamics and structure and surface adsorption. In order to engineer electrochemical systems, no matter the function, requires fundamental intuition of all the processes at the interface. The following work presents different systems in which the electrode-electrolyte interface is highly important. The first is a charge storage electrode utilizing percolation theory to develop an electrode architecture producing high capacities. This is followed by Zn deposition in an ionic liquid in which the …

Contributors
Engstrom, Erika Lyn, Friesen, Cody, Buttry, Daniel, et al.
Created Date
2011

The uncertainty and variability associated with stochastic resources, such as wind and solar, coupled with the stringent reliability requirements and constantly changing system operating conditions (e.g., generator and transmission outages) introduce new challenges to power systems. Contemporary approaches to model reserve requirements within the conventional security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) models may not be satisfactory with increasing penetration levels of stochastic resources; such conventional models pro-cure reserves in accordance with deterministic criteria whose deliverability, in the event of an uncertain realization, is not guaranteed. Smart, well-designed reserve policies are needed to assist system operators in maintaining reliability at least cost. Contemporary …

Contributors
Singhal, Nikita Ghanshyam, Hedman, Kory W, Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2018

Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can …

Contributors
Erickson, James, Bryan, Harvey, Addison, Marlin, et al.
Created Date
2013

Commercial Li-ion cells (18650: Li4Ti5O12 anodes and LiCoO2 cathodes) were subjected to simulated Electric Vehicle (EV) conditions using various driving patterns such as aggressive driving, highway driving, air conditioning load, and normal city driving. The particular drive schedules originated from the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), including the SC-03, UDDS, HWFET, US-06 drive schedules, respectively. These drive schedules have been combined into a custom drive cycle, named the AZ-01 drive schedule, designed to simulate a typical commute in the state of Arizona. The battery cell cycling is conducted at various temperature settings (0, 25, 40, and 50 °C). At 50 °C, …

Contributors
Abdelhay, Reem, Kannan, Arunachala Mada, Wishart, Jeffrey, et al.
Created Date
2018

Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones …

Contributors
Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra, Reddy, Agami, Bryan, Harvey, et al.
Created Date
2015

Li-ion batteries are being used on a large scale varying from consumer electronics to electric vehicles. The key to efficient use of batteries is implementing a well-developed battery management system. Also, there is an opportunity for research for improving the battery performance in terms of size and capacity. For all this it is imperative to develop Li-ion cell model that replicate the performance of a physical cell unit. This report discusses a dual polarization cell model and a battery management system implemented to control the operation of the battery. The Li-ion cell is modelled, and the performance is observed in …

Contributors
Puranik, Ishaan, Qin, Jiangchao, Karady, George, et al.
Created Date
2018

Solar energy is a promising alternative for addressing the world's current and future energy requirements in a sustainable way. Because solar irradiation is intermittent, it is necessary to store this energy in the form of a fuel so it can be used when required. The light-driven splitting of water into oxygen and hydrogen (a useful chemical fuel) is a fascinating theoretical and experimental challenge that is worth pursuing because the advance of the knowledge that it implies and the availability of water and sunlight. Inspired by natural photosynthesis and building on previous work from our laboratory, this dissertation focuses on …

Contributors
Mendez-Hernandez, Dalvin D., Moore, Ana L, Mujica, Vladimiro, et al.
Created Date
2014

The ability to shift the photovoltaic (PV) power curve and make the energy accessible during peak hours can be accomplished through pairing solar PV with energy storage technologies. A prototype hybrid air conditioning system (HACS), built under supervision of project head Patrick Phelan, consists of PV modules running a DC compressor that operates a conventional HVAC system paired with a second evaporator submerged within a thermal storage tank. The thermal storage is a 0.284m3 or 75 gallon freezer filled with Cryogel balls, submerged in a weak glycol solution. It is paired with its own separate air handler, circulating the glycol …

Contributors
Peyton-Levine, Tobin, Phelan, Patrick, Trimble, Steven, et al.
Created Date
2012

This study analyzes the thermoelectric phenomena of nanoparticle suspensions, which are composed of liquid and solid nanoparticles that show a relatively stable Seebeck coefficient as bulk solids near room temperature. The approach is to explore the thermoelectric character of the nanoparticle suspensions, predict the outcome of the experiment and compare the experimental data with anticipated results. In the experiment, the nanoparticle suspension is contained in a 15cm*2.5cm*2.5cm glass container, the temperature gradient ranges from 20 °C to 60 °C, and room temperature fluctuates from 20 °C to 23°C. The measured nanoparticles include multiwall carbon nanotubes, aluminum dioxide and bismuth telluride. …

