## ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This collection includes most of the ASU Theses and Dissertations from 2011 to present. ASU Theses and Dissertations are available in downloadable PDF format; however, a small percentage of items are under embargo. Information about the dissertations/theses includes degree information, committee members, an abstract, supporting data or media.

In addition to the electronic theses found in the ASU Digital Repository, ASU Theses and Dissertations can be found in the ASU Library Catalog.

Dissertations and Theses granted by Arizona State University are archived and made available through a joint effort of the ASU Graduate College and the ASU Libraries. For more information or questions about this collection contact or visit the Digital Repository ETD Library Guide or contact the ASU Graduate College at gradformat@asu.edu.

Contributor
Subject
Date Range
2010 2019

## Recent Submissions

This dissertation details the development of an open source, frequency domain multiplexed (FDM) readout for large-format arrays of superconducting lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs). The system architecture is designed to meet the requirements of current and next generation balloon-borne and ground-based submillimeter (sub-mm), far-infrared (FIR) and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) astronomical cameras, whose science goals will soon drive the pixel counts of sub-mm detector arrays from the kilopixel to the megapixel regime. The in-flight performance of the readout system was verified during the summer, 2018 flight of ASI's OLIMPO balloon-borne telescope, from Svalbard, Norway. This was the first flight for both LEKID …

Contributors
Gordon, Samuel, Mauskopf, Philip, Groppi, Christopher, et al.
Created Date
2019

Quantum Monte Carlo is one of the most accurate ab initio methods used to study nuclear physics. The accuracy and efficiency depend heavily on the trial wave function, especially in Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC), where a simplified wave function is often used to allow calculations of larger systems. The simple wave functions used with AFDMC contain short range correlations that come from an expansion of the full correlations truncated to linear order. I have extended that expansion to quadratic order in the pair correlations. I have investigated this expansion by keeping the full set of quadratic correlations as …

Contributors
Petrie, Cody Lee, Schmidt, Kevin E, Shovkovy, Igor A, et al.
Created Date
2019

Rapid expansion of dense beds of fine, spherical particles subjected to rapid depressurization is studied in a vertical shock tube. As the particle bed is unloaded, a high-speed video camera captures the dramatic evolution of the particle bed structure. Pressure transducers are used to measure the dynamic pressure changes during the particle bed expansion process. Image processing, signal processing, and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques, are used to examine the relationships between particle size, initial bed height, bed expansion rate, and gas velocities. The gas-particle interface and the particle bed as a whole expand and evolve in stages. First, the bed …

Contributors
Zunino, Heather, Adrian, Ronald J, Clarke, Amanda, et al.
Created Date
2019

Transient molecules are of great importance having proposed applications in quantum science and technology and tests of fundamental physics. In the present dissertation, the transient molecules studied are SrOH, ThF, ThCl, YbF and YbOH; each having been selected because of their proposed application. Specifically, SrOH is a candidate of constructing a molecular magneto-optical trap (MOT). The simple actinide molecules, ThF and ThCl, were selected as ligand bonding model systems to gain insight into chemical processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel. The lanthanides YbF and YbOH are venues for the determination of electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) and the studies in this …

Contributors
Nguyen, Duc Trung, Steimle, Timothy C, Richert, Ranko, et al.
Created Date
2019

Fluctuations with a power spectral density depending on frequency as $1/f^\alpha$ ($0<\alpha<2$) are found in a wide class of systems. The number of systems exhibiting $1/f$ noise means it has far-reaching practical implications; it also suggests a possibly universal explanation, or at least a set of shared properties. Given this diversity, there are numerous models of $1/f$ noise. In this dissertation, I summarize my research into models based on linking the characteristic times of fluctuations of a quantity to its multiplicity of states. With this condition satisfied, I show that a quantity will undergo $1/f$ fluctuations and exhibit associated properties, …

Contributors
Davis, Bryce, Chamberlin, Ralph V, Mauskopf, Philip, et al.
Created Date
2018

The work described in this thesis explores the synthesis of new semiconductors in the Si-Ge-Sn system for application in Si-photonics. Direct gap Ge1-ySny (y=0.12-0.16) alloys with enhanced light emission and absorption are pursued. Monocrystalline layers are grown on Si platforms via epitaxy-driven reactions between Sn- and Ge-hydrides using compositionally graded buffer layers that mitigate lattice mismatch between the epilayer and Si platforms. Prototype p-i-n structures are fabricated and are found to exhibit direct gap electroluminescence and tunable absorption edges between 2200 and 2700 nm indicating applications in LEDs and detectors. Additionally, a low pressure technique is described producing pseudomorphic Ge1-ySny …

Contributors
Wallace, Patrick Michael, Kouvetakis, John, Menendez, Jose, et al.
Created Date
2018

The structure of glass has been the subject of many studies, however some details remained to be resolved. With the advancement of microscopic imaging techniques and the successful synthesis of two-dimensional materials, images of two-dimensional glasses (bilayers of silica) are now available, confirming that this glass structure closely follows the continuous random network model. These images provide complete in-plane structural information such as ring correlations, and intermediate range order and with computer refinement contain indirect information such as angular distributions, and tilting. This dissertation reports the first work that integrates the actual atomic coordinates obtained from such images with structural …

Contributors
Sadjadi, Seyed Mahdi, Thorpe, Michael F, Beckstein, Oliver, et al.
Created Date
2018

Measurements of the response of superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) devices to changes in various forms of input power can be used for characterization of the devices and for probing device-level physics. Two niobium nitride (NbN) superconducting nanowires developed for use as SNSPD devices are embedded as the inductive (L) component in resonant inductor/capacitor (LC) circuits coupled to a microwave transmission line. The capacitors are low loss commercial chip capacitors which limit the internal quality factor of the resonators to approximately $Qi = 170$. The resonator quality factor, approximately $Qr = 23$, is dominated by the coupling to the …

Contributors
Schroeder, Edward Ralph Aaron, Mauskopf, Philip, Chamberlin, Ralph, et al.
Created Date
2018

The formation of the firsts stars some 100-300 Myr after the Big Bang marked the end of the cosmic darks ages and created the elemental building blocks of not only rocky planets but eventually us. Understanding their formation, lifetimes, and contributions to the evolution of our universe is one of the current frontiers in astronomy and astrophysics. In this work I present an improved model for following the formation of Pop III stars, their effects on early galaxy evolution, and how we might search for them. I make use of a new subgrid model of turbulent mixing to accurately follow …

Contributors
Sarmento, Richard John, Scannapieco, Evan, Windhorst, Rogier, et al.
Created Date
2018

The origin of Life on Earth is the greatest unsolved mystery in the history of science. In spite of progress in almost every scientific endeavor, we still have no clear theory, model, or framework to understand the processes that led to the emergence of life on Earth. Understanding such a processes would provide key insights into astrobiology, planetary science, geochemistry, evolutionary biology, physics, and philosophy. To date, most research on the origin of life has focused on characterizing and synthesizing the molecular building blocks of living systems. This bottom-up approach assumes that living systems are characterized by their component parts, …

Contributors
Mathis, Nicholas, Walker, Sara I, Davies, Paul CW, et al.
Created Date
2018

In this dissertation, various characterization techniques have been used to investigate many aspects of the properties of III-nitride materials and devices for optoelectronic applications. The first part of this work is focused on the evolution of microstructures of BAlN thin films. The films were grown by flow-modulated epitaxy at 1010 oC, with B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios ranging from 0.06 to 0.18. The boron content obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns ranges from x = 0.02 to 0.09, while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) measures x = 0.06 to 0.16. Transmission electron microscopy indicates the sole presence of the wurtzite crystal structure in …

Contributors
Wang, Shuo, Ponce, Fernando A, Menendez, Jose, et al.
Created Date
2018

In this dissertation two kinds of strongly interacting fermionic systems were studied: cold atomic gases and nucleon systems. In the first part I report T=0 diffusion Monte Carlo results for the ground-state and vortex excitation of unpolarized spin-1/2 fermions in a two-dimensional disk. I investigate how vortex core structure properties behave over the BEC-BCS crossover. The vortex excitation energy, density profiles, and vortex core properties related to the current are calculated. A density suppression at the vortex core on the BCS side of the crossover and a depleted core on the BEC limit is found. Size-effect dependencies in the disk …

