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ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations


This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.


Resource Type
  • Doctoral Dissertation
Subject
Date Range
2011 2019


Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted much interest during last decades as a functional material. Furthermore, ZnO is a potential material for transparent conducting oxide material competing with indium tin oxide (ITO), graphene, and carbon nanotube film. It has been known as a conductive material when doped with elements such as indium, gallium and aluminum. The solubility of those dopant elements in ZnO is still debatable; but, it is necessary to find alternative conducting materials when their form is film or nanostructure for display devices. This is a consequence of the ever increasing price of indium. In addition, a new generation …

Contributors
Choi, Hyung Woo, Alford, Terry L., Krause, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2012

Energy poverty is pervasive in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria, located in sub-Saharan West Africa, is the world's seventh largest oil exporting country and is a resource-rich nation. It however experiences the same levels of energy poverty as most of its neighboring countries. Attributing this paradox only to corruption or the "Dutch Disease", where one sector booms at the expense of other sectors of the economy, is simplistic and enervates attempts at reform. In addition, data on energy consumption is aggregated at the national level via estimates, disaggregated data is virtually non-existent. Finally, the wave of decentralization of vertically integrated national utilities …

Contributors
Chidebell-Emordi, Chukwunonso, York, Abigail, Pasqualetti, Martin, et al.
Created Date
2015

This dissertation presents a novel current source converter topology that is primarily intended for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) applications. In comparison with the existing PV inverter technology, the salient features of the proposed topology are: a) the low frequency (double of line frequency) ripple that is common to single-phase inverters is greatly reduced; b) the absence of low frequency ripple enables significantly reduced size pass components to achieve necessary DC-link stiffness and c) improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) performance is readily achieved due to the tightened current ripple even with reduced-size passive components. The proposed topology does not utilize any …

Contributors
Bush, Craig R., Ayyanar, Raja, Karam, Lina, et al.
Created Date
2013

An acute and crucial societal problem is the energy consumed in existing commercial buildings. There are 1.5 million commercial buildings in the U.S. with only about 3% being built each year. Hence, existing buildings need to be properly operated and maintained for several decades. Application of integrated centralized control systems in buildings could lead to more than 50% energy savings. This research work demonstrates an innovative adaptive integrated lighting control approach which could achieve significant energy savings and increase indoor comfort in high performance office buildings. In the first phase of the study, a predictive algorithm was developed and validated …

Contributors
Karizi, Nasim, Reddy, T. Agami, Bryan, Harvey, et al.
Created Date
2015

The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated method to study emergent behavior and consequences of evolution and adaptation in engineered complex adaptive systems (ECASs). A multi-layer conceptual framework and modeling approach including behavioral and structural aspects is provided to describe the structure of a class of engineered complex systems and predict their future adaptive patterns. The approach allows the examination of complexity in the structure and the behavior of components as a result of their connections and in relation to their environment. This research describes and uses the major differences of natural complex adaptive systems (CASs) …

Contributors
Haghnevis, Moeed, Askin, Ronald G, Armbruster, Dieter, et al.
Created Date
2013

Energy is a central concern of sustainability because how we produce and consume energy affects society, economy, and the environment. Sustainability scientists are interested in energy transitions away from fossil fuels because they are nonrenewable, increasingly expensive, have adverse health effects, and may be the main driver of climate change. They see an opportunity for developing countries to avoid the negative consequences fossil-fuel-based energy systems, and also to increase resilience, by leap-frogging-over the centralized energy grid systems that dominate the developed world. Energy transitions pose both challenges and opportunities. Obstacles to transitions include 1) an existing, centralized, complex energy-grid system, …

Contributors
Koster, Auriane M., Anderies, John M, Aggarwal, Rimjhim, et al.
Created Date
2013

After a major disturbance, the power system response is highly dependent on protection schemes and system dynamics. Improving power systems situational awareness requires proper and simultaneous modeling of both protection schemes and dynamic characteristics in power systems analysis tools. Historical information and ex-post analysis of blackouts reaffirm the critical role of protective devices in cascading events, thereby confirming the necessity to represent protective functions in transient stability studies. This dissertation is aimed at studying the importance of representing protective relays in power system dynamic studies. Although modeling all of the protective relays within transient stability studies may result in a …

Contributors
Hedman, Mojdeh Khorsand, Vittal, Vijay, Ayyanar, Raja, et al.
Created Date
2017

Buildings consume nearly 50% of the total energy in the United States, which drives the need to develop high-fidelity models for building energy systems. Extensive methods and techniques have been developed, studied, and applied to building energy simulation and forecasting, while most of work have focused on developing dedicated modeling approach for generic buildings. In this study, an integrated computationally efficient and high-fidelity building energy modeling framework is proposed, with the concentration on developing a generalized modeling approach for various types of buildings. First, a number of data-driven simulation models are reviewed and assessed on various types of computationally expensive …

Contributors
Cui, Can, Wu, Teresa, Weir, Jeffery D., et al.
Created Date
2016

Emission of CO2 into the atmosphere has become an increasingly concerning issue as we progress into the 21st century Flue gas from coal-burning power plants accounts for 40% of all carbon dioxide emissions. The key to successful separation and sequestration is to separate CO2 directly from flue gas (10-15% CO2, 70% N2), which can range from a few hundred to as high as 1000°C. Conventional microporous membranes (carbons/silicas/zeolites) are capable of separating CO2 from N2 at low temperatures, but cannot achieve separation above 200°C. To overcome the limitations of microporous membranes, a novel ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane for high temperature CO2 …

Contributors
Anderson, Matthew Brandon, Lin, Jerry, Alford, Terry, et al.
Created Date
2011

Synthetic power system test cases offer a wealth of new data for research and development purposes, as well as an avenue through which new kinds of analyses and questions can be examined. This work provides both a methodology for creating and validating synthetic test cases, as well as a few use-cases for how access to synthetic data enables otherwise impossible analysis. First, the question of how synthetic cases may be generated in an automatic manner, and how synthetic samples should be validated to assess whether they are sufficiently ``real'' is considered. Transmission and distribution levels are treated separately, due to …

Contributors
Schweitzer, Eran, Scaglione, Anna, Hedman, Kory W, et al.
Created Date
2019