Contributors
Zhu, Moxuan, Phelan, Patrick, Trimble, Steven, et al.
Created Date
2010

This study evaluates two photovoltaic (PV) power plants based on electrical performance measurements, diode checks, visual inspections and infrared scanning. The purpose of this study is to measure degradation rates of performance parameters (Pmax, Isc, Voc, Vmax, Imax and FF) and to identify the failure modes in a "hot-dry desert" climatic condition along with quantitative determination of safety failure rates and reliability failure rates. The data obtained from this study can be used by module manufacturers in determining the warranty limits of their modules and also by banks, investors, project developers and users in determining appropriate financing or decommissioning models. …

Contributors
Mallineni, Jaya Krishna, Govindasamy, Tamizhmani, Devarajan, Srinivasan, et al.
Created Date
2013

While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility …

Contributors
Malotte, Christopher Gilbert, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Srinivasan, Devarajan, et al.
Created Date
2012

GaAs-based solar cells have attracted much interest because of their high conversion efficiencies of ~28% under one sun illumination. The main carrier recombination mechanisms in the GaAs-based solar cells are surface recombination, radiative recombination and non-radiative recombination. Photon recycling reduces the effect of radiative recombination and is an approach to obtain the device performance described by detailed balance theory. The photon recycling model has been developed and was applied to investigate the loss mechanisms in the state-of-the-art GaAs-based solar cell structures using PC1D software. A standard fabrication process of the GaAs-based solar cells is as follows: wafer preparation, individual cell …

Contributors
Zhang, Chaomin, Honsberg, Christiana, Goodnick, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2014

A Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired carbon-neutral, renewable electrochemical converter to extract electricity from catabolic reaction of micro-organisms. It is a promising technology capable of directly converting the abundant biomass on the planet into electricity and potentially alleviate the emerging global warming and energy crisis. The current and power density of MFCs are low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. Since its debut in 2002, many studies have been performed by adopting a variety of new configurations and structures to improve the power density. The reported maximum areal and volumetric power densities range from 19 mW/m2 to 1.57 …

Contributors
Ren, Hao, Chae, Junseok, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, et al.
Created Date
2016

The growth of energy demands in recent years has been increasing faster than the expansion of transmission facility construction. This tendency cooperating with the continuous investing on the renewable energy resources drives the research, development, and construction of HVDC projects to create a more reliable, affordable, and environmentally friendly power grid. Constructing the hybrid AC-HVDC grid is a significant move in the development of the HVDC techniques; the form of dc system is evolving from the point-to-point stand-alone dc links to the embedded HVDC system and the multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) system. The MTDC is a solution for the renewable energy …

Contributors
Yu, Jicheng, Karady, George, Qin, Jiangchao, et al.
Created Date
2017

Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power produced to do more with better control, giving greater security, reliability, and design flexibility. This paper explores the performance and cost viability of a hybrid grid-tied microgrid that utilizes Photovoltaic (PV), batteries, and fuel cell (FC) technology. The concept proposes that each community home is equipped with more PV than is required for normal operation. As the homes are part of a microgrid, excess or unused energy from one home …

Contributors
Patterson, Maxx, Madakannan, Arunachalanadar, Macia, Narciso, et al.
Created Date
2013

Alternate sources of energy such as wind, solar photovoltaic and fuel cells are coupled to the power grid with the help of solid state converters. Continued deregulation of the power sector coupled with favorable government incentives has resulted in the rapid growth of renewable energy sources connected to the distribution system at a voltage level of 34.5kV or below. Of late, many utilities are also investing in these alternate sources of energy with the point of interconnection with the power grid being at the transmission level. These converter interfaced generation along with their associated control have the ability to provide …

Contributors
Ramasubramanian, Deepak, Vittal, Vijay, Undrill, John, et al.
Created Date
2017

Constraint relaxation by definition means that certain security, operational, or financial constraints are allowed to be violated in the energy market model for a predetermined penalty price. System operators utilize this mechanism in an effort to impose a price-cap on shadow prices throughout the market. In addition, constraint relaxations can serve as corrective approximations that help in reducing the occurrence of infeasible or extreme solutions in the day-ahead markets. This work aims to capture the impact constraint relaxations have on system operational security. Moreover, this analysis also provides a better understanding of the correlation between DC market models and AC …

Contributors
Salloum, Ahmed, Vittal, Vijay, Hedman, Kory, et al.
Created Date
2016