Contributors
Madeira, Lucas, Schmidt, Kevin E, Alarcon, Ricardo, et al.
Created Date
2018

Time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method that allows for structural discovery to be performed on biomacromolecules during their dynamic trajectory through a reaction pathway after activation. This is performed by triggering a reaction on an ensemble of molecules in nano- or microcrystals and then using femtosecond X-ray laser pulses produced by an X-ray free electron laser to collect near-instantaneous data on the crystal. A full data set can be collected by merging a sufficient number of these patterns together and multiple data sets can be collected at different points along the reaction pathway by manipulating the delay time …

Contributors
Coe, Jesse, Fromme, Petra, Sayres, Scott, et al.
Created Date
2018

This research has studied remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited Ga2O3 thin films with gallium acetylacetonate (Ga(acac)3) as Ga precursor and remote inductively coupled oxygen plasma as oxidizer. The Ga2O3 thin films were mainly considered as passivation layers on GaN. Growth conditions including Ga(acac)3 precursor pulse time, O2 plasma pulse time, N2 purge time and deposition temperature were investigated and optimized on phosphorus doped Si (100) wafer to achieve a saturated self-limiting growth. A temperature growth window was observed between 150 ℃ and 320 ℃. Ga precursor molecules can saturate on the substrate surface in 0.6 s in one cycle …

Contributors
Hao, Mei, Nemanich, Robert J., Ponce, Fernando, et al.
Created Date
2018

This dissertation describes the characterization of optoelectronic and electronic materials being considered for next generation semiconductor devices, primarily using electron microscopy techniques. The research included refinement of growth parameters for optimizing material quality, and investigation of heterostructured interfaces. The results provide better understanding of the fundamental materials science and should lead to future improvements in device applications. A microstructural study of tin selenide and tin manganese selenide thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs (111)B substrates with different Se:Sn flux ratios and Mn concentrations was carried out. Low flux ratios lead to highly defective films, mostly consisting …

Contributors
Tracy, Brian David, Smith, David J, Bennett, Peter A, et al.
Created Date
2018

With the high demand for faster and smaller wireless communication devices, manufacturers have been pushed to explore new materials for smaller and faster transistors. One promising class of transistors is high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). AlGaAs/GaAs HEMTs have been shown to perform well at high power and high frequencies. However, AlGaN/GaN HEMTs have been gaining more attention recently due to their comparatively higher power densities and better high frequency performance. Nevertheless, these devices have experienced truncated lifetimes. It is assumed that reducing defect densities in these materials will enable a more direct study of the failure mechanisms in these devices. …

Contributors
McConkie, Thomas, Smith, David J, McCartney, Martha, et al.
Created Date
2018

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided precise information on the evolution of the Universe and the current cosmological paradigm. The CMB has not yet provided definitive information on the origin and strength of any primordial magnetic fields or how they affect the presence of magnetic fields observed throughout the cosmos. This work outlines an alternative method to investigating and identifying the presence of cosmic magnetic fields. This method searches for Faraday Rotation (FR) and specifically uses polarized CMB photons as back-light. I find that current generation CMB experiments may be not sensitive enough to detect FR but next generation …

Contributors
Kolopanis, Matthew, Bowman, Judd, Mauskopf, Philip, et al.
Created Date
2018

An electrical current with high spin polarization is desirable for the performance of novel spintronics devices, such as magnetic tunnel junction and giant magnetoresistance devices. The generation of spin polarized current can be from ferromagnetic materials or triplet superconductors. Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is an effective way to study the properties of magnetic structures. The scattering of electrons by the magnetic moments affects the change of resistance, which can be used to detect the magnetization. In this dissertation, AHE is used to study the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) structures, including Co/Pt and Ta/CoFeB/MgO. Domain walls exist in all ferromagnetic materials. …

Contributors
Zhao, Gejian, Chen, Tingyong, Bennett, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2018

The electronic states of semiconductor interfaces have significant importance for semiconductor device performance, especially due to the continuing miniaturization of device technology. The application of ultra high vacuum (UHV) enables the preparation and characterization of fresh and cleaned interfaces. In a UHV environment, photoemission spectroscopy (PES) provides a non-destructive method to measure the electronic band structure, which is a crucial component of interface properties. In this dissertation, three semiconductor interfaces were studies to understand different effects on electronic states. The interfaces studied were freshly grown or pre-treated under UHV. Then in-situ PES measurements, including x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and ultra-violet …

Contributors
Wang, Xingye, Nemanich, Robert J, Chan, Candace, et al.
Created Date
2018

Integrated oxide/semiconductor heterostructures have attracted intense interest for device applications which require sharp interfaces and controlled defects. The research of this dissertation has focused on the characterization of perovskite oxide/oxide and oxide/semiconductor heterostructures, and the analysis of interfaces and defect structures, using scanning transmission electrom microscopy (STEM) and related techniques. The SrTiO3/Si system was initially studied to develop a basic understanding of the integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors, and successful integration with abrupt interfaces was demonstrated. Defect analysis showed no misfit dislocations but only anti-phase boundaries (APBs) in the SrTiO3 (STO) films. Similar defects were later observed in other …

Contributors
Wu, HsinWei, Smith, David J, McCartney, Martha r, et al.
Created Date
2018

What makes living systems different than non-living ones? Unfortunately this question is impossible to answer, at least currently. Instead, we must face computationally tangible questions based on our current understanding of physics, computation, information, and biology. Yet we have few insights into how living systems might quantifiably differ from their non-living counterparts, as in a mathematical foundation to explain away our observations of biological evolution, emergence, innovation, and organization. The development of a theory of living systems, if at all possible, demands a mathematical understanding of how data generated by complex biological systems changes over time. In addition, this theory …

Contributors
Adams, Alyssa Michelle, Walker, Sara I, Davies, Paul CW, et al.
Created Date
2017

Light Emitting Diodes even with their longer life, robust build and low power consumption, they are still plagued by some problems the most significant of which are the current droop and thermal droop. Current droop causes a lowering in the Internal Quantum Efficiency with increased current injection while thermal droop lowers the whole Internal Quantum Efficiency curve with increase in temperature. The focus here was understanding effects of thermal droop and develop a method to control it. Shockley Read Hall recombination plays a dominant role in the thermal droop effect when the current injection is low. Since the blue light …

Contributors
Das, Shiladitya, Zhao, Yuji, Vasileska, Dragica, et al.
Created Date
2017

The Jovian moon Europa's putative subsurface ocean offers one of the closest astrobiological targets for future exploration. It’s geologically young surface with a wide array of surface features aligned with distinct surface composition suggests past/present geophysical activity with implications for habitability. In this body of work, I propose a hypothesis for material transport from the ocean towards the surface via a convecting ice-shell. Geodynamical modeling is used to perform numerical experiments on a two-phase water-ice system to test the hypotheses. From these models, I conclude that it is possible for trace oceanic chemistry, entrapped into the newly forming ice at …

Contributors
Allu Peddinti, Divya, McNamara, Allen Keith, Garnero, Edward, et al.
Created Date
2017

High-energy explosive phenomena, Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and Supernovae (SNe), provide unique laboratories to study extreme physics and potentially open up the new discovery window of Gravitational-wave astronomy. Uncovering the intrinsic variability of GRBs constrains the size of the GRB emission region, and ejecta velocity, in turn provides hints on the nature of GRBs and their progenitors. We develop a novel method which ties together wavelet and structure-function analyses to measure, for the first time, the actual minimum variability timescale, Delta t_min, of GRB light curves. Implementing our technique to the largest sample of GRBs collected by Swift and Fermi instruments …

Contributors
Golkhou, Vahid Zachary, Butler, Nathaniel R., Bowman, Judd, et al.
Created Date
2017

Hydrodynamic phenomena such as the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities can be described by exponential/linear growth of surface perturbations at a bimaterial interface when subjected to constant/impulsive acceleration. A challenge in designing systems to mitigate or exploit these effects is the lack of accurate material models at large dynamic strain rates and pressures. In particular, little stress-strain constitutive information at large strain rates and pressures is available for transient material phases formed at high pressures, and the continuum effect the phase transformation process has on the instability evolution. In this work, a phase-aware isotropic strength model is developed and …