The solar energy sector has been growing rapidly over the past decade. Growth in renewable electricity generation using photovoltaic (PV) systems is accompanied by an increased awareness of the fault conditions developing during the operational lifetime of these systems. While the annual energy losses caused by faults in PV systems could reach up to 18.9% of their total capacity, emerging technologies and models are driving for greater efficiency to assure the reliability of a product under its actual application. The objectives of this dissertation consist of (1) reviewing the state of the art and practice of prognostics and health management …

Contributors
Chokor, Abbas, El Asmar, Mounir, Chong, Oswald, et al.
Created Date
2017

Thermodynamic development and balance of plant study is completed for a 30 MW solar thermochemical water splitting process that generates hydrogen gas and electric power. The generalized thermodynamic model includes 23 components and 45 states. Quasi-steady state simulations are completed for design point system sizing, annual performance analysis and sensitivity analysis. Detailed consideration is given to water splitting reaction kinetics with governing equations generalized for use with any redox-active metal oxide material. Specific results for Ceria illustrate particle reduction in two solar receivers for target oxygen partial pressure of 10 Pa and particle temperature of 1773 K at a design …

Contributors
Budama, Vishnu Kumar, Johnson, Nathan, Stechel, Ellen, et al.
Created Date
2018

In this thesis, a novel silica nanosphere (SNS) lithography technique has been developed to offer a fast, cost-effective, and large area applicable nano-lithography approach. The SNS can be easily deposited with a simple spin-coating process after introducing a N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF) solvent which can produce a highly close packed SNS monolayer over large silicon (Si) surface area, since DMF offers greatly improved wetting, capillary and convective forces in addition to slow solvent evaporation rate. Since the period and dimension of the surface pattern can be conveniently changed and controlled by introducing a desired size of SNS, and additional SNS size reduction …

Contributors
Choi, Jeayoung, Honsberg, Christiana, Alford, Terry, et al.
Created Date
2015

In this thesis, the methods of aluminum electroplating in an ionic liquid for silicon solar cell front side metallization were studied. It focused on replacing the current silver screen printing with an alternative metallization technology using a low-cost Earth-abundant metal for mass production, due to the high cost and limited availability of silver. A conventional aluminum electroplating method was employed for silicon solar cells fabrication on both p-type and n-type substrates. The highest efficiency of 17.9% was achieved in the n-type solar cell with a rear junction, which is comparable to that of the same structure cell with screen printed …

Contributors
Wang, Laidong, Tao, Meng, Vasileska, Dragica, et al.
Created Date
2018

To date, the most popular and dominant material for commercial solar cells is crystalline silicon (or wafer-Si). It has the highest cell efficiency and cell lifetime out of all commercial solar cells. Although the potential of crystalline-Si solar cells in supplying energy demands is enormous, their future growth will likely be constrained by two major bottlenecks. The first is the high electricity input to produce crystalline-Si solar cells and modules, and the second is the limited supply of silver (Ag) reserves. These bottlenecks prevent crystalline-Si solar cells from reaching terawatt-scale deployment, which means the electricity produced by crystalline-Si solar cells …

Contributors
Sun, Wen-Cheng, Tao, Meng, Vasileska, Dragica, et al.
Created Date
2016

Lipids and free fatty acids (FFA) from cyanobacterium Synechocystis can be used for biofuel (e.g. biodiesel or renewable diesel) production. In order to utilize and scale up this technique, downstream processes including culturing and harvest, cell disruption, and extraction were studied. Several solvents/solvent systems were screened for lipid extraction from Synechocystis. Chloroform + methanol-based Folch and Bligh & Dyer methods were proved to be "gold standard" for small-scale analysis due to their highest lipid recoveries that were confirmed by their penetration of the cell membranes, higher polarity, and stronger interaction with hydrogen bonds. Less toxic solvents, such as methanol and …

Contributors
Sheng, Jie, Rittmann, Bruce E, Westerhoff, Paul, et al.
Created Date
2011

The proposed research mainly focuses on employing tunable materials to achieve dynamic control of radiative heat transfer in both far and near fields for thermal management. Vanadium dioxide (VO2), which undergoes a phase transition from insulator to metal at the temperature of 341 K, is one tunable material being applied. The other one is graphene, whose optical properties can be tuned by chemical potential through external bias or chemical doping. In the far field, a VO2-based metamaterial thermal emitter with switchable emittance in the mid-infrared has been theoretically studied. When VO2 is in the insulating phase, high emittance is observed …

Contributors
YANG, YUE, Wang, Liping, Phelan, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2016

Mechanisms for oxygen reduction are proposed for three distinct cases covering two ionic liquids of fundamentally different archetypes and almost thirty orders of magnitude of proton activity. Proton activity is treated both extrinsically by varying the concentration and intrinsically by selecting proton donors with a wide range of aqueous pKa values. The mechanism of oxygen reduction in ionic liquids is introduced by way of the protic ionic liquid (pIL) triethylammonium triflate (TEATf) which shares some similarities with aqueous acid solutions. Oxygen reduction in TEATf begins as the one electron rate limited step to form superoxide, O2*-, which is then rapidly …

Contributors
Zeller, Robert August, Friesen, Cody, Sieradzki, Karl, et al.
Created Date
2011

Recent technology advancements in photovoltaics have enabled crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells to establish outstanding photoconversion efficiency records. Remarkable progresses in research and development have been made both on the silicon feedstock quality as well as the technology required for surface passivation, the two dominant sources of performance loss via recombination of photo-generated charge carriers within advanced solar cell architectures. As these two aspects of the solar cell framework improve, the need for a thorough analysis of their respective contribution under varying operation conditions has emerged along with challenges related to the lack of sensitivity of available characterization techniques. The …

Contributors
Bernardini, Simone, Bertoni, Mariana I, Coletti, Gianluca, et al.
Created Date
2018

Waste heat energy conversion remains an inviting subject for research, given the renewed emphasis on energy efficiency and carbon emissions reduction. Solid-state thermoelectric devices have been widely investigated, but their practical application remains challenging because of cost and the inability to fabricate them in geometries that are easily compatible with heat sources. An intriguing alternative to solid-state thermoelectric devices is thermogalvanic cells, which include a generally liquid electrolyte that permits the transport of ions. Thermogalvanic cells have long been known in the electrochemistry community, but have not received much attention from the thermal transport community. This is surprising given that …