Energy consumption in buildings, accounting for 41% of 2010 primary energy consumption in the United States (US), is particularly vulnerable to climate change due to the direct relationship between space heating/cooling and temperature. Past studies have assessed the impact of climate change on long-term mean and/or peak energy demands. However, these studies usually neglected spatial variations in the “balance point” temperature, population distribution effects, air-conditioner (AC) saturation, and the extremes at smaller spatiotemporal scales, making the implications of local-scale vulnerability incomplete. Here I develop empirical relationships between building energy consumption and temperature to explore the impact of climate change on …

Contributors
Huang, Jianhua, Gurney, Kevin Robert, Miller, Clark Anson, et al.
Created Date
2016

A robust, fast and accurate protection system based on pilot protection concept was developed previously and a few alterations in that algorithm were made to make it faster and more reliable and then was applied to smart distribution grids to verify the results for it. The new 10 sample window method was adapted into the pilot protection program and its performance for the test bed system operation was tabulated. Following that the system comparison between the hardware results for the same algorithm and the simulation results were compared. The development of the dual slope percentage differential method, its comparison with …

Contributors
Iyengar, Varun Raghavan, Karady, George G, Ayyanar, Raja, et al.
Created Date
2014

A pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) model is introduced into Positive Sequence Load Flow (PSLF) software by General Electric in order to evaluate the load-following capability of NPPs. The nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) consists of a reactor core, hot and cold legs, plenums, and a U-tube steam generator. The physical systems listed above are represented by mathematical models utilizing a state variable lumped parameter approach. A steady-state control program for the reactor, and simple turbine and governor models are also developed. Adequacy of the isolated reactor core, the isolated steam generator, and the complete PWR models …

Contributors
Arda, Samet Egemen, Holbert, Keith E., Undrill, John, et al.
Created Date
2013

For decades, load shifting control, one of the most effective peak demand management methods, has attracted attention from both researchers and engineers. Various load shifting controls have been developed and introduced in mainly commercial buildings. Utility companies typically penalize consumers with “demand rates”. This along with increased population and increased customer energy demand will only increase the need for load shifting. There have been many white papers, thesis papers and case studies written on the different types of Thermal Energy Storage and their uses. Previous papers have been written by Engineers, Manufacturers and Researchers. This thesis paper is unique because …

Contributors
Whitcraft, Daniel Scott, Sullivan, Kenneth, Okamura, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2016

Lithium ion batteries have emerged as the most popular energy storage system, but they pose safety issues under extreme temperatures or in the event of a thermal runaway. Lithium ion batteries with inorganic separators offer the advantage of safer operation. An inorganic separator for lithium ion battery was prepared by an improved method of blade coating α-Al2O3 slurry directly on the electrode followed by drying. The improved separator preparation involves a twice-coating process instead of coating the slurry all at once in order to obtain a thin (~40 µm) and uniform coat. It was also found that α-Al2O3 powder with …

Contributors
Sharma, Gaurav Rajpal, Lin, Jerry Y.S., Chan, Candace, et al.
Created Date
2016

Traditional deterministic reserve requirements rely on ad-hoc, rule of thumb methods to determine adequate reserve in order to ensure a reliable unit commitment. Since congestion and uncertainties exist in the system, both the quantity and the location of reserves are essential to ensure system reliability and market efficiency. The modeling of operating reserves in the existing deterministic reserve requirements acquire the operating reserves on a zonal basis and do not fully capture the impact of congestion. The purpose of a reserve zone is to ensure that operating reserves are spread across the network. Operating reserves are shared inside each reserve …

Contributors
Wang, Fengyu, Hedman, Kory W., Zhang, Muhong, et al.
Created Date
2015

ABSTRACT Autonomous smart windows may be integrated with a stack of active components, such as electrochromic devices, to modulate the opacity/transparency by an applied voltage. Here, we describe the processing and performance of two classes of visibly-transparent photovoltaic materials, namely inorganic (ZnO thin film) and fully organic (PCDTBT:PC70BM), for integration with electrochromic stacks. Sputtered ZnO (2% Mn) films on ITO, with transparency in the visible range, were used to fabricate metal-semiconductor (MS), metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS), and p-i-n heterojunction devices, and their photovoltaic conversion under ultraviolet (UV) illumination was evaluated with and without oxygen plasma-treated surface electrodes (Au, Ag, Al, and Ti/Ag). …

Contributors
Azhar, Ebraheem, Yu, Hongbin, Dey, Sandwip, et al.
Created Date
2018

Switching surges are a common type of phenomenon that occur on any sort of power system network. These are more pronounced on long transmission lines and in high voltage substations. The problem with switching surges is encountered when a lot of power is transmitted across a transmission line/network, typically from a concentrated generation node to a concentrated load. The problem becomes significantly worse when the transmission line is long and when the voltage levels are high, typically above 400 kV. These overvoltage transients occur following any type of switching action such as breaker operation, fault occurrence/clearance and energization, and they …