Contributors
Opie, Saul, Peralta, Pedro, Loomis, Eric, et al.
Created Date
2017

The scaling of transistors has numerous advantages such as increased memory density, less power consumption and better performance; but on the other hand, they also give rise to many reliability issues. One of the major reliability issue is the hot carrier injection and the effect it has on device degradation over time which causes serious circuit malfunctions. Hot carrier injection has been studied from early 1980's and a lot of research has been done on the various hot carrier injection mechanisms and how the devices get damaged due to this effect. However, most of the existing hot carrier degradation models …

Contributors
Muthuseenu, Kiraneswar, Barnaby, Hugh, Kozicki, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2017

This dissertation aims to study and understand the effect of nonlinear dynamics and quantum chaos in graphene, optomechanics, photonics and spintronics systems. First, in graphene quantum dot systems, conductance fluctuations are investigated from the respects of Fano resonances and quantum chaos. The conventional semi-classical theory of quantum chaotic scattering used in this field depends on an invariant classical phase-space structure. I show that for systems without an invariant classical phase-space structure, the quantum pointer states can still be used to explain the conductance fluctuations. Another finding is that the chaotic geometry is demonstrated to have similar effects as the disorders …

Contributors
Wang, Guanglei, Lai, Ying-Cheng, Vasileska, Dragica, et al.
Created Date
2017

Two ideas that extends on the theory of General Relativity are introduced and then the phenomenology they can offer is explored. The first idea shows how certain types of $f(R)$ gravity allows for traversable wormholes among its vacuum solutions. This is surprising to find in such simple setting as these type of solutions usually requires fairly complex constructions to satisfy the equations of motion of a gravitational theory. The second idea is the matter bounce description of the early universe where a fairly unique feature of the model is identified. Consequences of this feature could allow the paradigm to distinguish …

Contributors
Duplessis, Francis, Easson, Damien, Vachaspati, Tanmay, et al.
Created Date
2017

This work presents analysis and results for the NPDGamma experiment, measuring the spin-correlated photon directional asymmetry in the $\vec{n}p\rightarrow d\gamma$ radiative capture of polarized, cold neutrons on a parahydrogen target. The parity-violating (PV) component of this asymmetry $A_{\gamma,PV}$ is unambiguously related to the $\Delta I = 1$ component of the hadronic weak interaction due to pion exchange. Measurements in the second phase of NPDGamma were taken at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) from late 2012 to early 2014, and then again in the first half of 2016 for an unprecedented level of statistics in order …

Contributors
Blyth, David Cooper, Alarcon, Ricardo O, Ritchie, Barry G, et al.
Created Date
2017

The study of subwavelength behavior of light and nanoscale lasing has broad potential applications in various forms of computation i.e. optical and quantum, as well as in energy engineering. Although this field has been under active research, there has been little work done on describing the behaviors of threshold and saturation. Particularly, how the gain-molecule behavior affects the lasing behavior has yet to be investigated. In this work, the interaction of surface-plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) and molecules is observed in lasing. Various phenomenologies are observed related to the appearance of the threshold and saturation regions. The lasing profile, as a visual delimiter …

Contributors
Brewer, Andre John, Sukharev, Maxim, Rivera, Daniel E, et al.
Created Date
2017

Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) possesses preferable optical properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications: a near optimum bandgap of 1.5 eV, and a high absorption coefficient of over 15,000 cm-1 at the band edge. The detailed-balance limiting efficiency is 32.1% with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.23 V under the AM1.5G spectrum. The record polycrystalline CdTe thin-film cell efficiency has reached 22.1%, with excellent short-circuit current densities (Jsc) and fill-factors (FF). However, the Voc (~900 mV) is still far below the theoretical value, due to the large non-radiative recombination in the polycrystalline CdTe absorber, and the low-level p-type doping. Monocrystalline CdTe/MgCdTe double-heterostructures (DHs) …

Contributors
Zhao, Yuan, Zhang, Yong-Hang, Bertoni, Mariana, et al.
Created Date
2016

The OLYMPUS experiment measured the two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron-proton scattering, over a range of four-momentum transfer from $$0.6 < Q^2 < 2.2$$ $$(\mathrm{GeV/c})^2$$. The motivation for the experiment stemmed from measurements of the electric-to-magnetic form factor ratio of the proton $$\mu G_E/G_M$$ extracted from polarization observables in polarized electron-proton scattering. Polarized electron-proton scattering experiments have revealed a significant decrease in $$\mu G_E/G_M$$ at large $$Q^2$$, in contrast to previous measurements from unpolarized electron-proton scattering. The commonly accepted hypothesis is that the discrepancy in the form factor ratio is due to neglected higher-order terms in the elastic electron-proton scattering …

Contributors
Ice, Lauren Diane, Alarcon, Ricardo O, Dugger, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2016

Cell adhesion is an important aspect of many biological processes. The atomic force microscope (AFM) has made it possible to quantify the forces involved in cellular adhesion using a technique called single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS). AFM based SCFS offers versatile control over experimental conditions for probing directly the interaction between specific cell types and specific proteins, surfaces, or other cells. Transmembrane integrins are the primary proteins involved in cellular adhesion to the extra cellular matix (ECM). One of the chief integrins involved in the adhesion of leukocyte cells is αMβ2 (Mac-1). The experiments in this dissertation quantify the adhesion …

Contributors
Christenson, Wayne B, Ros, Robert, Beckstein, Oliver, et al.
Created Date
2016

The work contained in this dissertation is focused on the structural and optical properties of III-V semiconductor structures for solar cell applications. By using transmission electron microscopy, many of their structural properties have been investigated, including morphology, defects, and strain relaxation. The optical properties of the semiconductor structures have been studied by photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence. Part of this work is focused on InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in AlGaAs matrices. This QD system is important for the realization of intermediate-band solar cells, which has three light absorption paths for high efficiency photovoltaics. The suppression of plastic strain relaxation in the …

Contributors
Xie, Hongen, Ponce, Fernando A, Crozier, Peter A, et al.
Created Date
2016

Gallium Nitride (GaN), being a wide-bandgap semiconductor, shows its advantage over the conventional semiconductors like Silicon and Gallium Arsenide for high temperature applications, especially in the temperature range from 300°C to 600°C. Development of stable ohmic contacts to GaN with low contact resistivity has been identified as a prerequisite to the success of GaN high temperature electronics. The focus of this work was primarily derived from the requirement of an appropriate metal contacts to work with GaN-based hybrid solar cell operating at high temperature. Alloyed Ti/Al/Ni/Au contact and non-alloyed Al/Au contact were developed to form low-resistivity contacts to n-GaN and …

Contributors
Zhao, Shirong, Chowdhury, Srabanti, Goodnick, Stephen, et al.
Created Date
2016

Optoelectronic and microelectronic applications of germanium-based materials have received considerable research interest in recent years. A novel method for Ge on Si heteroepitaxy required for such applications was developed via molecular epitaxy of Ge5H12. Next, As(GeH3)3, As(SiH3)3, SbD3, S(GeH3)2 and S(SiH3)2 molecular sources were utilized in degenerate n-type doping of Ge. The epitaxial Ge films produced in this work incorporate donor atoms at concentrations above the thermodynamic equilibrium limits. The donors are nearly fully activated, and led to films with lowest resistivity values thus far reported. Band engineering of Ge was achieved by alloying with Sn. Epitaxy of the alloy …

Contributors
Senaratne, Charutha Lasitha, Kouvetakis, John, Chizmeshya, Andrew, et al.
Created Date
2016

Nanoscale semiconductors with their unique properties and potential applications have been a focus of extensive research in recent years. There are many ways in which semiconductors change the world with computers, cell phones, and solar panels, and nanoscale semiconductors having a promising potential to expand the efficiency, reduce the cost, and improve the flexibility and durability of their design. In this study, theoretical quantum mechanical simulations were performed on several different nanoscale semiconductor materials, including graphene/phosphorene nanoribbons and group III-V nanowires. First principles density functional theory (DFT) was used to study the electronic and structural properties of these nanomaterials in …