Contributors
Gunawan, Andrey, Phelan, Patrick E, Buttry, Daniel A, et al.
Created Date
2015

Commercial buildings in the United States account for 19% of the total energy consumption annually. Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which serves as the benchmark for all the commercial buildings provides critical input for EnergyStar models. Smart energy management technologies, sensors, innovative demand response programs, and updated versions of certification programs elevate the opportunity to mitigate energy-related problems (blackouts and overproduction) and guides energy managers to optimize the consumption characteristics. With increasing advancements in technologies relying on the ‘Big Data,' codes and certification programs such as the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), and the Leadership …

Contributors
Naganathan, Hariharan, Chong, Oswald W, Ariaratnam, Samuel T, et al.
Created Date
2017

This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have on market outcomes. The practice of constraint relaxations similar to those an Independent System Operator (ISO) might perform in day-ahead market models is implemented. The benefits of these practices are well understood by the industry; however, the implications these practices have on market outcomes and system security have not been thoroughly investigated. By solving a day-ahead market model with and without select constraint relaxations and comparing the resulting market outcomes …

Contributors
Al-Abdullah, Yousef Mohammad, Hedman, Kory W, Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2016

The electrode-electrolyte interface in electrochemical environments involves the understanding of complex processes relevant for all electrochemical applications. Some of these processes include electronic structure, charge storage, charge transfer, solvent dynamics and structure and surface adsorption. In order to engineer electrochemical systems, no matter the function, requires fundamental intuition of all the processes at the interface. The following work presents different systems in which the electrode-electrolyte interface is highly important. The first is a charge storage electrode utilizing percolation theory to develop an electrode architecture producing high capacities. This is followed by Zn deposition in an ionic liquid in which the …

Contributors
Engstrom, Erika Lyn, Friesen, Cody, Buttry, Daniel, et al.
Created Date
2011

The uncertainty and variability associated with stochastic resources, such as wind and solar, coupled with the stringent reliability requirements and constantly changing system operating conditions (e.g., generator and transmission outages) introduce new challenges to power systems. Contemporary approaches to model reserve requirements within the conventional security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) models may not be satisfactory with increasing penetration levels of stochastic resources; such conventional models pro-cure reserves in accordance with deterministic criteria whose deliverability, in the event of an uncertain realization, is not guaranteed. Smart, well-designed reserve policies are needed to assist system operators in maintaining reliability at least cost. Contemporary …

Contributors
Singhal, Nikita Ghanshyam, Hedman, Kory W, Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2018

Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can …

Contributors
Erickson, James, Bryan, Harvey, Addison, Marlin, et al.
Created Date
2013

Solar energy is a promising alternative for addressing the world's current and future energy requirements in a sustainable way. Because solar irradiation is intermittent, it is necessary to store this energy in the form of a fuel so it can be used when required. The light-driven splitting of water into oxygen and hydrogen (a useful chemical fuel) is a fascinating theoretical and experimental challenge that is worth pursuing because the advance of the knowledge that it implies and the availability of water and sunlight. Inspired by natural photosynthesis and building on previous work from our laboratory, this dissertation focuses on …

Contributors
Mendez-Hernandez, Dalvin D., Moore, Ana L, Mujica, Vladimiro, et al.
Created Date
2014

A Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired carbon-neutral, renewable electrochemical converter to extract electricity from catabolic reaction of micro-organisms. It is a promising technology capable of directly converting the abundant biomass on the planet into electricity and potentially alleviate the emerging global warming and energy crisis. The current and power density of MFCs are low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. Since its debut in 2002, many studies have been performed by adopting a variety of new configurations and structures to improve the power density. The reported maximum areal and volumetric power densities range from 19 mW/m2 to 1.57 …

Contributors
Ren, Hao, Chae, Junseok, Bakkaloglu, Bertan, et al.
Created Date
2016

The growth of energy demands in recent years has been increasing faster than the expansion of transmission facility construction. This tendency cooperating with the continuous investing on the renewable energy resources drives the research, development, and construction of HVDC projects to create a more reliable, affordable, and environmentally friendly power grid. Constructing the hybrid AC-HVDC grid is a significant move in the development of the HVDC techniques; the form of dc system is evolving from the point-to-point stand-alone dc links to the embedded HVDC system and the multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) system. The MTDC is a solution for the renewable energy …

Contributors
Yu, Jicheng, Karady, George, Qin, Jiangchao, et al.
Created Date
2017

Alternate sources of energy such as wind, solar photovoltaic and fuel cells are coupled to the power grid with the help of solid state converters. Continued deregulation of the power sector coupled with favorable government incentives has resulted in the rapid growth of renewable energy sources connected to the distribution system at a voltage level of 34.5kV or below. Of late, many utilities are also investing in these alternate sources of energy with the point of interconnection with the power grid being at the transmission level. These converter interfaced generation along with their associated control have the ability to provide …

Contributors
Ramasubramanian, Deepak, Vittal, Vijay, Undrill, John, et al.
Created Date
2017

Constraint relaxation by definition means that certain security, operational, or financial constraints are allowed to be violated in the energy market model for a predetermined penalty price. System operators utilize this mechanism in an effort to impose a price-cap on shadow prices throughout the market. In addition, constraint relaxations can serve as corrective approximations that help in reducing the occurrence of infeasible or extreme solutions in the day-ahead markets. This work aims to capture the impact constraint relaxations have on system operational security. Moreover, this analysis also provides a better understanding of the correlation between DC market models and AC …

Contributors
Salloum, Ahmed, Vittal, Vijay, Hedman, Kory, et al.
Created Date
2016

Energy consumption in buildings, accounting for 41% of 2010 primary energy consumption in the United States (US), is particularly vulnerable to climate change due to the direct relationship between space heating/cooling and temperature. Past studies have assessed the impact of climate change on long-term mean and/or peak energy demands. However, these studies usually neglected spatial variations in the “balance point” temperature, population distribution effects, air-conditioner (AC) saturation, and the extremes at smaller spatiotemporal scales, making the implications of local-scale vulnerability incomplete. Here I develop empirical relationships between building energy consumption and temperature to explore the impact of climate change on …