Contributors
Shaikh, Mohammed Mubashir, Qin, Jiangchao, Heydt, Gerald T, et al.
Created Date
2018

Just for a moment! Imagine you live in Arizona without air-conditioning systems! Air-conditioning and refrigeration systems are one of the most crucial systems in anyone’s house and car these days. Energy resources are becoming more scarce and expensive. Most of the currently used refrigerants have brought an international concern about global warming. The search for more efficient cooling/refrigeration systems with environmental friendly refrigerants has become more and more important so as to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure sustainable and affordable energy systems. The most widely used air-conditioning and refrigeration system, based on the vapor compression cycle, is driven by …

Contributors
ALELYANI, Sami Mohammed, Phelan, Patrick E, Wang, Liping, et al.
Created Date
2018

The residential building sector accounts for more than 26% of the global energy consumption and 17% of global CO2 emissions. Due to the low cost of electricity in Kuwait and increase of population, Kuwaiti electricity consumption tripled during the past 30 years and is expected to increase by 20% by 2027. In this dissertation, a framework is developed to assess energy savings techniques to help policy-makers make educated decisions. The Kuwait residential energy outlook is studied by modeling the baseline energy consumption and the diffusion of energy conservation measures (ECMs) to identify the impacts on household energy consumption and CO2 …

Contributors
Alajmi, Turki, Phelan, Patrick E, Kaloush, Kamil, et al.
Created Date
2019

With growing concern regarding environmental issues and the need for a more sustainable grid, power systems have seen a fast expansion of renewable resources in the last decade. The uncertainty and variability of renewable resources has posed new challenges on system operators. Due to its energy-shifting and fast-ramping capabilities, energy storage (ES) has been considered as an attractive solution to alleviate the increased renewable uncertainty and variability. In this dissertation, stochastic optimization is utilized to evaluate the benefit of bulk energy storage to facilitate the integration of high levels of renewable resources in transmission systems. A cost-benefit analysis is performed …

Contributors
Li, Nan, Hedman, Kory W, Tylavksy, Daniel J, et al.
Created Date
2016

Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental …

Contributors
Ramachandran, Sriranjani, Bryan, Harvey, Reddy T, Agami, et al.
Created Date
2013

The Internet and climate change are two forces that are poised to both cause and enable changes in how we provide our energy infrastructure. The Internet has catalyzed enormous changes across many sectors by shifting the feedback and organizational structure of systems towards more decentralized users. Today’s energy systems require colossal shifts toward a more sustainable future. However, energy systems face enormous socio-technical lock-in and, thus far, have been largely unaffected by these destabilizing forces. More distributed information offers not only the ability to craft new markets, but to accelerate learning processes that respond to emerging user or prosumer centered …

Contributors
Tyson, Madeline, Janssen, Marco, Tuttle, John, et al.
Created Date
2018

In an effort to stress the benefits of the application of renewable energy to the next generation of science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) professionals, instructional modules on energy and biogas were integrated into a summer camp curriculum that challenged students to apply STEAM concepts in the design and development of chain reaction machines. Each module comprised an interactive presentations and a hands-on component where students operated a manipulative relevant to the content. During summer 2013, this camp was implemented at two high schools in Arizona and one in Trinidad and Tobago. Assessments showed that the overall modules were …

Contributors
Mccall, Shakira Renee, Dalrymple, Odesma O, Bradley, Rogers, et al.
Created Date
2014

Given the growing market in solar energy, specifically by the thin-film technologies, it is imperative that adequate and accurate standards be developed for these newer photovoltaic devices. Cadmium Telluride, CdTe, one of the major players in the thin-film PV industry is currently rated and certified using standards that have been developed under the context of older technologies. The behavior of CdTe has been shown to be unique enough to suggesting that standards be revised. In this research, methods built on previous industry and independent studies are used to identify these unique behaviors. As well new methods are developed to further …

Contributors
Petersen, Chad, Tamizhmani, Govindasamy, Macia, Narciso, et al.
Created Date
2010

At present, almost 70% of the electric energy in the United States is produced utilizing fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially exacerbating the impact on global warming. To make the electric power system (EPS) more sustainable for the future, there has been an emphasis on scaling up generation of electric energy from wind and solar resources. These resources are renewable in nature and have pollution free operation. Various states in the US have set up different goals for achieving certain amount of electrical energy to be produced from renewable resources. The Southwestern region of …