Contributors
Copple, Andrew Duane, Peng, Xihong, Chan, Candace, et al.
Created Date
2016

A basic theory and terminology that comprehensively applies to all different types of contacts in silicon solar cells has, thus far, been elusive. While the well established diode model has been applied to many of the complex contacts, the theory is not adequate to intuitively describe the characteristics of novel contacts. This thesis shows that the many desirable characteristics of contacts that are discussed in the literature—carrier selectivity, passivation, and low majority carrier conductance, key among them—originate from the resistance to electrons and holes in the contact. These principles are applied to describe a few popular contact technologies in order …

Contributors
Koswatta, Priyaranga Lakshitha, Holman, Zachary C, King, Richard, et al.
Created Date
2016

Self-heating degrades the performance of devices in advanced technology nodes. Understanding of self-heating effects is necessary to improve device performance. Heat generation in these devices occurs at nanometer scales but heat transfer is a microscopic phenomena. Hence a multi-scale modeling approach is required to study the self-heating effects. A state of the art Monte Carlo device simulator and the commercially available Giga 3D tool from Silvaco are used in our study to understand the self heating effects. The Monte Carlo device simulator solves the electrical transport and heat generation for nanometer length scales accurately while the Giga 3D tool solves …

Contributors
Shaik, Abdul Rawoof, Vasileska, Dragica, Ferry, David, et al.
Created Date
2016

The research on the topology and dynamics of complex networks is one of the most focused area in complex system science. The goals are to structure our understanding of the real-world social, economical, technological, and biological systems in the aspect of networks consisting a large number of interacting units and to develop corresponding detection, prediction, and control strategies. In this highly interdisciplinary field, my research mainly concentrates on universal estimation schemes, physical controllability, as well as mechanisms behind extreme events and cascading failure for complex networked systems. Revealing the underlying structure and dynamics of complex networked systems from observed data …

Contributors
Chen, Yuzhong Chen, Lai, Ying-Cheng, Spanias, Andreas, et al.
Created Date
2016

Richard Feynman said “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”. This inspired the techniques to improve the single molecule measurements. Since the first single molecule study was in 1961, it has been developed in various field and evolved into powerful tools to understand chemical and biological property of molecules. This thesis demonstrates electronic single molecule measurement with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and two of applications of STM; Break Junction (BJ) and Recognition Tunneling (RT). First, the two series of carotenoid molecules with four different substituents were investigated to show how substituents relate to the conductance and molecular structure. The measured …

Contributors
Im, JongOne, Lindsay, Stuart M, Zhang, Peiming, et al.
Created Date
2016

A moving overlapping mesh methodology that achieves spectral accuracy in space and up to second-order accuracy in time is developed for solution of unsteady incompressible flow equations in three-dimensional domains. The targeted applications are in aerospace and mechanical engineering domains and involve problems in turbomachinery, rotary aircrafts, wind turbines and others. The methodology is built within the dual-session communication framework initially developed for stationary overlapping meshes. The methodology employs semi-implicit spectral element discretization of equations in each subdomain and explicit treatment of subdomain interfaces with spectrally-accurate spatial interpolation and high-order accurate temporal extrapolation, and requires few, if any, iterations, yet …

Contributors
Merrill, Brandon Earl, Peet, Yulia, Herrmann, Marcus, et al.
Created Date
2016

Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has potential for electronic applications as an electron emitter and serving as a base material for diodes, transistors, etc. However, there has been limited research on c-BN reported, and many of the electronic properties of c-BN and c-BN interfaces have yet to be reported. This dissertation focused on probing thin film c-BN deposited via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with in situ photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). PES measurements were used to characterize the electronic properties of c-BN films and interfaces with vacuum and diamond. First, the interface between c-BN and vacuum were characterized with ultraviolet PES …

Contributors
Shammas, Joseph, Nemanich, Robert J, Ponce, Fernando, et al.
Created Date
2016

In the first part of this thesis, we use the generalized Landau-level represen- tation to study the effect of screening on the properties of the graphene quantum Hall states with integer filling factors. The analysis is performed in the low-energy Dirac model in the mean-field approximation, in which the long-range Coulomb in- teraction is modified by the one-loop static screening effects. The solutions demon- strate that static screening leads to a substantial suppression of the gap parameters in the quantum Hall states with a broken U (4) flavor symmetry. The results of the temperature dependence of the energy gaps mimic …

Contributors
Xia, Lifang, Shovkovy, Igor, Lebed, Richard, et al.
Created Date
2016

The muon problem of flavor physics presents a rich opportunity to study beyond standard model physics. The as yet undiscovered bound state (μ+μ-), called true muonium, presents a unique opportunity to investigate the muon problem. The near-future experimental searches for true muonium will produce it relativistically, preventing the easy application of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In this thesis, quantum field theory methods based on light-front quantization are used to solve an effective Hamiltonian for true muonium in the Fock space of |μ+μ-> , |μ+μ-γ> , |e+e->, |e+e-γ>, |τ+τ-> , and |τ+τ-γ> . To facilitate these calculations a new parallel code, True …

Contributors
Lamm, Henry, Lebed, Richard F, Belitsky, Andrei, et al.
Created Date
2016

In this work, the insight provided by our sophisticated Full Band Monte Carlo simulator is used to analyze the behavior of state-of-art devices like GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and Hot Electron Transistors. Chapter 1 is dedicated to the description of the simulation tool used to obtain the results shown in this work. Moreover, a separate section is dedicated the set up of a procedure to validate to the tunneling algorithm recently implemented in the simulator. Chapter 2 introduces High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), state-of-art devices characterized by highly non linear transport phenomena that require the use of advanced simulation …

Contributors
Soligo, Riccardo, Saraniti, Marco, Goodnick, Stephen M, et al.
Created Date
2016

In disordered soft matter system, amorphous and crystalline components might be coexisted. The interaction between the two distinct structures and the correlation within the crystalline components are crucial to the macroscopic property of the such material. The spider dragline silk biopolymer, is one of such soft matter material that exhibits exceptional mechanical strength though its mass density is considerably small compare to structural metal. Through wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), the research community learned that the silk fiber is mainly composed of amorphous backbone and $\beta$-sheet nano-crystals. However, the morphology of the crystalline system within the fiber is still not clear. …

Contributors
Mou, Qiushi, Yarger, Jeffery, Benmore, Chris, et al.
Created Date
2015

Multifunctional oxide thin-films grown on silicon and several oxide substrates have been characterized using High Resolution (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), and Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). Oxide thin films grown on SrTiO3/Si pseudo-substrate showed the presence of amorphised SrTiO3 (STO) at the STO/Si interface. Oxide/oxide interfaces were observed to be atomically clean with very few defects. Al-doped SrTiO3 thin films grown on Si were of high crystalline quality. The Ti/O ratio estimated from EELS line scans revealed that substitution of Ti by Al created associated O vacancies. The strength of the crystal field in STO was …

Contributors
Dhamdhere, Ajit R., SMITH, DAVID J, McCartney, Martha R., et al.
Created Date
2015

A theoretical study of a three-dimensional (3D) N/S interface with arbitrary spin polarization and interface geometry is presented. The 3D model gives the same intrinsic spin polarization and superconducting gap dependence as the 1D model. This demonstrates that the 1D model can be use to t 3D data. Using this model, a Heusler alloy is investigated. Andreev reflection measurements show that the spin polarization is 80% in samples sputtered on unheated MgO(100) substrates and annealed at high temperatures. However, the spin polarization is considerably smaller in samples deposited on heated substrates. Ferromagnetic FexSi􀀀x alloys have been proposed as potential spin …

Contributors
Gifford, Jessica Anna, Chen, Tingyong, Bennett, Peter, et al.
Created Date
2015

Group-IV semiconductor alloys are of interest for Si-integrated optoelectronic applications due to the band gap tunability and enhanced optical capabilities that can be achieved through compositional tuning. This work advances the field by presenting a systematic study of the optical and electronic properties of Ge1-ySny and analogous Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys. The fundamental direct and indirect band gaps of Ge1-ySny materials are measured by room temperature photoluminescence in samples containing 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.11 and a transition to direct gap materials is found to occur at yc = 0.087. This result is enabled by the development of sample growth and processing …