Contributors
Huang, Jianhua, Gurney, Kevin Robert, Miller, Clark Anson, et al.
Created Date
2016

Traditional deterministic reserve requirements rely on ad-hoc, rule of thumb methods to determine adequate reserve in order to ensure a reliable unit commitment. Since congestion and uncertainties exist in the system, both the quantity and the location of reserves are essential to ensure system reliability and market efficiency. The modeling of operating reserves in the existing deterministic reserve requirements acquire the operating reserves on a zonal basis and do not fully capture the impact of congestion. The purpose of a reserve zone is to ensure that operating reserves are spread across the network. Operating reserves are shared inside each reserve …

Contributors
Wang, Fengyu, Hedman, Kory W., Zhang, Muhong, et al.
Created Date
2015

ABSTRACT Autonomous smart windows may be integrated with a stack of active components, such as electrochromic devices, to modulate the opacity/transparency by an applied voltage. Here, we describe the processing and performance of two classes of visibly-transparent photovoltaic materials, namely inorganic (ZnO thin film) and fully organic (PCDTBT:PC70BM), for integration with electrochromic stacks. Sputtered ZnO (2% Mn) films on ITO, with transparency in the visible range, were used to fabricate metal-semiconductor (MS), metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS), and p-i-n heterojunction devices, and their photovoltaic conversion under ultraviolet (UV) illumination was evaluated with and without oxygen plasma-treated surface electrodes (Au, Ag, Al, and Ti/Ag). …

Contributors
Azhar, Ebraheem, Yu, Hongbin, Dey, Sandwip, et al.
Created Date
2018

Just for a moment! Imagine you live in Arizona without air-conditioning systems! Air-conditioning and refrigeration systems are one of the most crucial systems in anyone’s house and car these days. Energy resources are becoming more scarce and expensive. Most of the currently used refrigerants have brought an international concern about global warming. The search for more efficient cooling/refrigeration systems with environmental friendly refrigerants has become more and more important so as to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure sustainable and affordable energy systems. The most widely used air-conditioning and refrigeration system, based on the vapor compression cycle, is driven by …

Contributors
ALELYANI, Sami Mohammed, Phelan, Patrick E, Wang, Liping, et al.
Created Date
2018

The residential building sector accounts for more than 26% of the global energy consumption and 17% of global CO2 emissions. Due to the low cost of electricity in Kuwait and increase of population, Kuwaiti electricity consumption tripled during the past 30 years and is expected to increase by 20% by 2027. In this dissertation, a framework is developed to assess energy savings techniques to help policy-makers make educated decisions. The Kuwait residential energy outlook is studied by modeling the baseline energy consumption and the diffusion of energy conservation measures (ECMs) to identify the impacts on household energy consumption and CO2 …

Contributors
Alajmi, Turki, Phelan, Patrick E, Kaloush, Kamil, et al.
Created Date
2019

With growing concern regarding environmental issues and the need for a more sustainable grid, power systems have seen a fast expansion of renewable resources in the last decade. The uncertainty and variability of renewable resources has posed new challenges on system operators. Due to its energy-shifting and fast-ramping capabilities, energy storage (ES) has been considered as an attractive solution to alleviate the increased renewable uncertainty and variability. In this dissertation, stochastic optimization is utilized to evaluate the benefit of bulk energy storage to facilitate the integration of high levels of renewable resources in transmission systems. A cost-benefit analysis is performed …

Contributors
Li, Nan, Hedman, Kory W, Tylavksy, Daniel J, et al.
Created Date
2016

The Internet and climate change are two forces that are poised to both cause and enable changes in how we provide our energy infrastructure. The Internet has catalyzed enormous changes across many sectors by shifting the feedback and organizational structure of systems towards more decentralized users. Today’s energy systems require colossal shifts toward a more sustainable future. However, energy systems face enormous socio-technical lock-in and, thus far, have been largely unaffected by these destabilizing forces. More distributed information offers not only the ability to craft new markets, but to accelerate learning processes that respond to emerging user or prosumer centered …

Contributors
Tyson, Madeline, Janssen, Marco, Tuttle, John, et al.
Created Date
2018

Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for large systems. Similarly, traditional approaches to control do not use advanced methodologies and suffer from poor performance and limited operating range. In this document a linear model is derived for an inverter connected to the Thevenin equivalent of a microgrid. This model is then compared to a nonlinear simulation model and analyzed using the open and closed loop systems in both the time and frequency domains. The modeling error is …

Contributors
Steenis, Joel, Ayyanar, Raja, Mittelmann, Hans, et al.
Created Date
2013

III-V multijunction solar cells have demonstrated record efficiencies with the best device currently at 46 % under concentration. Dilute nitride materials such as GaInNAsSb have been identified as a prime choice for the development of high efficiency, monolithic and lattice-matched multijunction solar cells as they can be lattice-matched to both GaAs and Ge substrates. These types of cells have demonstrated efficiencies of 44% for terrestrial concentrators, and with their upright configuration, they are a direct drop-in product for today’s space and concentrator solar panels. The work presented in this dissertation has focused on the development of relatively novel dilute nitride …

Contributors
Maros, Aymeric Maros, King, Richard R., Honsberg, Christiana B., et al.
Created Date
2017

Silicon photovoltaics is the dominant contribution to the global solar energy production. As increasing conversion efficiency has become one of the most important factors to lower the cost of photovoltaic systems, the idea of making a multijunction solar cell based on a silicon bottom cell has attracted broad interest. Here the potential of using dilute nitride GaNPAs alloys for a lattice-matched 3-terminal 2-junction Si-based tandem solar cell through multiscale modeling is investigated. To calculate the electronic band structure of dilute nitride alloys with relatively low computational cost, the sp^3 d^5 s^* s_N tight-binding model is chosen, as it has been …

Contributors
Zou, Yongjie, Goodnick, Stephen M., Honsberg, Christiana B., et al.
Created Date
2019