Contributors
Prakash, Nitin, Heydt, Gerald T., Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2013

Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for large systems. Similarly, traditional approaches to control do not use advanced methodologies and suffer from poor performance and limited operating range. In this document a linear model is derived for an inverter connected to the Thevenin equivalent of a microgrid. This model is then compared to a nonlinear simulation model and analyzed using the open and closed loop systems in both the time and frequency domains. The modeling error is …

Contributors
Steenis, Joel, Ayyanar, Raja, Mittelmann, Hans, et al.
Created Date
2013

The concept of the microgrid is widely studied and explored in both academic and industrial societies. The microgrid is a power system with distributed generations and loads, which is intentionally planned and can be disconnected from the main utility grid. Nowadays, various distributed power generations (wind resource, photovoltaic resource, etc.) are emerging to be significant power sources of the microgrid. This thesis focuses on the system structure of Photovoltaics (PV)-dominated microgrid, precisely modeling and stability analysis of the specific system. The grid-connected mode microgrid is considered, and system control objectives are: PV panel is working at the maximum power point …

Contributors
Xu, Hongru, Chen, Yan, Johnson, Nathan, et al.
Created Date
2018

In this thesis the performance of a Hybrid AC System (HACS) is modeled and optimized. The HACS utilizes solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to help reduce the demand from the utility during peak hours. The system also includes an ice Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank to accumulate cooling energy during off-peak hours. The AC runs continuously on grid power during off-peak hours to generate cooling for the house and to store thermal energy in the TES. During peak hours, the AC runs on the power supplied from the PV, and cools the house along with the energy stored in the TES. …

Contributors
Jubran, Sadiq, Phelan, Patrick, Calhoun, Ronald, et al.
Created Date
2011

III-V multijunction solar cells have demonstrated record efficiencies with the best device currently at 46 % under concentration. Dilute nitride materials such as GaInNAsSb have been identified as a prime choice for the development of high efficiency, monolithic and lattice-matched multijunction solar cells as they can be lattice-matched to both GaAs and Ge substrates. These types of cells have demonstrated efficiencies of 44% for terrestrial concentrators, and with their upright configuration, they are a direct drop-in product for today’s space and concentrator solar panels. The work presented in this dissertation has focused on the development of relatively novel dilute nitride …

Contributors
Maros, Aymeric Maros, King, Richard R., Honsberg, Christiana B., et al.
Created Date
2017

This thesis presents a new technique to develop an air-conditioner (A/C) compressor single phase induction motor model for use in an electro-magnetic transient program (EMTP) simulation tool. The method developed also has the capability to represent multiple units of the component in a specific three-phase distribution feeder and investigate the phenomenon of fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) and the cause of motor stalling. The system of differential equations representing the single phase induction motor model is developed and formulated. Implicit backward Euler method is applied to numerically integrate the stator currents that are to be drawn from the electric network. …

Contributors
Liu, Yuan, Vittal, Vijay, Undrill, John, et al.
Created Date
2012

The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM system demonstration. The energy based control strategy for a three-stage SST is analyzed and applied. A simplified average model of the three-stage SST that is suitable for simulation in real time digital simulator (RTDS) has been developed in this study. The model is also useful for general time-domain power system analysis and simulation. The proposed simplified av-erage model has been …

Contributors
Jiang, Youyuan, Ayyanar, Raja, Holbert, Keith, et al.
Created Date
2014

This dissertation explores the functional purpose of imagination as it is enacted in the context of shaping large transitions in sociotechnical systems. Large sociotechnical systems undergoing profound transitions embody instantiations where societies experience profound changes in the ‘rules of the game’ that underpin the conduct of daily life. The forms of imagination that guide these transformations, known in the political theory literature as ‘imaginaries,’ play a profound yet undertheorized role in transition of sociotechnical systems from one configuration to another. Expanding on this relationship, the study draws on three case studies of energy systems change in the United States during …

Contributors
Tidwell, Abraham, Miller, Clark, Adamson, Joni, et al.
Created Date
2018

Dynamic loading is the term used for one way of optimally loading a transformer. Dynamic loading means the utility takes into account the thermal time constant of the transformer along with the cooling mode transitions, loading profile and ambient temperature when determining the time-varying loading capability of a transformer. Knowing the maximum dynamic loading rating can increase utilization of the transformer while not reducing life-expectancy, delaying the replacement of the transformer. This document presents the progress on the transformer dynamic loading project sponsored by Salt River Project (SRP). A software application which performs dynamic loading for substation distribution transformers with …

Contributors
Liu, Yi, Tylavksy, Daniel J, Karady, George G, et al.
Created Date
2011