Contributors
Gallagher, James Dennis, Menendez, Jose, Kouvetakis, John, et al.
Created Date
2015

InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) can be considered as potential alternatives for conventional HgCdTe photodetectors due to improved uniformity, lower manufacturing costs with larger substrates, and possibly better device performance. This dissertation presents a comprehensive study on the structural, optical and electrical properties of InAs/InAsSb T2SLs grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The effects of different growth conditions on the structural quality were thoroughly investigated. Lattice-matched condition was successfully achieved and material of exceptional quality was demonstrated. After growth optimization had been achieved, structural defects could hardly be detected, so different characterization techniques, including etch-pit-density (EPD) measurements, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and X-ray …

Contributors
Shen, Xiaomeng, Zhang, Yong-Hang, Smith, David J, et al.
Created Date
2015

Due to the ever increasing relevance of finer machining control as well as necessary reduction in material waste by large area semiconductor device manufacturers, a novel bulk laser machining method was investigated. Because the cost of silicon and sapphire substrates are limiting to the reduction in cost of devices in both the light emitting diode (LED) and solar industries, and the present substrate wafering process results in >50% waste, the need for an improved ingot wafering technique exists. The focus of this work is the design and understanding of a novel semiconductor wafering technique that utilizes the nonlinear absorption properties …

Contributors
LeBeau, James, Bowden, Stuart, Honsberg, Christiana, et al.
Created Date
2015

Sample delivery is an essential component in biological imaging using serial diffraction from X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL) and synchrotrons. Recent developments have made possible the near-atomic resolution structure determination of several important proteins, including one G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) drug target, whose structure could not easily have been determined otherwise (Appendix A). In this thesis I describe new sample delivery developments that are paramount to advancing this field beyond what has been accomplished to date. Soft Lithography was used to implement sample conservation in the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN). A PDMS/glass composite microfluidic injector was created and given …

Contributors
Nelson, Garrett, Spence, John C, Weierstall, Uwe J, et al.
Created Date
2015

The study of deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) in explosives is of prime importance with regards to insensitive munitions (IM). Critical damage owing to thermal or shock stimuli could translate to significant loss of life and material. The present study models detonation and deflagration of a commonly used granular explosive: cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine, HMX. A robust literature review is followed by computational modeling of gas gun and DDT tube test data using the Sandia National Lab three-dimensional multi-material Eulerian hydrocode CTH. This dissertation proposes new computational practices and models that aid in predicting shock stimulus IM response. CTH was first used to …

Contributors
Mahon, Kelly Susan, Lee, Taewoo, Herrmann, Marcus, et al.
Created Date
2015

Many physical phenomena and industrial applications involve multiphase fluid flows and hence it is of high importance to be able to simulate various aspects of these flows accurately. The Dynamic Contact Angles (DCA) and the contact lines at the wall boundaries are a couple of such important aspects. In the past few decades, many mathematical models were developed for predicting the contact angles of the inter-face with the wall boundary under various flow conditions. These models are used to incorporate the physics of DCA and contact line motion in numerical simulations using various interface capturing/tracking techniques. In the current thesis, …

Contributors
Pendota, Premchand, Herrmann, Marcus, Rykaczewski, Konrad, et al.
Created Date
2015

In this dissertation, I described my research on the growth and characterization of various nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets, of different semiconductors in a Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system. In the first part of my research, I selected chalcogenides (such as CdS and CdSe) for a comprehensive study in growing two-segment axial nanowires and radial nanobelts/sheets using the ternary CdSxSe1-x alloys. I demonstrated simultaneous red (from CdSe-rich) and green (from CdS-rich) light emission from a single monolithic heterostructure with a maximum wavelength separation of 160 nm. I also demonstrated the first simultaneous two-color lasing from a single nanosheet …

Contributors
TURKDOGAN, SUNAY, Ning, Cun Zheng, Palais, Joseph C, et al.
Created Date
2015

This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots (QDs). The first step of this project was to investigate the growth of Ag islands on Si(100). Two distinct families of Ag islands have been observed. “Big islands” are clearly faceted and have basal dimensions in the few hundred nm to μm range with a variety of basal shapes. “Small islands” are not clearly faceted and have basal diameters in the 10s of nm range. Big islands form via a …

Contributors
Kong, Dexin, Drucker, Jeffery, Chen, Tingyong, et al.
Created Date
2015

GaN and AlGaN have shown great potential in next-generation power and RF electronics. However, these devices are limited by reliability issues such as leakage current and current collapse that result from surface and interface states on GaN and AlGaN. This dissertation, therefore, examined these electronic states, focusing on the following two points: First, the surface electronic state configuration was examined with regards to the polarization bound 1013 charges/cm2 that increases with aluminum content. This large bound charge requires compensation either externally by surface states or internally by the space charge regions as relates to band bending. In this work, band …

Contributors
Eller, Brianna, Nemanich, Robert J, Chowdhury, Srabanti, et al.
Created Date
2015

The atomic force microscope (AFM) is capable of directly probing the mechanics of samples with length scales from single molecules to tissues and force scales from pico to micronewtons. In particular, AFM is widely used as a tool to measure the elastic modulus of soft biological samples by collecting force-indentation relationships and fitting these to classic elastic contact models. However, the analysis of raw force-indentation data may be complicated by mechanical heterogeneity present in biological systems. An analytical model of an elastic indentation on a bonded two-layer sample was solved. This may be used to account for substrate effects and …

Contributors
Doss, Bryant Lee, Ros, Robert, Lindsay, Stuart, et al.
Created Date
2015

With the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012, particle physics has decidedly moved beyond the Standard Model into a new epoch. Though the Standard Model particle content is now completely accounted for, there remain many theoretical issues about the structure of the theory in need of resolution. Among these is the hierarchy problem: since the renormalized Higgs mass receives quadratic corrections from a higher cutoff scale, what keeps the Higgs boson light? Many possible solutions to this problem have been advanced, such as supersymmetry, Randall-Sundrum models, or sub-millimeter corrections to gravity. One such solution has been advanced by the …

Contributors
TerBeek, Russell Henry, Lebed, Richard F, Alarcon, Ricardo, et al.
Created Date
2015

Driven by the curiosity for the secret of life, the effort on sequencing of DNAs and other large biopolymers has never been respited. Advanced from recent sequencing techniques, nanotube and nanopore based sequencing has been attracting much attention. This thesis focuses on the study of first and crucial compartment of the third generation sequencing technique, the capture and translocation of biopolymers, and discuss the advantages and obstacles of two different nanofluidic pathways, nanotubes and nanopores for single molecule capturing and translocation. Carbon nanotubes with its constrained structure, the frictionless inner wall and strong electroosmotic flow, are promising materials for linearly …

Contributors
Song, Weisi, Lindsay, Stuart, Ros, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2015

This dissertation research has involved microscopic characterization of magnetic nanostructures using off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy. The nanostructures investigated have included Co nanoparticles (NPs), Au/Fe/GaAs shell/core nanowires (NWs), carbon spirals with magnetic cores, magnetic nanopillars, Ni-Zn-Co spinel ferrite and CoFe/Pd multilayers. The studies have confirmed the capability of holography to describe the behavior of magnetic structures at the nanoscale. The phase changes caused by the fringing fields of chains consisting of Co NPs were measured and calculated. The difference between chains with different numbers of Co NPs followed the trend indicated by calculations. Holography studies of Au/Fe/GaAs NWs grown …

Contributors
Zhang, Desai, McCartney, Martha R, Smith, David J, et al.
Created Date
2015

Off-axis electron holography (EH) has been used to characterize electrostatic potential, active dopant concentrations and charge distribution in semiconductor nanostructures, including ZnO nanowires (NWs) and thin films, ZnTe thin films, Si NWs with axial p-n junctions, Si-Ge axial heterojunction NWs, and Ge/LixGe core/shell NW. The mean inner potential (MIP) and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of ZnO NWs have been measured to be 15.3V±0.2V and 55±3nm, respectively, for 200keV electrons. These values were then used to characterize the thickness of a ZnO nano-sheet and gave consistent values. The MIP and IMFP for ZnTe thin films were measured to be 13.7±0.6V …