This dissertation explores the functional purpose of imagination as it is enacted in the context of shaping large transitions in sociotechnical systems. Large sociotechnical systems undergoing profound transitions embody instantiations where societies experience profound changes in the ‘rules of the game’ that underpin the conduct of daily life. The forms of imagination that guide these transformations, known in the political theory literature as ‘imaginaries,’ play a profound yet undertheorized role in transition of sociotechnical systems from one configuration to another. Expanding on this relationship, the study draws on three case studies of energy systems change in the United States during …

Contributors
Tidwell, Abraham, Miller, Clark, Adamson, Joni, et al.
Created Date
2018

The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy mar-ket, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban en-vironment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming in-creasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subse-quently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy …

Contributors
Zhang, Xianjun, Karady, George G., Ariaratnam, Samuel T., et al.
Created Date
2013

The utilization of power cables is increasing with the development of renewable energy and the maintenance replacement of old overhead power lines. Therefore, effective monitoring and accurate fault location for power cables are very important for the sake of a stable power supply. The recent technologies for power cable diagnosis and temperature monitoring system are described including their intrinsic limitations for cable health assessment. Power cable fault location methods are reviewed with two main categories: off-line and on-line data based methods. As a diagnostic and fault location approach, a new passive methodology is introduced. This methodology is based on analyzing …

Contributors
Kim, Young Deug, Holbert, Keith Edwin, Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia, et al.
Created Date
2015

This thesis studies three different types of anhydrous proton conducting electrolytes for use in fuel cells. The proton energy level scheme is used to make the first electrolyte which is a rubbery polymer in which the conductivity reaches values typical of activated Nafion, even though it is completely anhydrous. The protons are introduced into a cross-linked polyphospazene rubber by the superacid HOTf, which is absorbed by partial protonation of the backbone nitrogens. The decoupling of conductivity from segmental relaxation times assessed by comparison with conductivity relaxation times amounts to some 10 orders of magnitude, but it cannot be concluded whether …

Contributors
Ansari, Younes, Angell, Charles A, Richert, Ranko, et al.
Created Date
2013

Residential air conditioning systems represent a critical load for many electric utilities, especially for those who serve customers in hot climates. In hot and dry climates, in particular, the cooling load is usually relatively low during night hours and early mornings and hits its maximum in the late afternoon. If electric loads could be shifted from peak hours (e.g., late afternoon) to off-peak hours (e.g., late morning), not only would building operation costs decrease, the need to run peaker plants, which typically use more fossil fuels than non-peaker plants, would also decrease. Thus, shifting electricity consumption from peak to off-peak …

Contributors
Arababadi, Reza Arababadi, Parrish, Kristen, Reddy, T A, et al.
Created Date
2016

Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells continue to dominate the thin-film photovoltaics industry with an achieved record efficiency of over 22% demonstrated by First Solar, yet monocrystalline CdTe devices have received considerably less attention over the years. Monocrystalline CdTe double-heterostructure solar cells show great promise with respect to addressing the problem of low Voc with the passing of the 1 V benchmark. Rapid progress has been made in driving the efficiency in these devices ever closer to the record presently held by polycrystalline thin-films. This achievement is primarily due to the utilization of a remote p-n heterojunction in which the heavily doped …

Contributors
Becker, Jacob, Zhang, Yong-Hang, Bertoni, Mariana, et al.
Created Date
2017

The objective of this dissertation is to study the use of metamaterials as narrow-band and broadband selective absorbers for opto-thermal and solar thermal energy conversion. Narrow-band selective absorbers have applications such as plasmonic sensing and cancer treatment, while one of the main applications of selective metamaterials with broadband absorption is efficiently converting solar energy into heat as solar absorbers. This dissertation first discusses the use of gold nanowires as narrow-band selective metamaterial absorbers. An investigation into plasmonic localized heating indicated that film-coupled gold nanoparticles exhibit tunable selective absorption based on the size of the nanoparticles. By using anodized aluminum oxide …

Contributors
Alshehri, Hassan, Wang, Liping, Phelan, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2018

In this thesis, we focus on some of the NP-hard problems in control theory. Thanks to the converse Lyapunov theory, these problems can often be modeled as optimization over polynomials. To avoid the problem of intractability, we establish a trade off between accuracy and complexity. In particular, we develop a sequence of tractable optimization problems - in the form of Linear Programs (LPs) and/or Semi-Definite Programs (SDPs) - whose solutions converge to the exact solution of the NP-hard problem. However, the computational and memory complexity of these LPs and SDPs grow exponentially with the progress of the sequence - meaning …

Contributors
Kamyar, Reza, Peet, Matthew, Berman, Spring, et al.
Created Date
2016

Photosynthesis converts sunlight to biomass at a global scale. Among the photosynthetic organisms, cyanobacteria provide an excellent model to study how photosynthesis can become a practical platform of large-scale biotechnology. One novel approach involves metabolically engineering the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to excrete laurate, which is harvested directly. This work begins by defining a working window of light intensity (LI). Wild-type and laurate-excreting Synechocystis required an LI of at least 5 µE/m2-s to sustain themselves, but are photo-inhibited by LI of 346 to 598 µE/m2-s. Fixing electrons into valuable organic products, e.g., biomass and excreted laurate, is critical to …

Contributors
Nguyen, Binh T., Rittmann, Bruce E, Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa, et al.
Created Date
2015

Our dependence on fossil fuels is driving anthropogenic climate change. Solar energy is the most abundant and cleanest alternative to fossil fuels, but its practicability is influenced by a complex interplay of factors (policy, geospatial, and market) and scales (global, national, urban). This thesis provides a holistic evaluation of these factors and scales with the goal of improving our understanding of the mechanisms and challenges of transitioning to solar energy. This analysis used geospatial, demographic, policy, legislative record, environmental, and industry data, plus a series of semi-structured, in-person interviews. Methods included geostatistical calculation, statistical linear regression and multivariate modeling, and …

Contributors
Herche, Wesley, Melnick, Rob, Boone, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2017

This investigation is divided into two portions linked together by the momentous reaches of electrochemistry science, principles influencing everyday phenomena as well as innovative research in the field of energy transformation. The first portion explores the strategies for flue gas carbon dioxide capture and release using electrochemical means. The main focus is in the role thiolates play as reversible strong nucleophiles with the ability to capture CO2 and form thiocarbonates. Carbon dioxide in this form is transported and separated from thiocarbonate through electrochemical oxidation to complete the release portion of this catch-and-release approach. Two testing design systems play a fundamental …

Contributors
Castro De la Torre, Helme Atic, Friesen, Cody, Buttry, Daniel, et al.
Created Date
2016

Electric power systems are facing great challenges from environmental regulations, changes in demand due to new technologies like electric vehicle, as well as the integration of various renewable energy sources. These factors taken together require the development of new tools to help make policy and investment decisions for the future power grid. The requirements of a network equivalent to be used in such planning tools are very different from those assumed in the development of traditional equivalencing procedures. This dissertation is focused on the development, implementation and verification of two network equivalencing approaches on large power systems, such as the …

Contributors
Shi, Di, Tylavsky, Daniel J, Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2012

Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) are used as electrodes for a number of optoelectronic devices including solar cells. Because of its superior transparent and conductive properties, indium (In) tin (Sn) oxide (ITO) has long been at the forefront for TCO research activities and high-volume product applications. However, given the limited supply of In and potential toxicity of Sn-based compounds, attention has shifted to alternative TCOs like ZnO doped with group-III elements such as Ga and Al. Employing a variety of deposition techniques, many research groups are striving to achieve resistivities below 1E-4 ohm-cm with transmittance approaching the theoretical limit over a …

Contributors
Scott, Robin Charis, Zhang, Yong Hang, Alford, Terry, et al.
Created Date
2011

Recently, nanostructured metamaterials have attracted lots of attentions due to its tunable artificial properties. In particular, nanowire/nanohole based metamaterials which are known of the capability of large area fabrication were intensively studied. Most of the studies are only based on the electrical responses of the metamaterials; however, magnetic response, is usually neglected since magnetic material does not exist naturally within the visible or infrared range. For the past few years, artificial magnetic response from nanostructure based metamaterials has been proposed. This reveals the possibility of exciting resonance modes based on magnetic responses in nanowire/nanohole metamaterials which can potentially provide additional …

Contributors
Chang, Jui-Yung, Wang, Liping, Phelan, Patrick, et al.
Created Date
2017

In order to meet climate targets, the solar photovoltaic industry must increase photovoltaic (PV) deployment and cost competitiveness over its business-as-usual trajectory. This requires more efficient PV modules that use less expensive materials, and longer operational lifetime. The work presented here approaches this challenge with a novel metallization method for solar PV and electronic devices. This document outlines work completed to this end. Chapter 1 introduces the areas for cost reductions and improvements in efficiency to drive down the cost per watt of solar modules. Next, in Chapter 2, conventional and advanced metallization methods are reviewed, and our proposed solution …

Contributors
Jeffries, April Marie, Bertoni, Mariana I, Saive, Rebecca, et al.
Created Date
2019

Societies seeking sustainability are transitioning from fossil fuels to clean, renewable energy sources to mitigate dangerous climate change. Energy transitions involve ethically controversial decisions that affect current and future generations’ well-being. As energy systems in the United States transition towards renewable energy, American Indian reservations with abundant energy sources are some of the most significantly impacted communities. Strikingly, energy ethicists have not yet developed a systematic approach for prescribing ethical action within the context of energy decisions. This dissertation reinvents energy ethics as a distinct sub-discipline of applied ethics, integrating virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism with Sioux, Navajo, and Hopi …

Contributors
Bethem, Jacob, DesRoches, Tyler, Pasqualetti, Martin J, et al.
Created Date
2019

This dissertation presents innovative techniques to develop performance-based models and complete transient models of induction motor drive systems with vector controls in electro-magnetic transient (EMT) and positive sequence transient stability (PSTS) simulation programs. The performance-based model is implemented by obtaining the characteristic transfer functions of perturbed active and reactive power consumptions with respect to frequency and voltage perturbations. This level of linearized performance-based model is suitable for the investigation of the damping of small-magnitude low-frequency oscillations. The complete transient model is proposed by decomposing the motor, converter and control models into d-q axes components and developing a compatible electrical interface …

Contributors
Liu, Yuan, Vittal, Vijay, Undrill, John, et al.
Created Date
2016

Electric power system security assessment is one of the most important requirements for operational and resource planning of the bulk power system ensuring safe operation of the power system for all credible contingencies. This deterministic approach usually provides a conservative criterion and can result in expensive bulk system expansion plans or conservative operating limits. Furthermore, with increased penetration of converter-based renewable generation in the electric grid, the dynamics of the grid are changing. In addition, the variability and intermittency associated with the renewable energy sources introduce uncertainty in the electricity grid. Since security margins have direct economic impact on the …

Contributors
Datta, Sohom, Vittal, Vijay, Undrill, John, et al.
Created Date
2017

In recent years, wide bandgap (WBG) devices enable power converters with higher power density and higher efficiency. On the other hand, smart grid technologies are getting mature due to new battery technology and computer technology. In the near future, the two technologies will form the next generation of smart grid enabled by WBG devices. This dissertation deals with two applications: silicon carbide (SiC) device used for medium voltage level interface (7.2 kV to 240 V) and gallium nitride (GaN) device used for low voltage level interface (240 V/120 V). A 20 kW solid state transformer (SST) is designed with 6 …

Contributors
Yao, Tong, Ayyanar, Raja, Karady, George, et al.
Created Date
2017

In the deregulated power system, locational marginal prices are used in transmission engineering predominantly as near real-time pricing signals. This work extends this concept to distribution engineering so that a distribution class locational marginal price might be used for real-time pricing and control of advanced control systems in distribution circuits. A formulation for the distribution locational marginal price signal is presented that is based on power flow sensitivities in a distribution system. A Jacobian-based sensitivity analysis has been developed for application in the distribution pricing method. Increasing deployment of distributed energy sources is being seen at the distribution level and …

Contributors
Ranganathan Sathyanarayana, Bharadwaj, Heydt, Gerald T, Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2012

Silicon photovoltaics (PV) is approaching its theoretical efficiency limit as a single-junction technology. To break this limit and further lower the PV-generated levelized cost of electricity, it is necessary to engineer a silicon-based “tandem” technology in which a solar cell of another material is stacked on top of silicon to make more efficient use of the full solar spectrum. This dissertation understands and develops four aspects of silicon-based tandem PV technology. First, a new “spectral efficiency” concept is proposed to understand how tandem cells should be designed and to identify the best tandem partners for silicon cells. Using spectral efficiency, …