Contributors
Gan, Zhaofeng, McCartney, Martha R, Smith, David J, et al.
Created Date
2015

Fluctuation Electron Microscopy (FEM) has become an effective materials' structure characterization technique, capable of probing medium-range order (MRO) that may be present in amorphous materials. Although its sensitivity to MRO has been exercised in numerous studies, FEM is not yet a quantitative technique. The holdup has been the discrepancy between the computed kinematical variance and the experimental variance, which previously was attributed to source incoherence. Although high-brightness, high coherence, electron guns are now routinely available in modern electron microscopes, they have not eliminated this discrepancy between theory and experiment. The main objective of this thesis was to explore, and to …

Contributors
Rezikyan, Aram, Treacy, Michael M.J., Smith, David J., et al.
Created Date
2015

Inductors are fundamental components that do not scale well. Their physical limitations to scalability along with their inherent losses make them the main obstacle in achieving monolithic system-on-chip platform (SoCP). For past decades researchers focused on integrating magnetic materials into on-chip inductors in the quest of achieving high inductance density and quality factor (QF). The state of the art on-chip inductor is made of an enclosed magnetic thin-film around the current carrying wire for maximum flux amplification. Though the integration of magnetic materials results in enhanced inductor characteristics, this approach has its own challenges and limitations especially in power applications. …

Contributors
Khdour, Mahmoud M., Yu, Hongbin, Pan, George, et al.
Created Date
2014

This thesis explores the different aspects of higher curvature gravity. The "membrane paradigm" of black holes in Einstein gravity is extended to black holes in f(R) gravity and it is shown that the higher curvature effects of f(R) gravity causes the membrane fluid to become non-Newtonian. Next a modification of the null energy condition in gravity is provided. The purpose of the null energy condition is to filter out ill-behaved theories containing ghosts. Conformal transformations, which are simple redefinitions of the spacetime, introduces serious violations of the null energy condition. This violation is shown to be spurious and a prescription …

Contributors
Chatterjee, Saugata, Parikh, Maulik K, Easson, Damien, et al.
Created Date
2014

Commercially pure (CP) and extra low interstitial (ELI) grade Ti-alloys present excellent corrosion resistance, lightweight, and formability making them attractive materials for expanded use in transportation and medical applications. However, the strength and toughness of CP titanium are affected by relatively small variations in their impurity/solute content (IC), e.g., O, Al, and V. This increase in strength is due to the fact that the solute either increases the critical stress required for the prismatic slip systems ({10-10}<1-210>) or activates another slip system ((0001)<11-20>, {10-11}<11-20>). In particular, solute additions such as O can effectively strengthen the alloy but with an attendant …

Contributors
Bhatia, Mehul Anoopkumar, Solanki, Kiran N, Peralta, Pedro, et al.
Created Date
2014

The role of environmental factors that influence atmospheric propagation of sound originating from freeway noise sources is studied with a combination of field experiments and numerical simulations. Acoustic propagation models are developed and adapted for refractive index depending upon meteorological conditions. A high-resolution multi-nested environmental forecasting model forced by coarse global analysis is applied to predict real meteorological profiles at fine scales. These profiles are then used as input for the acoustic models. Numerical methods for producing higher resolution acoustic refractive index fields are proposed. These include spatial and temporal nested meteorological simulations with vertical grid refinement. It is shown …

Contributors
Shaffer, Stephen Richard, Moustaoui, Mohamed, Mahalov, Alex, et al.
Created Date
2014

ABSTRACT X-Ray crystallography and NMR are two major ways of achieving atomic resolution of structure determination for macro biomolecules such as proteins. Recently, new developments of hard X-ray pulsed free electron laser XFEL opened up new possibilities to break the dilemma of radiation dose and spatial resolution in diffraction imaging by outrunning radiation damage with ultra high brightness femtosecond X-ray pulses, which is so short in time that the pulse terminates before atomic motion starts. A variety of experimental techniques for structure determination of macro biomolecules is now available including imaging of protein nanocrystals, single particles such as viruses, pump-probe …

Contributors
Wang, Dingjie, Spence, John CH, Weierstall, Uwe, et al.
Created Date
2014

The continuous random network (CRN) model of network glasses is widely accepted as a model for materials such as vitreous silica and amorphous silicon. Although it has been more than eighty years since the proposal of the CRN, there has not been conclusive experimental evidence of the structure of glasses and amorphous materials. This has now changed with the advent of two-dimensional amorphous materials. Now, not only the distribution of rings but the actual atomic ring structure can be imaged in real space, allowing for greater charicterization of these types of networks. This dissertation reports the first work done on …

Contributors
Kumar, Avishek, Thorpe, Michael F, Ozkan, Sefika B, et al.
Created Date
2014

Group III-nitride semiconductors have been commercially used in the fabrication of light-emitting diodes and laser diodes, covering the ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectral range and exhibit unique properties suitable for modern optoelectronic applications. InGaN ternary alloys have energy band gaps ranging from 0.7 to 3.4 eV. It has a great potential in the application for high efficient solar cells. AlGaN ternary alloys have energy band gaps ranging from 3.4 to 6.2 eV. These alloys have a great potential in the application of deep ultra violet laser diodes. However, there are still many issues with these materials that remain to be solved. In this …

Contributors
Wei, Yong, Ponce, Fernando, Chizmeshya, Andrew, et al.
Created Date
2014

Spin-orbit interactions are important in determining nuclear structure. They lead to a shift in the energy levels in the nuclear shell model, which could explain the sequence of magic numbers in nuclei. Also in nucleon-nucleon scattering, the large nucleon polarization observed perpendicular to the plane of scattering needs to be explained by adding the spin-orbit interactions in the potential. Their effects change the equation of state and other properties of nuclear matter. Therefore, the simulation of spin-orbit interactions is necessary in nuclear matter. The auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo is an effective and accurate method for calculating the ground state …

Contributors
Zhang, Jie, Schmidt, Kevin E, Alarcon, Ricardo, et al.
Created Date
2014

Urban scaling analysis has introduced a new scientific paradigm to the study of cities. With it, the notions of <italic>size</italic>, <italic>heterogeneity</italic> and <italic>structure</italic> have taken a leading role. These notions are assumed to be behind the causes for why cities differ from one another, sometimes wildly. However, the mechanisms by which size, heterogeneity and structure shape the general statistical patterns that describe urban economic output are still unclear. Given the rapid rate of urbanization around the globe, we need precise and formal mathematical understandings of these matters. In this context, I perform in this dissertation probabilistic, distributional and computational explorations …

Contributors
Gomez-Lievano, Andres, Lobo, José, Muneepeerakul, Rachata, et al.
Created Date
2014

Multiple quantum well (MQW) structures have been employed in a variety of solid state devices. The InGaAs/GaAs material system is of special interest for many optoelectronic applications. This study examines epitaxial growth and defect creation in InGaAs/GaAs MQWs at its initial stage. Correlations between physical properties, crystal perfection of epitaxial structures, and growth conditions under which desired properties are achieved appear as highly important for the realization and final performance of semiconductor based devices. Molecular beam epitaxy was utilized to grow InGaAs/GaAs MQW structures with a variation in deposition temperature T<sub>dep</sub> among the samples to change crystalline and physical properties. …

Contributors
Karow, Matthias, Honsberg, Christiana B, Faleev, Nikolai N, et al.
Created Date
2014

During the downswing all golfers must roll their forearms and twist the club handle in order to square the club face into impact. Anecdotally some instructors say that rapidly twisting the handle and quickly closing the club face is the best technique while others disagree and suggest the opposite. World class golfers have swings with a range of club handle twist velocities (HTV) from very slow to very fast and either method appears to create a successful swing. The purpose of this research was to discover the relationship between HTV at impact and selected body and club biomechanical characteristics during …

Contributors
Cheetham, Phillip, Hinrichs, Richard, Ringenbach, Shannon, et al.
Created Date
2014

This dissertation describes Space Vector 1 and Space Vector 2, two video games that introduce Newtonian mechanics concepts. Space Vector 1 is a side-scrolling game, in which players choose to drop bombs or supplies. Players had to identify if the physics was correct during a mission, or they had to plot the trajectory of a falling object, which was then simulated. In Space Vector 2, players were given velocity and acceleration values and had to plot the trajectory of a spaceship across a grid, or players were given a trajectory of a spaceship on a grid and had to program …

Contributors
Keylor, Eric Karl, Gee, James P., Stevens, Scott M., et al.
Created Date
2014

Single molecule identification is one essential application area of nanotechnology. The application areas including DNA sequencing, peptide sequencing, early disease detection and other industrial applications such as quantitative and quantitative analysis of impurities, etc. The recognition tunneling technique we have developed shows that after functionalization of the probe and substrate of a conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope with recognition molecules ("tethered molecule-pair" configuration), analyte molecules trapped in the gap that is formed by probe and substrate will bond with the reagent molecules. The stochastic bond formation/breakage fluctuations give insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level. …

Contributors
Zhao, Yanan, Lindsay, Stuart, Nemanich, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2014

ABSTRACT This thesis focuses on structural characterizations and optical properties of Si, Ge based semiconductor alloys. Two material systems are characterized: Si-based III-V/IV alloys, which represent a possible pathway to augment the optical performance of elemental silicon as a solar cell absorber layer, and Ge-based Ge1-ySny and Ge1-x-ySixSny systems which are applicable to long wavelength optoelectronics. Electron microscopy is the primary tool used to study structural properties. Electron Energy Loss spectroscopy (EELS), Ellipsometry, Photoluminescence and Raman Spectroscopy are combined to investigate electronic band structures and bonding properties. The experiments are closely coupled with structural and property modeling and theory. A …

Contributors
Jiang, Liying, Menendez, Jose, Kouvetakis, John, et al.
Created Date
2014

In this dissertation, the interface chemistry and electronic structure of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) dielectrics on GaN are investigated with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). Three interrelated issues are discussed in this study: (1) PEALD dielectric growth process optimization, (2) interface electronic structure of comparative PEALD dielectrics on GaN, and (3) interface electronic structure of PEALD dielectrics on Ga- and N-face GaN. The first study involved an in-depth case study of PEALD Al2O3 growth using dimethylaluminum isopropoxide, with a special focus on oxygen plasma effects. Saturated and self-limiting growth of Al2O3 films were obtained with an …

Contributors
Yang, Jialing, Nemanich, Robert J, Chen, Tingyong, et al.
Created Date
2014

For this project, the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) has been calculated based on the recent direct supernova rate measurements and neutrino spectrum from SN1987A. The estimated diffuse electron antineutrino flux is &sim; 0.10 &ndash; 0.59 /cm2/s at 99% confidence level, which is 5 times lower than the Super-Kamiokande 2012 upper limit of 3.0 /cm2/s, above energy threshold of 17.3 MeV. With a Megaton scale water detector, 40 events could be detected above the threshold per year. In addition, the detectability of neutrino bursts from direct black hole forming collapses (failed supernovae) at Megaton detectors is calculated. These neutrino bursts …

Contributors
Yang, Lili, Lunardini, Cecilia, Alarcon, Ricardo, et al.
Created Date
2013

This thesis describes the fabrication of several new classes of Ge1-x-ySixSny materials with the required compositions and crystal quality to engineer the band gaps above and below that of elemental Ge (0.8 eV) in the near IR. The work initially focused on Ge1-x-ySixSny (1-5% Sn, 4-20% Si) materials grown on Ge(100) via gas-source epitaxy of Ge4H10, Si4H10 and SnD4. Both intrinsic and doped layers were produced with defect-free microstructure and viable thickness, allowing the fabrication of high-performance photodetectors. These exhibited low ideality factors, state-of-the-art dark current densities and adjustable absorption edges between 0.87 and 1.03 eV, indicating that the band …

Contributors
Xu, Chi, Kouvetakis, John, Menendez, Jose, et al.
Created Date
2013

Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), also known as amylin, is a 37-residue intrinsically disordered hormone involved in glucose regulation and gastric emptying. The aggregation of hIAPP into amyloid fibrils is believed to play a causal role in type 2 diabetes. To date, not much is known about the monomeric state of hIAPP or how it undergoes an irreversible transformation from disordered peptide to insoluble aggregate. IAPP contains a highly conserved disulfide bond that restricts hIAPP(1-8) into a short ring-like structure: N_loop. Removal or chemical reduction of N_loop not only prevents cell response upon binding to the CGRP receptor, but also …

Contributors
Cope, Stephanie M., Vaiana, Sara M, Ghirlanda, Giovanna, et al.
Created Date
2013

In this research, our goal was to fabricate Josephson junctions that can be stably processed at 300&deg;C or higher. With the purpose of integrating Josephson junction fabrication with the current semiconductor circuit fabrication process, back-end process temperatures (>350 &deg;C) will be a key for producing large scale junction circuits reliably, which requires the junctions to be more thermally stable than current Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb junctions. Based on thermodynamics, Hf was chosen to produce thermally stable Nb/Hf-HfOx/Nb superconductor tunnel Josephson junctions that can be grown or processed at elevated temperatures. Also elevated synthesis temperatures improve the structural and electrical properties of Nb electrode …

Contributors
Huang, Mengchu, Newman, Nathan, Rowell, John M., et al.
Created Date
2013

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an important phenomenon involving nuclear magnetic moments in magnetic field, which can provide much information about a wide range of materials, including their chemical composition, chemical environments and nuclear spin interactions. The NMR spectrometer has been extensively developed and used in many areas of research. In this thesis, studies in two different areas using NMR are presented. First, a new kind of nanoparticle, Gd(DTPA) intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH), has been successfully synthesized in the laboratory of Prof. Dey in SEMTE at ASU. In Chapter II, the NMR relaxation studies of two types of LDH …

Contributors
Peng, Zihui, Marzke, Robert F, Dey, Sandwip Kumar, et al.
Created Date
2013

After a decade of efforts, accurate and affordable DNA sequencing continues to remain an important goal in current research landscape. This thesis starts with a brief overview of the recent updates in the field of DNA sequencing technologies followed by description of the nanofluidics route to single molecule DNA detection. Chapter 2 presents discusses carbon nanotube(CNT) based nanofluidics. The fabrication and DNA sensing measurements of CNT forest membrane devices are presented. Chapter 3 gives the background for functionalization and recognition aspects of reader molecules. Chapter 4 marks the transition to solid state nanopore nanofluidics. The fabrication of Imidazole functionalized nanopores …

Contributors
Krishnakumar, Padmini, Lindsay, Stuart, He, Jin, et al.
Created Date
2013

This dissertation is focused on material property exploration and analysis using computational quantum mechanics methods. Theoretical calculations were performed on the recently discovered hexahydride materials A2SiH6 (A=Rb, K) to calculate the lattice dynamics of the systems in order to check for structural stability, verify the experimental Raman and infrared spectrospcopy results, and obtain the theoretical free energies of formation. The electronic structure of the systems was calculated and the bonding and ionic properties of the systems were analyzed. The novel hexahydrides were compared to the important hydrogen storage material KSiH3. This showed that the hypervalent nature of the SiH62- ions …

Contributors
Benson, Daryn Eugene, Haussermann, Ulrich, Shumway, John, et al.
Created Date
2013

Microwave dielectrics are widely used to make resonators and filters in telecommunication systems. The production of thin films with high dielectric constant and low loss could potentially enable a marked reduction in the size of devices and systems. However, studies of these materials in thin film form are very sparse. In this research, experiments were carried out on practical high-performance dielectrics including ZrTiO4-ZnNb2O6 (ZTZN) and Ba(Co,Zn)1/3Nb2/3O3 (BCZN) with high dielectric constant and low loss tangent. Thin films were deposited by laser ablation on various substrates, with a systematical study of growth conditions like substrate temperature, oxygen pressure and annealing to …

Contributors
Li, You, Newman, Nathan, Alford, Terry, et al.
Created Date
2013

The thesis studies new methods to fabricate optoelectronic Ge1-ySny/Si(100) alloys and investigate their photoluminescence (PL) properties for possible applications in Si-based photonics including IR lasers. The work initially investigated the origin of the difference between the PL spectrum of bulk Ge, dominated by indirect gap emission, and the PL spectrum of Ge-on-Si films, dominated by direct gap emission. It was found that the difference is due to the supression of self-absorption effects in Ge films, combined with a deviation from quasi-equilibrium conditions in the conduction band of undoped films. The latter is confirmed by a model suggesting that the deviation …