Contributors
Yu, Zhengshan, Holman, Zachary C, Zhang, Yong-Hang, et al.
Created Date
2018

The use of nanoparticle-in-matrix composites is a common motif among a broad range of nanoscience applications and is of particular interest to the thermal sciences community. To explore this morphological theme, crystalline inorganic composites were synthesized by mixing colloidal CdSe nanocrystals and In2Se3 metal chalcogenide complex (MCC) precursor in hydrazine solvent and then thermally transform the MCC precursor into a crystalline In2Se3 matrix. The volume fraction of CdSe nanocrystals was varied from 0 to ~100% .Rich structural and chemical interactions between the CdSe nanocrystals and the In2Se3 matrix were observed. The average thermal conductivities of the 100% In2Se3 and ~100% …

Contributors
Ma, Yuanyu Ma, Wang, Robert, Newman, Nathan, et al.
Created Date
2016

Transmission voltages worldwide are increasing to accommodate higher power transfer from power generators to load centers. Insulator dimensions cannot increase linearly with the voltage, as supporting structures become too tall and heavy. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the insulator design considering all operating conditions including dry, wet and contaminated. In order to design insulators suitably, a better understanding of the insulator flashover is required, as it is a serious issue regarding the safe operation of power systems. However, it is not always feasible to conduct field and laboratory studies due to limited time and money. The desire to accurately …

Contributors
He, Li, Gorur, Ravi S, Karady, George K, et al.
Created Date
2016

The molecular modification of semiconductors has applications in energy conversion and storage, including artificial photosynthesis. In nature, the active sites of enzymes are typically earth-abundant metal centers and the protein provides a unique three-dimensional environment for effecting catalytic transformations. Inspired by this biological architecture, a synthetic methodology using surface-grafted polymers with discrete chemical recognition sites for assembling human-engineered catalysts in three-dimensional environments is presented. The use of polymeric coatings to interface cobalt-containing catalysts with semiconductors for solar fuel production is introduced in Chapter 1. The following three chapters demonstrate the versatility of this modular approach to interface cobalt-containing catalysts with …

Contributors
Beiler, Anna Mary, Moore, Gary F., Moore, Thomas A., et al.
Created Date
2018

CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe double heterostructures (DHs) have been grown on lattice matched InSb (001) substrates using Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The MgxCd1-xTe layers, which have a wider bandgap and type-I band edge alignment with CdTe, provide sufficient carrier confinement to CdTe, so that the optical properties of CdTe can be studied. The DH samples show very strong Photoluminescence (PL) intensity, long carrier lifetimes (up to 3.6 μs) and low effective interface recombination velocity at the CdTe/MgxCd1 xTe heterointerface (~1 cm/s), indicating the high material quality. Indium has been attempted as an n-type dopant in CdTe and it is found that the carriers are …

Contributors
Zhao, Xinhao, Zhang, Yong-Hang, Johnson, Shane, et al.
Created Date
2016

In the United States, buildings account for 20–40% of the total energy consumption based on their operation and maintenance, which consume nearly 80% of their energy during their lifecycle. In order to reduce building energy consumption and related problems (i.e. global warming, air pollution, and energy shortages), numerous building technology programs, codes, and standards have been developed such as net-zero energy buildings, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), and the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers 90.1. However, these programs, codes, and standards are typically utilized before or during the design and construction phases. Subsequently, it is …

Contributors
Kim, Jonghoon, Ariaratnam, Samuel T, Chong, Oswald W, et al.
Created Date
2016

One of the key infrastructures of any community or facility is the energy system which consists of utility power plants, distributed generation technologies, and building heating and cooling systems. In general, there are two dimensions to “sustainability” as it applies to an engineered system. It needs to be designed, operated, and managed such that its environmental impacts and costs are minimal (energy efficient design and operation), and also be designed and configured in a way that it is resilient in confronting disruptions posed by natural, manmade, or random events. In this regard, development of quantitative sustainability metrics in support of …

Contributors
Moslehi, Salim, Reddy, T. Agami, Lackner, Klaus S, et al.
Created Date
2018

There is a fundamental attractiveness about harnessing renewable energy in an age when sustainability is an ethical norm. Lithium ion batteries and hydrogen fuels are considered the most promising energy source instead of fossil fuels. This work describes the investigation of new cathode materials and devices architectures for lithium ion batteries, and photocatalysts for their usage in water splitting and waste water treatment. LiCoO2 and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 were exfoliated into nanosheets using electrochemical oxidation followed by intercalation of tetraethylammonium cations. The nanosheets were purified using dialysis and electrophoresis. The nanosheets were successfully restacked into functional cathode materials with microwave hydrothermal assistance, …

Contributors
Cheng, Qian, Chan, Candace Kay, Sieradzki, Karl, et al.
Created Date
2016

The sun provides Earth with a virtually limitless source of energy capable of sustaining all of humanity's needs. Photosynthetic organisms have exploited this energy for eons. However, efficiently converting solar radiation into a readily available and easily transportable form is complex. New materials with optimized physical, electrochemical, and photophysical properties are at the forefront of organic solar energy conversion research. In the work presented herein, porphyrin and organometallic dyes with widely-varied properties were studied for solar energy applications. In one project, porphyrins and porphyrin-fullerene dyads with aniline-like features were polymerized via electrochemical methods into semiconductive thin films. These were shown …

Contributors
Brennan, Bradley, Gust, Devens, Moore, Thomas A, et al.
Created Date
2012

Membrane-based gas separation is promising for efficient propylene/propane (C3H6/C3H8) separation with low energy consumption and minimum environment impact. Two microporous inorganic membrane candidates, MFI-type zeolite membrane and carbon molecular sieve membrane (CMS) have demonstrated excellent thermal and chemical stability. Application of these membranes into C3H6/C3H8 separation has not been well investigated. This dissertation presents fundamental studies on membrane synthesis, characterization and C3H6/C3H8 separation properties of MFI zeolite membrane and CMS membrane. MFI zeolite membranes were synthesized on α-alumina supports by secondary growth method. Novel positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) techniques were used to non-destructively characterize the pore structure of these membranes. …