Contributors
Grzybowski, Gordon J., Kouvetakis, John, Chizmeshya, Andrew, et al.
Created Date
2013

The work contained in this dissertation is focused on the optical properties of direct band gap semiconductors which crystallize in a wurtzite structure: more specifically, the III-nitrides and ZnO. By using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, many of their properties have been investigated, including band gaps, defect energy levels, carrier lifetimes, strain states, exciton binding energies, and effects of electron irradiation on luminescence. Part of this work is focused on p-type Mg-doped GaN and InGaN. These materials are extremely important for the fabrication of visible light emitting diodes and diode lasers and their complex nature is currently not entirely understood. The luminescence of …

Contributors
Juday, Reid, Ponce, Fernando A, Drucker, Jeff, et al.
Created Date
2013

This dissertation is on the study of structural and optical properties of some III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors. The first part of this dissertation is a study of the deformation mechanisms associated with nanoindentation and nanoscratching of InP, GaN, and ZnO crystals. The second part is an investigation of some fundamental issues regarding compositional fluctuations and microstructure in GaInNAs and InAlN alloys. In the first part, the microstructure of (001) InP scratched in an atomic force microscope with a small diamond tip has been studied as a function of applied normal force and crystalline direction in order to understand at …

Contributors
Huang, Jingyi, Ponce, Fernando A, Carpenter, Ray W, et al.
Created Date
2013

Zeolites are a class of microporous materials that are immensely useful as molecular sieves and catalysts. While there exist millions of hypothetical zeolite topologies, only 206 have been recognized to exist in nature, and the question remains: What distinguishes known zeolite topologies from their hypothetical counterparts? It has been found that all 206 of the known zeolites can be represented as networks of rigid perfect tetrahedra that hinge freely at the connected corners. The range of configurations over which the corresponding geometric constraints can be met has been termed the "flexibility window". Only a small percentage of hypothetical types exhibit …

Contributors
Dawson, Colby, Treacy, Michael M. J., O'Keeffe, Michael, et al.
Created Date
2013

Monte Carlo methods often used in nuclear physics, such as auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo and Green's function Monte Carlo, have typically relied on phenomenological local real-space potentials containing as few derivatives as possible, such as the Argonne-Urbana family of interactions, to make sampling simple and efficient. Basis set methods such as no-core shell model or coupled-cluster techniques typically use softer non-local potentials because of their more rapid convergence with basis set size. These non-local potentials are typically defined in momentum space and are often based on effective field theory. Comparisons of the results of the two types of methods …

Contributors
Lynn, Joel Eric, Schmidt, Kevin E, Alarcón, Ricardo, et al.
Created Date
2013

High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on Group III-nitride heterostructures have been characterized by advanced electron microscopy methods including off-axis electron holography, nanoscale chemical analysis, and electrical measurements, as well as other techniques. The dissertation was organized primarily into three topical areas: (1) characterization of near-gate defects in electrically stressed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, (2) microstructural and chemical analysis of the gate/buffer interface of AlN/GaN HEMTs, and (3) studies of the impact of laser-liftoff processing on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The electrical performance of stressed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs was measured and the devices binned accordingly. Source- and drain-side degraded, undegraded, and unstressed devices were then …

Contributors
Johnson, Michael Ray, Mccartney, Martha R, Smith, David J, et al.
Created Date
2012

Nitride semiconductors have wide applications in electronics and optoelectronics technologies. Understanding the nature of the optical recombination process and its effects on luminescence efficiency is important for the development of novel devices. This dissertation deals with the optical properties of nitride semiconductors, including GaN epitaxial layers and more complex heterostructures. The emission characteristics are examined by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and imaging, and are correlated with the structural and electrical properties studied by transmission electron microscopy and electron holography. Four major areas are covered in this dissertation, which are described next. The effect of strain on the emission characteristics in wurtzite GaN …

Contributors
Li, Ti, Ponce, Fernando, Culbertson, Robert, et al.
Created Date
2012

In this dissertation, remote plasma interactions with the surfaces of low-k interlayer dielectric (ILD), Cu and Cu adhesion layers are investigated. The first part of the study focuses on the simultaneous plasma treatment of ILD and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) Cu surfaces using N2/H2 plasma processes. H atoms and radicals in the plasma react with the carbon groups leading to carbon removal for the ILD films. Results indicate that an N2 plasma forms an amide-like layer on the surface which apparently leads to reduced carbon abstraction from an H2 plasma process. In addition, FTIR spectra indicate the formation of hydroxyl …

Contributors
Liu, Xin, Nemanich, Robert, Chamberlin, Ralph, et al.
Created Date
2012

The theory of quantum electrodynamics predicts that beta decay of the neutron into a proton, electron, and anti-neutrino should be accompanied by a continuous spectrum of photons. A recent experiment, RDK I, reported the first detection of radiative decay photons from neutron beta decay with a branching ratio of (3.09 &plusmn; 0.32) &times; 10-3 in the energy range of 15 keV to 340 keV. This was achieved by prompt coincident detection of an electron and photon, in delayed coincidence with a proton. The photons were detected by using a single bar of bismuth germanate scintillating crystal coupled to an avalanche …

Contributors
O'Neill, Benjamin William, Alarcon, Ricardo, Drucker, Jeffery, et al.
Created Date
2012

Group IV alloy films exhibit the ability to tune both band structure and lattice parameters and have recently attracted attention for their potential applications in Si-photonics and photovoltaics. In this work, several new approaches to produce these alloys directly on Si(100) and Ge(100) wafers are developed. For photovoltaics, use of Ge-buffered Si(100) wafers as a low cost platform for epitaxy of In1-xGaxAs layers was explored. The results indicate that this approach has promise for transitioning from bulk Ge platforms to virtual substrates for a significant cost reduction. The electrical and optical properties of Ge and Ge1-ySny layers produced using several …

Contributors
Beeler, Richard Todd, Kouvetakis, John, Menéndez, José, et al.
Created Date
2012

A thorough exploration of star formation necessitates observation across the electromagnetic spectrum. In particular, observations in the submillimeter and ultra-violet allow one to observe very early stage star formation and to trace the evolution from molecular cloud collapse to stellar ignition. Submillimeter observations are essential for piercing the heart of heavily obscured stellar nurseries to observe star formation in its infancy. Ultra-violet observations allow one to observe stars just after they emerge from their surrounding environment, allowing higher energy radiation to escape. To make detailed observations of early stage star formation in both spectral regimes requires state-of-the-art detector technology and …

Contributors
Veach, Todd Justin, Scowen, Paul A, Groppi, Christopher E, et al.
Created Date
2012

One dimensional (1D) and quasi-one dimensional quantum wires have been a subject of both theoretical and experimental interest since 1990s and before. Phenomena such as the "0.7 structure" in the conductance leave many open questions. In this dissertation, I study the properties and the internal electron states of semiconductor quantum wires with the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method. PIMC is a tool for simulating many-body quantum systems at &#64257;nite temperature. Its ability to calculate thermodynamic properties and various correlation functions makes it an ideal tool in bridging experiments with theories. A general study of the features interpreted by the …

Contributors
Liu, Jianheng, Shumway, John B, Schmidt, Kevin E, et al.
Created Date
2012

Recently a new materials platform consisting of semiconductors grown on GaSb and InAs substrates with lattice constants close to 6.1 A was proposed by our group for various electronic and optoelectronic applications. This materials platform consists of both II-VI (MgZnCdHg)(SeTe) and III-V (InGaAl)(AsSb) compound semiconductors, which have direct bandgaps spanning the entire energy spectrum from far-IR (~0 eV) up to UV (~3.4 eV). The broad range of bandgaps and material properties make it very attractive for a wide range of applications in optoelectronics, such as solar cells, laser diodes, light emitting diodes, and photodetectors. Moreover, this novel materials system potentially …

Contributors
Fan, Jin, Zhang, Yong-Hang, Smith, David, et al.
Created Date
2012