Contributors
Ma, Xiaoli, Lin, Jerry, Alford, Terry, et al.
Created Date
2015

Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a photoprotective regulatory mechanism essential to the robustness of the photosynthetic apparatus of green plants. Energy flow within the low-light adapted reaction centers is dynamically optimized to match the continuously fluctuating light conditions found in nature. Activated by compartmentalized decreases in pH resulting from photosynthetic activity during periods of elevated photon flux, NPQ induces rapid thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy that would otherwise overwhelm the apparatus’s ability to consume it. Consequently, the frequency of charge separation decreases and the formation of potentially deleterious, high-energy intermediates slows, thereby reducing the threat of photodamage by disallowing their …

Contributors
Pahk, Ian J., Gust, Devens, Gould, Ian, et al.
Created Date
2015

Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) possesses preferable optical properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications: a near optimum bandgap of 1.5 eV, and a high absorption coefficient of over 15,000 cm-1 at the band edge. The detailed-balance limiting efficiency is 32.1% with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.23 V under the AM1.5G spectrum. The record polycrystalline CdTe thin-film cell efficiency has reached 22.1%, with excellent short-circuit current densities (Jsc) and fill-factors (FF). However, the Voc (~900 mV) is still far below the theoretical value, due to the large non-radiative recombination in the polycrystalline CdTe absorber, and the low-level p-type doping. Monocrystalline CdTe/MgCdTe double-heterostructures (DHs) …

Contributors
Zhao, Yuan, Zhang, Yong-Hang, Bertoni, Mariana, et al.
Created Date
2016

Hydrogenases, the enzymes that reversibly convert protons and electrons to hydrogen, are used in all three domains of life. [NiFe]-hydrogenases are considered best suited for biotechnological applications because of their reversible inactivation with oxygen. Phylogenetically, there are four groups of [NiFe]-hydrogenases. The best characterized group, "uptake" hydrogenases, are membrane-bound and catalyze hydrogen oxidation in vivo. In contrast, the group 3 [NiFe]-hydrogenases are heteromultimeric, bifunctional enzymes that fulfill various cellular roles. In this dissertation, protein film electrochemistry (PFE) is used to characterize the catalytic properties of two group 3 [NiFe]-hydrogenases: HoxEFUYH from Synechocystsis sp. PCC 6803 and SHI from Pyrococcus furiosus. …

Contributors
Mcintosh, Chelsea Lee, Jones, Anne K, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, et al.
Created Date
2012

This thesis focused on physicochemical and electrochemical projects directed towards two electrolyte types: 1) class of ionic liquids serving as electrolytes in the catholyte for alkali-metal ion conduction in batteries and 2) gel membrane for proton conduction in fuel cells; where overall aims were encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy. Large-scale, sodium-ion batteries are seen as global solutions to providing undisrupted electricity from sustainable, but power-fluctuating, energy production in the near future. Foreseen ideal advantages are lower cost without sacrifice of desired high-energy densities relative to present lithium-ion and lead-acid battery systems. Na/NiCl2 (ZEBRA) and Na/S battery chemistries, suffer …

Contributors
Tucker, Telpriore Gregory, Angell, Charles A., Angell, Charles A., et al.
Created Date
2014

Alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have seen increased attention as a way to reduce reliance on petroleum for transportation, but adoption rates lag behind conventional vehicles. One crucial barrier to their proliferation is the lack of a convenient refueling infrastructure, and there is not a consensus on how to locate initial stations. Some approaches recommend placing stations near where early adopters live. An alternate group of methods places stations along busy travel routes that drivers from across the metropolitan area traverse each day. To assess which theoretical approach is most appropriate, drivers of compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles in Southern California …

Contributors
Kelley, Scott, Kuby, Michael, Wentz, Elizabeth, et al.
Created Date
2015

A relatively simple subset of nanotechnology - nanofluids - can be obtained by adding nanoparticles to conventional base fluids. The promise of these fluids stems from the fact that relatively low particle loadings (typically <1% volume fractions) can significantly change the properties of the base fluid. This research explores how low volume fraction nanofluids, composed of common base-fluids, interact with light energy. Comparative experimentation and modeling reveals that absorbing light volumetrically (i.e. in the depth of the fluid) is fundamentally different from surface-based absorption. Depending on the particle material, size, shape, and volume fraction, a fluid can be changed from …

Contributors
Taylor, Robert Allen, Phelan, Patrick E, Adrian, Ronald, et al.
Created Date
2011

Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is a complex decision making process that requires comprehensive analysis to determine the time, location, and number of electric power transmission facilities that are needed in the future power grid. This dissertation investigates the topic of solving TEP problems for large power systems. The dissertation can be divided into two parts. The first part of this dissertation focuses on developing a more accurate network model for TEP study. First, a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) based TEP model is proposed for solving multi-stage TEP problems. Compared with previous work, the proposed approach reduces the number of variables …

Contributors
Zhang, Hui, Vittal, Vijay, Heydt, Gerald T, et al.
Created Date
2013

Thermal extremes are responsible for more than 90% of all weather-related deaths in the United States, with heat alone accounting for an annual death toll of 618. With the combination of global warming and urban expansion, cities are becoming hotter and the threat to the well-being of citizens in urban areas is growing. Because people in modern societies (and in particular, vulnerable groups such as the elderly) spend most of their time inside their home, indoor exposure to heat is the underlying cause in a considerable fraction of heat-related morbidity and mortality. Notably, this can be observed in many US …

Contributors
Baniassadi, Amir, Sailor, David J, Bryan, Harvey M, et al.
Created Date
2019

The phrase water-energy nexus is commonly used to describe the inherent and critical interdependencies between the electric power system and the water supply systems (WSS). The key interdependencies between the two systems are the power plant’s requirement of water for the cooling cycle and the water system’s need of electricity for pumping for water supply. While previous work has considered the dependency of WSS on the electrical power, this work incorporates into an optimization-simulation framework, consideration of the impact of short and long-term limited availability of water and/or electrical energy. This research focuses on the water supply system (WSS) facet …

Contributors
Khatavkar, Puneet Nandkumar, Mays, Larry W, Vittal, Vijay, et al.
Created Date
2019